Table of Contents

1. The Ethos Of Prophet Adam

Introduction

Prophet Adam is the father of mankind whom God created out of clay and blew His spirit into it after forty years hence his body systems started functioning. Then God order angels to prostrate before him. All angels prostrated before Adam except Eblis.

"And when We said to the angels: Make obeisance to Adam, they did obeisance, But Eblis (did it not). He refused and he was proud and he was one of the unbelievers." (2:34)

وَإِذْ قُلْنَا لِلْمَلَائِكَةِ اسْجُدُوا لِآدَمَ فَسَجَدُوا إِلَّا إِبْلِيسَ أَبَىٰ وَاسْتَكْبَرَ وَكَانَ مِنَ الْكَافِرِينَ

Then God made Adam and Eve settle in paradise and bewared them of the Satan’s deceit making all the heavenly blessings except wheat permissible for them to eat. Nevertheless, Adam and Eve were finally deceived by Satan, abandoned a recommended act, ate wheat and thus were expelled from paradise. Later they repented and God accepted their repentance making them settle on the earth. Eventually Adam passed away in Mecca after ten days of illness at the age of 930, 936, or 1030 and was buried in a valley of Abo-Ghabiss Mountain.

Eve too became sick within a year and passed away after fifteen days and was buried near the tomb at Adam. According to some historians, Prophet Noah took Adam’s coffin to the city of Najaf where it was buried.

The Modesty Of Prophet Adam

In the exegesis of verses 20- 21 of the Quranic chapter — al-Taj — it has been pointed out that when Prophet Adam and Eve ate from the Forbidden Tree, they became unclad and their privy parts became manifest.

Adam was fleeing in paradise. Calling him, God Almighty said: O Adam! Are you running away from Me? Adam said: No, I am rather ashamed of you. At this time, Adam made use of tree leaves and covered his privy parts with them.

ذَهَبَ آدَمُ هَارِبًا في الجَنَّةِ فَناداهُ رَبُّهُ : أَن يا آدمُ ، مِنّي تَفِرُّ ؟ قالَ : لا يا رَبِّ ولكِن حَياءً مِنكِ .

Weeping Over His Fault

Adam and Eve kept weeping over their faults and what they lost of heavenly blessings.

وَ كانَ قد بَكى هُوَ وَحوّاءُ عَلى خَطيئتِها وَما فاتَهُما مِن نَعيمِ الجَنَّةِ .

His Repentance

When Adam committed error, he apologized to God saying: "O my lord! Accept my repentance and apology and restore my rank."

لَمَّا زَلَّت مِن آدمَ الخطيئَةُ وَاعتَذَرَ إِلى رَبّه عَزَّ وَجلَّ ، قالَ : يا رَبِّ تُبْ عَليَّ وَاقبَل مَعذِرَتي وَأَعدَّني إِلى مَرْتَبَتي

"Then Adam received (some) words from his lord, so He turned to him mercifully; surely He is oft-returning (to mercy), the Merciful." (2:37)

فَتَلَقى آدَم مِن رَبِّه كَلِماتٍ فَتابَ عَليهِ إِنَّهُ هُوَ التَّوّابُ الرَّحيمُ .

The question here is what those words were. Polyquoting Kafi, Imam Baqer and Imam Sadeq Saafi Exegesis says: Those words were the following:

لا إِله إِلا أَنتَ سُبْحَانَكَ اللّهُمَّ وَبِحَمدكَ عَمِلتُ سُوءً وَظَلمتُ نَفسي فاغفِر لي وَأَنتَ خَيرُ الغافِرينَ.

لا إِلهَ إِلا أَنتَ سُبحانَكَ اللّهُمَّ وَبِحمدِكَ عَمِلتُ سُوءً وَظَلمتُ نَفسي فَتُب عَلَيَّ إِنّكَ أَنتَ التَّوّابُ الرَّحيمُ.

There is no god save You, glory be to you O God, and I praise You, I have done wrong and been unjust to myself, therefore forgive me and have mercy on me, for, You are truly the Most Merciful of the merciful ones.
There is no god but You, glory be to You O God and I praise You, I have done wrong and been unjust to myself, therefore, return to me mercifully, for, You are the Most Merciful of the merciful ones.

In Safi Exegesis, it has also been pointed out: Those words were the above and the following:

بِحَقِّ مُحمَّدٍ وَعَلي وفاطِمةَ وَالحَسَنِ وَالحُسَينِ .

