Table of Contents

7. The Ethos Of Prophet Abraham

Introduction

Prophet Abraham is son of Tarih, son of Nahur, son of Sharugh, son of Arghu, son of Faligh, son of Abir, son of Shalikh, son of Kenan, son of Arfkhshath, son of Sam, son of Noah. Abraham means a kind father. His title is the friend of Allah and the friend of the Beneficent. He is also called the father of the Prophets.

Abraham was born in the village of Kothi in Babylon 3323 years after the fall of Adam. His mother, Nona hid him in a cave out of fear of enemies for many years. He invited people to his upright creed from the age of sixteen. His uncle, Azar used to make idols and would give them to Abraham to sell them. He would put a rope round their necks carrying them with disgrace in the streets calling:

"And by Allah! I will certainly do something against your idols... " (21:57)

وَتَاللَّهِ لَأَكِيدَنَّ أَصْنَامَكُمْ

The news on these acts of his spread among people. Nemrud heard of it and ordered Abraham to be brought to his palace but Abraham did not prostrate to the king. Hence Nemrud was infuriated.

Once Abraham went to the idol-temple and broke all the idols hanging the ax on the neck of the biggest idol. Seeing this, people knew that it was the work of Abraham whom they condemned to be thrown to fire. The followers of Nemrud prepared a huge fire and threw Abraham into it. God said;

"O fire! Be a comfort and peace to Ibrahim." (21: 69)

يَا نارُ كُوني بَرْدًا وَسَلامًا عَلى إِبْراهيمَ.

When Nemrud’s plan failed, he ordered to expel Abraham from the town. Therefore, Abraham together with Sarah his cousin, Lot, his nephew, Tarih, his father migrated from Babylon and settled in Haram in north-east Al-Jazirah. He married Sarah who was then 37 years old and departed for Kenan territory. Later on, as a result of a severe famine they migrated to Egypt from where they went to Palestine and settled in Hebron farm known as Qudskhalol till the end of life. Since Sarah was infertile, she recommended Hagar, her slave-girl to him and thus Ismail was born of Hagar.

Sarah asked Abraham to take Hagar and her son to a desert far from town. Her request was accepted. Abraham decided to take them to Mecca and at Gabriel’s hint they alighted at the present Zamzam Well. He was with them for three days and upon his return said:

"O our Lord! Surely I have settled a part of my offspring in a valley unproductive of fruit near Thy Sacred House... " (14:37)

رَبَّنَا إِنِّي أَسْكَنْتُ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوَادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِنْدَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ

Abraham visited the Sacred House and performed Hajj every year after his return and enjoyed seeing Hagar and Ismail. Ten years later, he was in Mecca when one night, he dreamed that he had to sacrifice Ismail. He prepared to do so but a sheep was brought from under mountain by the angel of God:

"And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice." (37:107)

وَفَدَيْناهُ بِذِبْحٍ عَظيمٍ.

Later on, Abraham restructured Ka’ba with the help of Ismail and eventually passed away after twenty five days of illness 3508 years after the Fall of Adam and was buried in Mafileh cave in Hebron (Palestine) where Sarah was buried too. In a hadith, the holy Prophet said: Abraham lived for 175 years.

قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ(ص) عَاشَ إِبْراهيمُ مِئَةً وَخَمْسًا وَسَبْعينَ سَنَةً.

Immunity From Infidels

"Indeed, there is for you a good example in Ibrahim and those with him when they said to their people: Surely we are clear of you and of what you serve besides Allah" (60:4)

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ

His Thankfulness

"Surely Ibrahim was an exemplar, obedient to Allah, upright, and he was not of the polytheists. Grateful for his favors; He chose him and guided him on the right path." (16:120- 121)

إِنَ إِبْراهيمَ كانَ أُمَّةً قانِتًا لله حَنِيفًا وَلَمْ يَكُ مِنَ الْمُشْرِكينَ شَاكِرًا لأَنْعُمِهِ وَهُديةُ إِلى صِراطٍ مُسْتَقيمٍ.

His Recommendations To His Sons

"And the same did Ibrahim enjoin on his sons and so (did) Yaqoob. O my sons! Surely Allah has chosen for you (this) faith, therefore die not unless you are Muslims." (2:132)

وَوَصَّىٰ بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَىٰ لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ

Three Fold Virtues Of His

"Most surely Ibrahim was forbearing, tender-hearted, oft-returning to (to Allah)" (11:75)

إِنَّ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لَحَلِيمٌ أَوَّاهٌ مُنِيبٌ

His Truthfulness

"And mention Ibrahim in the Book; surely he was a truthful man, a Prophet." (19:41)

وَاذْكُرْ فِي الْكِتَابِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۚ إِنَّهُ كَانَ صِدِّيقًا نَبِيًّا

Why Did God Choose Him As A Friend?

Imam Reza has polyqouted Imam Sadeq and Imam Baqer as saying: God — Glorified and Honored — chose Abraham as a friend because he never rejected anyone and never asked anything from anyone but God.

عَنْ أَبى الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: سَمِعْتُ أَبى عَبْدِ اللَّه عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يُحَدّثُ عَنّ أَبِيهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِنَّهُ قَالَ: اتَّخَذَ اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِبْراهيمَ خَليلا لأَنَّهُ لَمْ يُردّ أَحَدًا وَلَمْ يَسْأَل أَحَدًا غَيْرَ اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ.

His Threefold Characteristics

Abraham was asked: Why God has taken you as a friend? He said: For three reasons:.