I invoke You through Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn.

His Love Of Beauty

Having prostrated, Adam raised his head towards heaven and said: O God! Add to my beauty. Then in the morning, Adam had beard. He rubbed his hand on it asking: O God! what is this? God said: This is a beard. I have adorned you and your sons with it till the Day or Judgment.

سَجدَ آدَمُ فَرَفَعَ رأَسَهُ إِلى السَّماءِ وَقالَ : يا رَبِّ زِدني جَمَالا ، فَأَصْبَحَ وَلَهُ لِحيةً سَوْدَاء كالحُمَمِ فَضَربَ بيدِهِ إِليها فَقالَ : يا ربِّ ما هذِه ؟ فَقالَ هذهِ اللِّحْيَةُ زيّنتُكَ بِها أَنتَ وَذكُورَ وُلْدِكَ يومِ القِيامةِ.

Acquaintance With Eve

God Almighty made Eve of the remain of Adam’s clay in His shape. One day God made Adam to be overtaken by sleep showing Eve to him in his dream. This was the first dream on the earth. When Adam woke up, Eve was sitting at the top of his bed. At this moment, God Asked: O Adam! Who is this women sitting near you? Adam said: The one You showed me in my dream. Then Adam became acquainted with Eve and thanked God.

إِنَّ اللَّه تَعالى خَلقَ حَوّاء مِن فَضلِ طينةِ آدمَ عَلى صُورَتِه وَكانَ أَلْقَى عَليهِ النُّعاسَ وَاراهُ ذلكَ في مَنامه وَهيَ أَوَّلُ رُؤيا كانَت في الأَرْضِ فانتَبَهَ وَهيَ جالِسةٌ عَندَ رَأْسِهِ فَقالَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ : يا آدمُ ما هذِهِ الجالِسةُ ؟ قالَ : الرُّؤيا التَّي أَريتَني في مَنامي ، فَانسَ وَحَمَدَ اللّه .

Patience And Tolerance

It has been reported that some of Adam’s younger children were going up and down his body, one of then using Adam’s ribs as ladder for going up to his head and coming down the same way but Adam had lowered his head saying nothing nor raising his head. An elder son of Adam said: O father, can’t you see what he is doing to you? You should forbid him to do so. Adam said: O my son, you have not seen what I have seen and you do not know what I know. I made a move by which I fell from the abode of honor to the abode of abjection and from the abode of blessings to the abode of wretchedness. Hence, I am afraid of doing something which will bring affliction upon me.

وَرُوي أَنَّ آدمَ عَليهِ السَّلامُ كانَ بَعضُ أَولادِهِ الصّغارِ يَصعَدُونَ عَلى بَدَنِه وَيَنزلُونَ ، يَجعَلُ أَحدَهُم رِجلهُ عَلى أَضْلاعِهِ كَهيئةِ الدَّرَجِ فَيَصْعَدُ إِلى رَأْسِهِ ثُمّ يَنزِلُ عَلى أَضْلاعِهِ كذلِك وَهُوَ مُطرِقٌ إِلى الأَرْضِ لا ينطِقَ ولا يَرفَعُ رأَسهُ ، فَقالَ لهُ بَعضُ أَولادِهِ الكِبارِ : يا أَبتِ أَما ترى ما يَصنعُ هذا بكَ لَو نَهيتَهُ عَن هذا ، فَقالَ : يا بُني إِنِّي رَأَيتُ ما لَم تَرَوا وَعلِمتُ ما لَم تَعْلَمُوا إِنّي تَحَرَّكتُ حَركةً واحِدةً فَأُهْبِطْتُ مِن دارِ الكَرامَةِ إِلى دارِ الهَوانِ وَمن دارِ النَّعيمِ إِلى دارِ الشَّقاءِ فأَخَافُ أَن أَتَحَرَّكُ حَركةً أُخرى فَيصيبَني ما لا أَعلَمُ .

His Thankfulness

When dying, Prophet Adam made a sermon to his children and said: Praise is due to the lord of the worlds who created me with His own hands, made my creation perfect, fashioned me in the best way, honored me with His angels’ prostration, taught me all the names and made me settle in paradise. However, He had created me not only for a few days. Nevertheless, what he had willed, happened to me.

Therefore, praise is due to Him who removed pollution from me, favored me with His attention to my awe and weeping, accepted my repentance, guided me to His obedience and made me firm in it following my sin, and aided me in fighting my enemy — Eblis — after I had obeyed Him. I bear witness that there is no god but Allah, He is One, there is no partner for Him, He is Eternal after the annihilation of all creatures.