1- I always preferred God’s orders to other ones:

2- I was not grieved with what God had destined for me

3- I was serving guests day and night.

قيلَ لإِبْراهيمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: بِأَيِّ شَيءٍ اتَّخَذَكَ اللَّه خَلِيلا؟ قَالَ: بِثَلاثَةِ أَشْياءَ اخْتَرتَ أَمْرَ اللَّهِ عَلى أَمْرِ غَيْرِهِ، وَما اهْتَمَمْتُ بِما يُكْفِلُ اللَّه لي وَمَا تَعَشَّيْتُ وَلا تَغَدَّيْتُ إِلا مَعَ الضَّيْفِ.

At His Table

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Sadeq that when Angles came to Abraham in human figure, Abraham brought them a broiled calf to eat. Angles said: We will not eat unless you tell us of its price. Abraham said: Say Bismillah (in the name of Allah) whenever you start eating and Alhamdo lillah (praise is due to Allah) whenever you finish eating. Imam Sadeq said: At this moment, Gabriel turned to his companies who were four and he was their chief and said: He deserves to be taken as a friend by God.

عَنْ أَبي عَبدِ اللَّه عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ لَمّا جَاءَ الْمُرْسَلُونَ إِلى إِبْراهيمَ جَاءَهُمْ بِالْعِجْلِ، فَقَالَ: كُلُوا، فَقالُوا: لا نَأْكُلُ حَتّى تُخْبِرَنَا ما ثَمَنُهُ، فَقَالَ : إِذا أَكَلْتُمْ فَقُولُوا: بِسْمِ اللَّه، وإِذا فَرَغْتُمْ فَقُولُوا: الْحَمْدُ لله، قَالَ فَالْتَفَتَ جِبْرائيلُ إِلى أَصْحابِهِ وَكَانُوا أَرْبَعَةً وَجِبْرائيلُ رَئيسُهُمْ، فَقَالَ : حَقٌّ للهِ أَنْ يَتَّخِذَ هَذا خَليلا.

Reliance On God

Imam Sadeq said: When Abraham was thrown into fire, Gabriel met him between the earth and heaven saying: Do you need any help? Abraham said: Not from you.

قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لَمّا أُلْقِيَ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ في النّارِ فَلَقّاهُ جِبْرائيلُ في الْهَواءِ وَهُوَ يَهْوي فَقَالَ يَا إِبْراهيمُ أَلَكَ حَاجةً؟ فَقَالَ: أَمّا إِلَيْكَ فَلا.

Thanking God For Not Committing Sin

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Baqer that one day Abraham saw a white hair in his beard. He said: Thanks God who has made me reach this age while I have not committed sin even in a blinking time.

عَنْ أَبى جَعْفَر عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: أَصْبَحَ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَرَأَى في لِحْيَتِهِ شَيْبًا شَعْرَةً بَيْضاءَ فَقَالَ: الْحَمْدُ لله رَبِّ العالَمينَ الَّذي بَلَغَني هَذا الْمَبْلَغِ وَلَمْ أَعْصِ اللَّه طَرْفَةَ عَيْنٍ.

His Hospitality

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Sadeq that when Abraham was at his father’s house and there was no guest there, he would lock the door, leave home while carrying the keys with him and looking for guests.

عَنْ أَبي عَبْدِ اللَّه عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: أَنَّ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ كانَ أَبَا أَضْيافٍ.فَكانَ إِذا لَمْ يَكُونُوا عِنْدَهُ خَرَجَ يَطْلُبُهُمْ وَغَلَقَ بَابَهُ وَأَخْذَ الْمَفَاتيحَ يَطْلُبُ الأَضْيافَ.

His Pity For Hagar And Ismail

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Musa that when Abraham made Hagar and Ismail settle in Mecca and bade them farewell, Hagar and Ismail started weeping. Addressing Hagar Abraham said: Why are you weeping? I have made you settle in the most beloved place on the earth and in the sanctuary of Allah. Hager said: O Ibrahim! I have not seen any Prophet act as you have acted. Abraham said: What have I done? Hager said: O Ibrahim! You are leaving behind a weak wife and a weak child, helpless with no companion of mankind, no spring of water, no harvest and no milch. At this moment Abraham felt pity for them and his eyes were filled with tears. He came forward till he reached the door of God’s House. Holding the two sides of the House, he said: O God! I have made my progeny settle in an infertile desert near Your Sacred House for performing prayer. Therefore, set people’s hearts inclined to it and give sustenance to them from all kinds of fruits that they may thank.

عَنْ أَبي الْحَسَنِ مُوسَى بْنِ جَعْفَرٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قالَ إِنَّ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لَمّا أَسْكَنَ إِسْمَاعيلَ وَهَاجَرَ مَكَّةَ وَوَدَّعَهُمَا لِيَنْصَرِفَ في أَحَبِّ الأَرْضِ إِلى اللَّهِ وَفي حَرَمِ اللَّهِ؟

فَقَالَتْ لَهُ هَاجَرُ: يَا إِبْراهيمُ مَا كُنْتُ أَرَى أَنَّ نَبِيًّا مِثْلُكَ يَفْعَلُ ما فَعَلْتَ! قَالَ: وَمَا فَعَلْتُ؟ فَقَالَتْ: إِنَّكَ خَلَّفْتَ امْرَأَة ضَعِيفَةً وَغُلامًا ضَعِيفًا لا حِيلَةَ لَهُما بِلا أَنيسٍ مِنْ بَشَرٍ وَلا مَاءَ يَظْهَرُ وَلا زَرْعَ قَدْ بَلَغَ وَلا ضَرْعَ يُحْلَبُ.

قَالَ فَرَقَّ إِبْراهيمُ وَدَمَعَتْ عَيْناهُ عِنْدَما سَمِعَ مِنْها فَأَقْبَلَ حَتّى انْتَهى إِلى بَابِ بَيْتِ اللَّه الْحَرامِ فَأَخَذَ بِعَضادَتَيِ الْكَعْبَة ثُمَّ قَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنِّي أَسْكَنتُ مِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِي بِوادٍ غَيْرِ ذِي زَرْعٍ عِنْدَ بَيْتِكَ الْمُحَرَّمِ، رَبَّنَا لِيُقيمُوا الصَّلاةَ فَاجْعَلْ أَفْئِدَةً مِنْ النَّاسِ تَهْوي إِلَيْهِمْ وَارْزُقْهُمْ مِنَ الثَّمَراتِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَشْكُرُونَ.

Entrusting Wife And Child To God

When Abraham turned to leave, Hagar said: O Ibrahim! To whom are you entrusting us? He said: I entrust you to the Lord of this House.

فَلَمّا وَلّى إِبْراهِيمُ قَالَتْ هَاجَرُ: يَا إِبْراهيمُ إِلى مَنْ تَدَعُنا؟ قَالَ: أَدَعُكُمَا إِلى رَبّ هَذِهِ الْبَنِيَّةِ.

Forbearance Before Sarah’s Bad Temper

Imam Sadeq has said: Once Abraham complained to God of Sarah’s bad temper. God inspired him that the parable of woman is as a crooked bone. If you straighten it, it will break and should you leave it as it is, it will benefit you. Be patient towards her.

قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَنَّ إِبْراهيمُ شَكا إِلى اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ مَا يَلْقى مِنْ سُوءِ خُلْقِ سَارَة، فَأَوْحى اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَيْهِ: إِنَّمَا مَثَلُ الْمَرْأَةَ مَثَلُ الضِّلعِ الْمُعْوَجِّ، إِنْ أَقَمْتَهُ كَسَرْتَهُ وَإِنْ تَرَكْتَهُ اسْتَمْتَعْتَ بِهِ، اصْبِرْ عَلَيْها.

Asking God To Give Him A Daughter

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Sadeq that Abraham asked God to give him a daughter to weep for him after his demise.

عَنْ أَبي عَبْدِ اللَّه عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: إِنَ إِبْراهيمَ خَلِيلَ الرَّحْمنِ سَالَ رَبَّهُ أَنْ يَرْزُقَهُ ابْنَةً تَبْكيهِ عَلَيْهِ بَعْدَ مَوْتِهِ.

His Supplication For Sinners

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Baqer that once Abraham was traveling for the sake of taking lessons. On his way, he came across a desert with no plantation. He saw a man performing prayer and wearing a garment of wool. Abraham stopped and was amazed by that man’s state. He waited for the man to complete his prayer but since his prayer lasted for some time, Abraham gave a sign with his hand making him understand that he had a need. The man shortened his prayer and sat with Abraham.

Addressing him, Abraham said: To whom you are praying? He said: To the God of Abraham. Abraham asked: Who is Abraham’s God? He said: The One who created you and me. Abraham said: I am pleased with you and I would like to be your brother for the cause of God. Where is your house so as to come and see you?

The man made a sign with his hand to the sea saying: Behind this Notfeh (clear and sweet water) while referring to the sea but my prayer site is right here.

عِنْ أَبي جَعْفَرٍ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: خَرَجَ إِبْراهيمُ ذَاتَ يَومٍ يَسِيرُ في البِلادِ لِيَعْتَبِرَ، مَرَّ بِفَلاةٍ مِنَ الأَرْضِ فَإِذا هُوَ بِرَجُلٍ قَائِمٍ يُصَلِّي قَدْ قَطَعَ إِلى السَّمَاءِ صَوْتَهُ وَلِباسُهُ شَعْرُ فَوَقَفَ عَلَيْهِ إِبْراهيمُ وَعَجِبَ مِنْهُ وَجَلَسَ يَنْتَظِرُ فَرَاغَهُ فَلَمّا طَالَ ذَلِكَ عَلَيْهِ حَرَّكَهُ بِيَدِهِ وَقَالَ لَهُ: إِنَّ لِي حَاجَةً فَخَفِّفْ قَالَ وَخَفَّفَ الرَّجُلُ وَجَلَسَ إِبْراهيمُ، فَقالَ لَهُ إِبْراهيمُ:لِمَنْ تُصَلّي؟ فَقَالَ: لإِلَهِ إِبْراهيمُ، فَقَالَ لَهُ: وَمَنْ إِلَهُ إِبْراهيمَ؟ فَقَالَ: الَّذي خَلَقَكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ إِبْراهيمُ: لَقَدْ أَعْجَبَنِي نَحْوُكَ وَأَنَا أُحِبُّ أَنْ أَوَاخِيكَ في اللَّه فَأَيَنَ مَنْزِلُكَ إِذا أَرَدْتُ زِيارَتَكَ وَلِقَائِكَ؟ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ: مَنْزِلي خَلْفَ النّطْفَةِ وَأَشَارَ بِيَدِهِ إِلى الْبَحْرِ وَأَمّا مُصَلايَ فَهذا الْمَوْضِع تُصِيبُنِي فِيهِ إِذا أَرَدْتَنِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ

Then addressing Abraham, the man said: Do you have any need? Abraham said: Yes. The man said: What is your need? Abraham said: Either you pray and I will say Amen or I pray and you will say Amen. The man asked: For whom are you going to pray? Abraham said: For sinful believers. The man said: No. Abraham asked: Why? The man said: Because I have been praying for something for thirty years but it has not been fulfilled hence I am ashamed of calling on Him unless I know He will fulfill it.