خَطب سلامُ اللّهِ عَلَيْهِ لأَوْلادِهِ وَقالَ : الحَمدُ للهِ رَب العالَمينَ الذي خَلقَني بيده وَسَوّى خَلقي وَ صُورَتي وَأَحسَنَ صُورتي وَأَكْرَمَنِي بِسُجُودِ ملائِكتِه وَعلَّمَني الأَسْمَاءَ كُلَّها وَأَسْكَنَنِي جَنَّتَهُ إِلا أَنَّهُ لَم يَكُن خَلقَني لِلعاجِلِ لها فَمضَت مَشِيئَتُهُ فِيَّ كَما شاءَ مِن قَدَرِه ، فَلهُ الحَمدُ حينَ أَقالَنِي عَثرتي ورَحِمَ صَولَتي وبُكائي وَتابَ عَلَّي وهَداني لِطاعتِه وقَوّاني عَليها بَعدَ معصيَتِه وأَيَّدَني عَلى مُحاربةِ عدُوّي إِبليسَ بَعدَ طاعَتي لَهُ ، وَأَشْهَدُ أَن لا إِلهَ إِلا اللّه وَحدَهُ لا شَريكَ لهُ الباقي بَعدَ فناءِ خَلقَه .

Begging Reward From God

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Baqer : When Adam made ka’ba and circumbulated it, he said: O Lord, there is a reward for every worker. I too have worked. He was told: Ask for whatever you wish. Adam said: O God, forgive my sin. He was told: You have been forgiven. Adam said: forgive the sin of my offspring. who will come after me. He was told: O Adam! Whoever confesses his sin, here, as you have hone, I will forgive his sin.

عَنِ الباقِرِ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ : إِنَّ آدمَ لَمّا بَنى الكَعبَةَ وطافَ بها ، فَقالَ : اللّهُم إِنَّ لِكلِّ عامِلٍ أَجرًا ، اللّهُمَّ وَأَني قد عَمِلتُ ، فَقيلَ لهُ : قَد غُفِرَ لكَ يا آدمُ فَقالَ : وَلِذُرّيَّتي مِن بَعْدي ، فَقيلَ لَهُ : يا آدمُ مَن باءَ مِنهُم بِذَنبِه هاهُنا كما بُؤتَ غَفَرتُ لهُ .

Use Of Hard-Earned Money

The holy Prophet has said: When God ordered Adam to descend on the earth, He told him to farm with his own hands and eat out of his own hand labor after being deprived of Paradise and its blessings.

قالَ رَسُولُ اللّه صَلَّى اللّه عَليهِ وآلِه : إِنَّ اللّهَ حينَ أَهبَطَ آدمَ إِلى الأَرْضِ أَمرهُ أَن يَحْرُثَ بِيَدِهِ فَيأْكُلَ مِن كَدْهِ بعدَ الجَنَّةِ وَنَعيمها .

Taciturnity

When children of Prophet Adam multiplied, one day they were talking before him and he was silent. They said: O father! What is the matter with you that you do not speak? He said: O my sons! When Allah, Great be His Glory, expelled me from His presence, He claimed my promise saying: Talk little so that you will return to Me.

إِن آدمَ عَليهِ السَّلامُ لمّا كَثُرَ وُلدَه وَوُلدَ وُلدِه كانُوا يَتحدَّثونَ عَندهُ وَهُوَ ساكِتٌ ، فَقالوا : يا أَبتِ ما لَكَ لا تتَكَلّمُ ؟ فَقالَ : يا بنَيَّ إِنَّ اللّه جَلّ جَلالُهُ لمّا أَخْرَجَني مِن جَوارِه عَهِدَ إِليَّ وَقالَ : أَقِل كَلامَكَ تَرْجِعُ إِلى جَواري .

Seeking A Remedy From The Evil Of Eblis

Prophet Adam said: O Lord! You have given respite to Eblis making him dominate me and I have no option save looking for Your favor.

God Almighty said: I will assign an angel with every offspring of yours to protect him from a nearby Satan.

Adam said: O Lord! Give more.

God said: A good deed will be rewarded tenfold and I will add to it but, (the reward of) a wrongdoing is only one and I will write it off.

Adam said: O my Lord! Give more.