Abraham said: What did you pray for? The man said: Once by this prayer site, a boy who was extremely handsome passed by; light was radiating from his forehead; he had long hair, and was herding cattle and sheep. I liked him very much and asked him to whom those cattle and sheep belonged. He said: They belong to myself. I asked who he was. He said he was Ismail. The son of Ibrahim, the friend of Allah. Knowing that he was the son of Ibrahim, the friend of Allah, I prayed to God to see him.

ثُمَّ قَالَ الرَّجُلُ لإِبْراهِيمَ: لَكَ حَاجَةٌ؟ فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلام: نَعَمْ، قَالَ: وَمَا هِيَ؟ قَالَ لَهُ: تَدْعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَؤمِنَ عَلى دُعائِكَ، أَوْ أَدْعُو أَنَا وَتُؤمِنْ عَلى دُعائِي فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ وَفِيمَ تَدْعُو اللَّه؟ قَالَ لَهُ إِبْراهيمُ: لِلْمُذْنِبِينَ الْمُؤمِنِينَ.

فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ: لا فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ: وَلِمَ؟ فَقَالَ: لأَنِّي دَعَوْتُ اللَّهَ مُنْذُ ثَلاثَ سِنين بِدَعْوَةٍ حَتَّى أَرَى إِجَابَتِهَا إِلى السَّاعَةِ وأَنَا أَسْتَحِي مِنَ اللَّه أَنْ أَدْعُوهُ بِدَعْوَةٍ حَتّى أَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ قَد أَجَابَني.

فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ وَفِيما دَعَوْتَهُ؟ فَقَالَ لَهُ الرَّجُلُ: إِنّي لَفِي مُصَلايَ هَذا ذَاتَ يَوْمٍ إِذْ مَرَّ بِي غُلامٌ أَرْوَعٌ النُّورُ يَطْلُعُ مِنْ جَبِينِهِ، لَهُ ذُؤابَةٌ مِنْ خَلْفِهِ مَعَهُ بَقَرٌ يَسُوقُهَا كأَنّما دَهَنَتْ دُهْنًا،وَغَنِمَ يَسُوقُهَا كَأَنَّما دَخَشَتْ دَخْشًا، قَالَ: فَأَعْجَبَنِي مَا رَأَيْتُ مِنْهُ، فَقُلْتُ: يَا غُلامُ لِمَنْ هَذِهِ الْبَقَرُ وَالْغَنَمُ؟ فَقَالَ: لِي، فَقُلْتُ: وَمَنْ أَنْتَ؟ فَقَالَ: أَنَا إِسْماعِيلُ ابْنُ إِبْراهيمُ خَليلَ اللَّهِ، فَدَعَوْتُ اللَّهَ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ وَسَأَلْتُهُ أَنْ يُرِيَنِي خَلِيلهُ

Abraham said: I am Ibrahim, the friend of Allah and he is my son. The man thanked God and said: Praise is due to Allah, the Lord of the worlds who has answered my prayer. Then, he kissed Abraham’s cheeks and embraced him saying: Now I am prepared to invoke God together. Therefore, you pray and I will say Amen.

Abraham prayed for the believing men and women and invoked God to forgive believers from that day till the Day of Judgment and to be pleased with them.

Imam Baqer said: That prayer will include the sinful among believers and our shiites (followers) till the Day of Judgment.

فَقَالَ لَهُ إِبْراهيمُ: فَأَنَا إِبْراهيمُ: خَلِيلُ الرَّحْمنِ وَذَلِكَ الْغُلامُ ابْني، فَقَالَ الرَّجُلُ عِنْدَ ذَلِكَ الْحَمْدُ لله رَبِّ الْعالَمِينَ الَّذي أَجَابَ دَعْوَتي، قَالَ: ثُمَّ قَبِلَ الرَّجُلُ صَفْحَتَيْ وَجْهِ إِبْراهيمُ وَعَانَقَهُ، ثُمَّ قَالَ: الآنَ فَنَعَمْ فَادْعُ حَتّى أُوَمِنَ عَلَى دُعائِكَ، فَدَعا إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ لِلمُؤمِنينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ مِنْ يَوْمِهِ ذَلِكَ إِلى يَوْمِ القِيامَةِ بِالْمَغْفِرَةِ وَالرِّضى عِنْهُمْ، وَأَمَّنَ الرَّجُلُ عَلى دُعَائِه، فَقَالَ أَبُو جَعْفَرٍ(ع) فَدَعْوَهُ إِبْراهيمُ بالِغَةٌ لِلمُذْنِبِينَ الْمُؤمِنِينَ مِنْ شِيعَتِنَا إِلى يَوْمِ القِيامَةِ.

Abraham’s Demise

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Ali that when God decided to take the soul of Abraham to Him, He sent the angel of death to him. The angel of death greeted him and Abraham greeted him too. Abraham said: Peace be to you O angel of death! Why are you here? The angel of death said: I am here to take your soul. Abraham said: Have you ever seen a friend take the life of his friend? At this moment the angel of death returned to God saying: Did You hear what Your friend said? God said: O angel of death! Go back to him and say: Have you seen a beloved dislike the visit of his beloved? Truly, the beloved liked to visit His beloved.

عَنْ أَمِيرِ الْمُؤمِنينَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: لَمَّا أَرادَ اللَّه تَبَارَكَ وَتَعالى قَبْضَ رُوحِ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَهْبَطَ إِلَيْهِ مَلَكُ المَوْتِ فَقَالَ: السَّلامُ عَلَيْكَ يَا إِبْراهيمُ. قَالَ: وَعَلَيْكَ السَّلامُ يَا مَلَكَ الْمَوْتِ أَدَاعٍ أَمْ ناعٍ؟ قَالَ: بَلْ دَاعٍ يَا إِبْراهيمُ فَأَجِبْ، قَالَ إِبْراهيمُ: فَهَلْ رَأَيْتَ خَليلا يُميتُ خَليلَهُ؟ قَالَ فَرَجَعَ مَلِكُ الْمَوتِ حَتّى وَقَفَ بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ جَلَّ جَلالُهُ فَقَالَ: إِلَهِي قَدْ سَمِعْتَ مَا قَالَ خَليلُكَ إِبْراهيمُ.

فَقَالَ اللَّه جَلَّ جَلالُهُ: يَا مَلَكُ الْمَوتِ اذْهَبْ إِلَيْهِ وَقُلْ لَهُ: هَلْ رَأَيْتَ حَبِيبًا يَكْرَهُ لِقَاءَ حَبيبِه، إِنَّ الْحَبيبَ يَحِبُّ لِقَاءَ حَبيبِهِ.

His Desire For Long Life

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Sadeq that once Sarah said to Abraham: O Ibrahim! You have grown old. How good it is to ask God to give you a child to be the light of our eyes, for God Almighty has chosen you as a friend. He will answer your call if He wills.

Abraham too called on God. It was inspired to him: I will give you a son with knowledge. However, I will make you exposed to tests and tribulations. After three years, Abraham heard the good mews of the coming of the son. Then Sarah said: O Ibrahim! You are an old man and your death is near. How good it is if you ask God to put into oblivion your death and to give you long life so that you will be with us and be the light of our eyes. Abraham called on God and He too did him a favor. Abraham gave Sarah the good news that his prayer had been answered.

Sarah said: How good it is to ask God not to take your soul till you yourself wish to die. Abraham asked God the same. God said: Your desire was fulfilled. Abraham told Sarah of this divine blessing. Sarah said: Offer your thanks to God, and invite the poor to share the food with you. And so did Abraham.

One of the invited poor was a weak and blind old man. The man was being led by a guide, sat beside the tablecloth. The blind man stretched his arm for food, took a morsel, and brought it near to his mouth but his hand was shaking with weakness. The guide took his hand reaching for his mouth. Then the blind man took another morsel but instead of reaching for his mouth, reached for his forehead. Abraham was watching this scene. He asked the blind man’s guide about it and he said it was all due to old age and weakness. Abraham said to himself: O Ibrahim you will be like him when you grow old. Following this event, Abraham invoked God saying: O God! Take my soul as You have destined, for I do not need long life anymore.

عَنْ أَبي عَبْدِ اللَّه عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ قَالَ: إِنَّ سَارَةَ قَالَتْ لإِبْرَاهيمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ يا إِبْراهيمُ قَدْ كَبَرْتَ فَلَوْ دَعَوْتَ اللَّه أَنْ يَرْزُقَكَ غُلامًا تَقِرُ أَعْيُنُنا بِهِ فَإِنَّ اللَّه قَدْ اتَّخَذَكَ خَليلا وَهُوَ مُجِيبٌ لِدَعْوَتِكَ أَنْ شَاءَ.

قَالَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فَسَأَلَ إِبْراهيمُ رَبَّهُ أَنْ يَرْزُقَهُ غُلامًا عَلِيمًا فَأَوْحَى اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِليْهِ: إِنّي وَاهِبٌ لَكَ غُلامًا عَلِيمًا ثُمَّ أَبْلُوَكَ بِالطّاعَةِ لِي.

قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّه عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: فَمَكَثَ إِبْراهيمُ بَعْدَ البِشارَةِ ثَلاثَ سِنِينَ ثُمَّ جَاءَتْهُ البِشَارَةُ مِنَ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ، وإِنَّ سارَةَ قَدْ قَالَتْ لإِبراهيمَ: إِنَّكَ قَدْ كَبَرْتَ وَقَرُبَ أَجَلُكَ، فَلَوْ دَعَوْتَ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ أَنْ يُنْسى في أَجَلِكَ وَأَنْ يَمُدَّ لَكَ في الْعُمْرِ فَتَعيشَ مَعَنا وَتَقِرَّ أَعْيُنُنا، قَالَ: فَسَأَلَ إِبْراهيمُ رَبَّهُ ذَلِكَ، قالَ فَأَوْحَى اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِليْهِ: سَلْ مِنْ زِيادَةِ الْعُمْرِ مَا أَحْبَبْتَ نُعْطِهِ قَالَ:فَأَخْبَرْ إِبْراهيمُ سَارَةَ بِذَلِكَ فَقَالَتْ لَهُ: سَلِ اللَّهَ أَنْ لا يُمِيتُكَ حَتّى تَكُونَ أَنْتَ الَّذي تَسأَلُهُ الْمَوْتَ، قَالَ: فَسَأَلَ إِبْراهيمُ رَبَّهُ ذَلِكَ فَأَوْحى اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِلَيْهِ ذَلِكَ لَكَ.