God said: "...O my servants! who have acted extravagantly against their own souls, do not despair of the mercy of Allah; surely Allah forgives the faults altogether." (the Companies:53)

Adam said: O my Lord! Give more.

God said: I will not deny your offspring the repentance as long as soul is in them.

Adam said: O my Lord! Give more.

God said: I will forgive generously.

Adam said: It is good enough for me.

قالَ آدمُ : يا رَبِّ قَد أَنظَرتَهُ وَسلَّطتَهُ عَليَّ وإِنَّني لا أَمتَنِعُ مِنهُ إِلا بِكَ قالَ : لا يُولَدُ لَكَ وَلدٌ إِلا وَكَّلتُ بِه مَن يَحفَظُهُ مِن قُرناءِ السُّوءِ . قالَ : يا رَبِّ زِدني ، قالَ : الحَسَنةُ بِعَشْرِ أَمْثالِها وَأَزيدُها ، والسيئةُ بِواحِدةٍ وَامحُوها ، قالَ : يا رَبّ زِدني قال » يا عِبادِي الَّذِينَ اسرَفوا عَلى أَنفُسِهِم لا تَقنَطوا مِن رَحمةِ اللّه إِنَّ اللّه يَغْفِرُ الذُّنُوبَ جَمِيعًا « قال : يا رَبِّ زِدْنِي قالَ : التَّوبةُ لا أَمنَعُها مِن وُلْدِكَ ما كانَت فيهِمُ الرُّوحُ ، قالَ : يا رَبِّ زِدني قالَ : أَغْفِرُ وَلا أُبالي ، قالَ : حَسبي .

Enjoining Keeping Secrets

Prophet Adam became sick for eleven days enjoining his son, Sheth, to keep his knowledge hidden from Cain and his children, for it was because of jealousy that Cain killed Abel. Adam had devoted knowledge to Abel. It was for this reason that Sheth and his children had kept their knowledge hidden from Cain and his children who did not have a share of it.

ذُكِرَ أَنَّ آدمَ مَرِضَ أَحَدَ عَشرَ يَوْمًا وَأَوصى إِلى ابْنِهِ شيْتَ وَأَمَرَهُ أَن يَخفي عِلمَهُ عَن قابيلَ وَوُلدِه ، لأَنَّهُ قَتَلَ هابيلَ حَسَدًا مِنهُ لَهُ حينَ خَصّهُ آدمُ بِالعلمِ ، فَأَخْفَى شيْتُ وَوُلدُهُ ما عِندَهُم مِنَ العِلمِ ، وَلم يَكُن عِندَ قابيلَ وَوُلدِه عِلمٌ يَنتَفعونَ بهِ .

Mourning Abel

When Abel was killed, Adam mourned him for a year and never smiled.

لَمَّا قُتلَ هابيلُ عَليهِ السَّلامُ : مَكَثَ آدَمُ سَنَةً حَزِينًا لا يَضحكُ .

Praising Allah After Sneezing

Abdullah Ibn Massood has reported on the authority of the holy Prophet: When Allah blew His spirit into Adam, he sneezed. God inspired him to say: Praise is due to the lord of the worlds.

عَن عَبْدِ اللّه بنِ مَسعودٍ : قالَ سَيّدنا رَسولُ اللّهِ صَلَّى اللّهُ عَليهِ وآلِه : لَمّا خَلَقَ اللّه تَعالى آدمَ وَنَفَخَ فيهِ عَطس آدمُ ، فَقال لهِمَ أَن قالَ الحَمدُ للّهِ رَبِّ العالَمينَ .

Avoiding Haste

When Adam’s death drew near, he gathered all his children informing and recommending them of the result of good deeds. An advice of his to the children was: Think of whatever you wish to do beforehand, for, if I had done so, I was not afflicted with what afflicted me.

الحَمدُ للهِ ربِ العالمينَ .وَلَمّا قَرُبَ وَفَاةُ آدمَ عَليهِ السَّلامُ جَمعَ أَولادَهُ وأَخْبَرَهُمْ بِمآثِرِ الخَيراتِ وَأَوْصَاهُمْ بِها ، وَمِن جُملةِ وصاياهُ لِولدِه أَنَّه قالَ : كُلُّ عَملٍ تُريدونَ أَن تَعملوا بِه فقِفوا لَهُ ساعةً ، فانّي لو وَقَفتُ لَم يَكُن أَصَابني ما أَصَابَني .