قَالَ: فَأَخْبَرَ إِبْراهيمُ سارَةَ بِما أَوْحَى اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ إِليْهِ في ذَلِكَ فَقَالَتْ سَارَةُ لإِبْراهيمُ اشْكُرْ اللَّهَ وَأَعْمَلْ طَعامًا وَادْعُ عَلَيْهِ الْفُقَراءَ وَأَهْلَ الْحَاجَةِ، قَالَ فَفَعَلَ ذَلِكَ إِبْراهيمُ وَدَعَا إِلَيْهِ النَّاسُ، فَكانَ فيمَنْ أَتَى رَجُلٌ كَبِيرٌ ضَعِيفٌ مَكْفُوفٌ مَعَهُ قَائِدٌ لَهُ فَأَجْلَسَهُ عَلى مَائِدَتِهِ، قَالَ فَمَدَّ الأَعْمَى يَدَهُ فَتَنَاوَلَ لُقْمَةً وَأَقْبَلَ بِهَا نَحْوَ فِيهِ فَجَعَلتْ تَذْهَبُ يَمِينًا وَشِمَالا مِنْ ضَعْفِهِ، ثُمَّ أَهْوى بِيَدِهِ إِلى جَبْهَتِهِ فَتَنَاوَلَ قَائِدُهُ يَدَهُ فَجَاءَ بِها إِلى فَمِهِ ثُمَّ تَنَاوَلَ الْمَكفُوفُ لُقْمَةً فَضَرَبَ بِهَا عَيْنَه، قَالَ: وَإِبْراهيمُ يَنْظُرُ إِلى الْمَكْفُوفِ وَالى مَا يَصْنَعُ، قَالَ: فَتَعَجَّبَ إِبْراهيمُ مِنْ ذَلِكَ فَسَأَلَ قَائِدَهُ عَنْ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ لَهُ القائِدُ: هَذا الَّذي تَرى مِنَ الضَّعْفِ، فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ في نَفْسِهِ أَلَيْسَ إِذا كَبَرْتُ أَصِيرُ مِثْلَ هَذا؟

ثُمَّ أَنَّ إِبْراهيمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ سَأَلَ اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ حَيْثُ رَأَى مِنَ الشَّيْخُ مَا رَأَى فَقَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ تَوَفَّني في الأَجَلِ الَّذِي كَتَبْتَ لِي، فَلا حَاجَةَ لِي في الزّيادَةِ في الْعُمْر بَعْدَ الَّذي رَأَيْتُ.

His Long Prostration

Imam Sadeq was asked: For what reason Prophet Abraham was chosen as God’s fried. The Imam said: Because of his long prostration on the earth.

وَسُئِلَ عَنْ أَبي عَبْدِ اللَّه عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: لِمَ اتَّخَذَ اللَّه إِبْراهيمَ خَلِيلا؟ قَالَ: لِكَثْرَةِ سُجُودِهِ عَلى الأَرْضِ.

The First One Who Fought In The Cause Of God

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Musa that the holy Prophet said: The first man who fought in the cause of Allah was Abraham, for Prophet Lot was taken captive by the Romans but Abraham defeated them and liberated Lot.

عَنْ الْكَاظِمِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ صَلى اللَّه عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: أَوَّلُ مَنْ قَاتَلَ في سَبيلِ اللَّه إِبْراهيمُ الْخَليلِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حَيْثُ أَسَرَتِ الرُّومُ لُوطًا عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ فَنَفَرَ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ وَاسْتَنْقَذَهُ مِنْ أَيْديهِمْ.

His Zeal

Imam Sadeq has reported that when Prophet Abraham broke Nemrud’s idols, he was thrown into fire and. When he was unharmed, Nemrud ordered to have them (Ibrahim, Sarah and Lot) expelled from their land and confiscate their property. Arguing with them, Abraham said: Now that you have seized my horses and property, you should return to me all my life spent in your town. Then this case was referred to law court. The judge said: The right is with Ibrahim. So let him go and return to him his horses and property. Therefore, Abraham and Lot left their land for Damascus and Beitol Moqaddass.

وَلَمّا كَسَّرَ أَصْنامَ نَمْرُود وَأَمَرَ بِإِحْرَاقِهِ وَلَمْ يَحْتَرِقْ، أَمَرَهُمْ أَنْ يَنْفُوهُ مِنْ بِلادِهِ وَأَنْ يَمْنَعُوهُ مِنَ الْخُرُوجِ بِمَا يَشْتَهِيهِ وَمَالِه فَحاجَّهُمْ إِبْراهيمُ فَقَالَ: إِنْ أَخَذْتُمْ ماشِيَتِي وَمَالِي فَإِنَّ حَقّيِ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ تَرُدُّوا عَليَّ مَا ذَهَبَ مِنْ عَمْري في بِلادكُمُ فَاخْتَصَمُوا إِلى قَاضِيَ نمْرُودَ فَقَضَى أَنَّ الْحَقَّ لإِبْراهيمُ فَخَلَوا سَبِيلِهِ وَسبيلَ مَاشِيَتِهِ وَمَالِهِ، فَأَخْرَجُوا إِبْراهيمَ وَلُوطًا مَعَهُ مِنْ بِلادِهِمْ إِلى الشَّامِ إِلى بَيْتِ الْمَقْدِسِ.