Enjoining Piety (Fear Of Allah)

O my children! It is your duty to fear God and obey Him.

يا بِني عَليكُم بِتَقوى اللّهِ وَلزُومِ طاعتِه .

Giving Away Part Of His Life To David

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Baqer: Allah— Glorified and Honored —, presented the names of the Prophets and their lifetime. Coming to the lifetime of Prophet David, Adam found out that David’s lifetime was only forty years. So Adam said: How short the lifetime of David and how long my lifetime is? Will You add to David’s lifetime if I give away a few years of mine? God said: Yes, O Adam. Adam said: Give thirty years of my lifetime to David. Fix it for him and deduct it from my lifetime.

عَن أَبي جَعْفَرٍ عَليهِ السَّلامُ أَنَّ اللّهَ عَزَّ وَجلَّ عَرَضَ عَلى آدمَ أَسماءَ الأَنْبِيَاءِ وأَعمارَهُم ، قالَ : فَمرَّ بِآدمَ اسمُ دَاوُودَ النَّبي عَليهِ السَّلامُ فَإِذَا عُمرُهُ في العالَمِ أَربَعُونَ سَنةً ، فَقالَ آدمُ عَليهِ السَّلامُ : يا رَبِّ ما أَقَلَّ عُمرُ داوُودَ وَما أَكْثَرَ عُمري يا رَبِّ إِنْ أَنا زِدتُ داوُودَ مِن عُمري ثَلاثينَ سَنةً أَتَثبُتُ لهُ ذلِكَ ؟ قالَ : نَعَم يا آدمُ ، قالَ : فانّي قد زِدتُهُ مِن عُمري ثلاثينَ سَنةً فَأَنْفُذْ ذلِكَ لَهُ وَاثَبْتهَا لهُ عِندكَ واطرَحها مِن عُمري .

Imam Baqer said: God fixed it for David. It is on this basis that God writes off and records whatever He wills and with Him is the Mother of All Books.

قالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ : فَأَثْبَتَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ لِداوُودَ في عَمرِه ثَلاثينَ سَنةً وكانَت لَهُ عَند اللّه مُثبَتةً ، فَذلِكَ قَولُ اللّهِ عَزَّ وجَلَّ ( يَمحُو اللّهُ ما يَشاءُ ويُثبِتُ وعِندَهُ أُمُّ الكِتابِ .

Enjoining Good Deeds

O my children! It is your duty to do virtuous deeds and follow them diligently.

عَليكُم بِمناقِبِ الخَيرِ فالْزَمُوهَا .

Tasbeeh And Taqdeess Of God At The Time Of Death

When the angel of death was taking the life of Adam, he was engaged in Tasbeeh (saying praise is due to Allah), and Taqdeess (saying no god but Allah). At this time Gabriel said to the angel of death: O angel of death! Be lenient to him. Do you know him? He is Adam whom God made with His own Hands and into him blew of His own Spirit ordering us to prostrate before him and gave him an abode in paradise. Adam kept praising God till the angel of death took his life.

وَجَعلَ مَلكُ المَوتِ يَقبضُ رُوحَ آدمَ وَهُوَ يُسَبِّحُ بِه ويُقَدِّسهُ وَيُهْلِلْهُ فَقالَ جِبْرائيلُ لِمَلكِ المَوتِ : يا مَلَكَ المَوتِ أَرْفِق بِه فَقد عَرَفتَ حالَهُ ، هُوَ آدمُ الّذي خَلقَهُ اللّه بِيدِه ونَفخَ فيهِ مِن رُوحِه وأَمرنَا بِسجودِه وأَسْكَنَهُ جَنّتهُ ، فَلَم يَزَل آدمُ يُقدِّسُ رَبَّهُ حَتّى قَبَضَ مِلكُ المَوتِ روحَهُ .

Expression Of Pain And Inability At The Time Of Death

When Adam was dying, Gabriel along with the angel of death were beside his bed and other angels had surrounded him. At this moment, Gabriel asked Adam: How is your situation? Adam said: It is extremely painful. Furthermore, the agony stands between me and prayer.

جِبْرائيلُ عِندَ رَأْسهِ مَعَ مِلكِ المَوتِ والمَلائكةُ حَولهُ ، فَقَالَ جِبْرائيلُ كَيفَ تجِدُكَ يا آدمُ ؟ فَقالَ شَديدُ الوَجَعِ قَد حالَ الوَجَعُ بَيني وَبينَ العِبادةِ