Based on his zeal, Abraham made a case, placed Sarah therein, locked the door, and left Nemrud’s territory till he reached a land where a Coptic king by the name of Ararah was ruling. When Abraham reached the tithe site, the man in charge asked him to open the case so as to charge Ibrahim for its content. Abraham said: Say whatever you wish of gold and silver as tithe so that we will give you but let me not open this case. The man in charge of levying tithe did not accept and the infuriated Abraham had to open it. When Sarah who enjoyed much beauty became manifest, the man said: Who is she? Abraham said: She is my honor and my cousin.

The man said: I will not let you leave this place unless I will inform the king of you and her. The man sent an emissary to the king and he knew about it. The king sent an emissary to take the case to him. Abraham said: I will not leave the case. So they took him with the case to the king who said: Open the case! Abraham said: I will not open it for, my honor and my cousin is therein and I will sacrifice myself and whatever I have for it. The king became angry to see Abraham not opening the case. Seeing Sarah, the king could not help reaching out his hand for her. Turning away his face out of zeal, Abraham said: O God! Keep his hand off my honor and cousin. So the king’s hand could neither touch her nor be withdrawn to himself. The king said: Has your God done it to me? Abraham said: Yes, my God is zealous and dislikes what is unlawful. The king said to him: Call on your God to heal my withered hand in which case I will not molest her. Abraham said: O God! Heal his hand so that he will not molest my honor. And God healed his hand.

The king came to Sarah and reached out his hand for her once again. Based on his zeal, Abraham turned away his face saying: O God! Keep off his hand! His hand withered immediately and did not touch Sarah. The king said to Abraham: Your God is zealous. You too are zealous. Ask your god to heal my hand. If He does so, I will not do it again. Abraham said: Are you sure you will not do it again? The King said: Yes. Then Abraham said: O God! Heal his hand if he is truthful. His hand was healed at Abraham’s request.

فَعَمِلَ تَابُوتًا وَجَعَلَ فِيهِ سَارَةَ وَشَدَّ عَلَيْهِ الإِغْلاقَ، غَيْرَةً مِنْهُ عَلَيْها وَمَضى حَتّى خَرَجَ مَنْ سُلْطانِ نَمْرُودَ وَدَخَلَ في سُلْطَانِ رَجُلٍ مِنَ الْقِبْطِ يُقالُ لَهُ عَرارَة،فَمَرَّ بِعاشِرٍ لَهُ فَاعْتَرَضَهُ العَاشِرُ لِيُعْشِرَ مَا مَعَهُ.

فَقَالَ العَاشِرُ لإِبْرَاهِيمُ افْتَحْ هَذَا التّابُوتَ حَتّى نَعْشِرَ مَا فِيهِ،فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ: قُل مَا شِئتَ فِيهِ مِنْ ذَهَبٍ أَو فِضَّةٍ حَتّى نُعْطيك عُشْرهُ وَلا تَفْتَحْهُ فَأَبى العَاشِرُ إِلا فَتَحَهُ، وَغَضَبَ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ، فَلَمّا بَدَتْ لَهُ سَارَةُ وَكَانَتْ مَوْصُوفَةً بِالْحُسْنِ وَالْجَمالِ، قَالَ لَهُ العَاشرُ: مَا هذِهِ مِنْكَ؟ قَالَ إِبْراهيمُ:هِيَ حُرْمَتي وَابْنَةُ خَالَتِي، فَقَالَ لَهُ العَاشِرُ: لَسْتُ أَدَعُكَ تَبْرَحُ حَتّى أُعْلِمَ الْمَلِكَ حَالَها وَحَالَكَ، فَبَعَثَ رَسُولا إِلى الْمَلِكِ فَأَعْلَمَهُ، فَبَعَثَ الْمَلِكُ رَسُولا مِنْ قِبَلِهِ لِيَأْتُوهُ بِالتَّابُوتِ فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ(ع):لا أُفَارِقُ التّابُوتُ. فَحَمَلُوهُ مَعَ التّابوتِ إِلى الْمَلِكِ فَقَالَ لَهُ: افْتَح التَّابُوتَ، فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ! إِنَّ فِيها حُرْمَتِي وَابْنَةِ خَالتِي وَأَنا مُفْتَدٍ لا أَفْتَحُهُ بِجَمِيعِ مَا مَعي.

فَغَضِبَ الْمَلِكُ عَلى إِبْراهيمُ لِعَدَمِ فَتْحِهِ،فَلَمّا رَأَى سارَةَ لَمْ يَمْلِكْ حِلْمَهُ أَنْ مَدَّ يَدَهُ إِلَيْها. فَأَعْرَضَ إِبْراهيمُ وَجْهَهُ عَنْهُ وَعَنْها غَيْرَةً وَقَالَ:

(اللَّهُمَّ احْبسْ يَدَهُ عَنْ حُرْمَتِي وَابْنَةُ خَالَتي) فَلَمْ تَصِلْ يَدُهُ إِلَيْها وَلَمْ تَرْجِعْ إِلَيْهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَلِكُ: إِنَ إِلَهَكَ هُوَ الْذَيِ فَعَلَ بِي هَذا؟ فَقَالَ: نَعَمْ إِنَ إِلَهي غَيُورٌ يَكْرَهُ الْحَرامَ فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَلِكُ: فَادْعُ إِلَهَكَ أَنْ يُرَدِّ عَلَيَّ يَدي فَإِنْ أَجَابَكَ فَلَمْ أَتَعَرَّضْ لَها.

فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ: إِلَهي رُدَّ عَلَيْهِ يَدَهُ لِيَكُفَّ عَنْ حُرْمَتِي، فَرَدَّ اللَّه عَزَّ وَجَلَّ عَلَيْهِ يَدَهُ فَأَقْبَلَ الْمَلِكُ عَلَيْهَا بِبَصَرِهِ ثُمَّ عَادَ بِيَدِهِ نَحْوَها فَأَعْرَضَ إِبْراهيمُ غَيْرَةً وَقَالَ: اللَّهُمَّ احْبِسْ يَدَهُ عَنْهَا، فَيَبِسَتْ يَدُهُ وَلَمْ تَصِلْ إِلَيْهَا فَقَالَ الْمَلِكُ لإِبْراهيمَ أَنَّ إِلَهَكَ لَغَيُورٌ وَإِنَّكَ لَغَيُورٌ، فَادْعُ إِلَهَكَ يَرُدّ عَليَ يَدي فَإِنَّهُ أَنْ فَعَلَ لَمْ أَعُدْ أَفْعَلُ، فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ أَسْأَلُهُ ذَلِكَ عَلى أَنَّكَ إِنْ عُدْتَ لَمْ تَسْأَلنِي أَنْ أَسْأَلهُ، فَقَالَ لَهُ الْمَلِكُ نَعَمْ، فَقَالَ إِبْراهيمُ: اللَّهُمَّ إِنْ كَانَ صَادِقًا فَرُدّ عَلَيْهِ يَدَهُ، فَرَجَعَتْ إِلَيْهِ (الخ).

His Feeding Of People And Midnight Prayer

It has been reported on the authority of the holy Prophet that God chose Abraham as his friend due to his feeding of people and performing midnight prayer while people were asleep.

عَنْ النَّبِيِّ صَلَّى اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِ وَآلِهِ: مَا أَتَّخَذَ اللَّهُ إِبْراهيمَ خَلِيلا إِلا لإِطْعَامِهِ الطَّعَامَ وَصَلاتِهِ بِاللَّيْلِ وَالنّاسُ نِيامٌ.

The First Person Who Hoisted Banner

Imam Baqer said: The first person who hoisted banner was Prophet Abraham with the inscription, "There is no god but Allah"

قَالَ الْبَاقِرُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: أَوَّلُ مَنْ اتَّخَذَ الرّاياتِ إِبْراهيمُ، عَلَيْها: لا إِلهَ إِلا اللَّه.

Abraham’s "Zekr" In Mangonel

When they placed Abraham in mangonel to throw him into fire, he recited the following: There is no god but You, praise is due to You, the Lord of the worlds, for You is praise, for you is the Kingdom and there is no partner for You.

إِنَ إِبْراهيمَ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ حينَ أَوْثَقُوهُ في النَّارِ قَالَ:[ لا إِلهَ إِلا أَنْتَ سُبْحَانَكَ رَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ لَكَ الْحَمْدُ وَلَكَ الْمُلْكُ لا شَريكَ لَكَ] ثُمَّ رَمَوْا بِهِ بِالْمَنْجَنِيقِ إِلى النَّارِ (الخ).

Then they threw him into fire by mangonel.

The Zekr Which Saved Abraham

It has been reported that Abraham was saved only by reciting the "Zekr" "Allah is sufficient for me and most Excellent is the Protector." By reciting the above ‘Zekr’ God said: " O fire! Be a comfort and peace to Ibrahim."

في الْخَبَرِ أَنَّ إِبْراهِيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ إِنَّمَا نَجى بِقَوْلِهِ حَسْبِيَ اللَّهُ وَنِعْمَ الْوَكِيلُ قَالَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ: يَا نَارُ كُوني بَرْدًا وَسَلامًا عَلى إِبْراهيمُ.

His Looking For Guests

Abraham never started the morning or evening without having guests and on most occasions he walked as much as two miles in order to find someone to be his guest.

وَكَانَ لا يَتَغَدّى وَلا يَتَعَشّى إِلا مَعَ ضَيْفٍ وَرُبَما مَشى مِيلَيْنِ أَو أَكْثَرَ حَتّى يَجِدَ ضَيْفًا.

His Prayer For Help From Allah

When Abraham was expelled from Nemrud’s Kingdom and entered another kingdom and the king’s men took him to the king, he rose up and performed prayer invoking God to keep him and his family from the evil of the king. In the mean tine, when Sarah was about to be molested by the king, she performed ablution and prayer and started to supplicate.

وَكَانَ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ مِنْ وَقْتٍ ذَهَبَ بِهَا إِلى الْمَلِكِ، قَامَ يُصَلِّي للهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ وَيَسْأَلُهُ أَنْ يَدْفَعَ عَنْ أَهْلَهُ وَأَنْ يَرُدَّ بَأْسَ هَذَا الَّذِي أَرَادَ أَهْلَهُ بِسُوءٍ.

وَهَكَذَا فَعَلَتْ هِيَ أَيْضًا، فَلَمّا أَرَادَ عَدُوَّ اللَّهِ أَنْ يَنَالَ مِنْهَا أَمْرًا قَامَتْ إِلى وُضُوئِها وَصَلاتِهَا وَدَعَتِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ الخ.

Prostration Of Thanks

When Ismail was born, God gave Abraham the good news of having a son by the name of Isaac (Ishaq) from Sarah. He immediately fell into prostration of thanks.

وَلَمَّا وُلِدَ إِسْمَاعِيلُ أَوْحى اللَّهُ إِلى إِبْراهيمُ يُبَشِّرُهُ بِإِسْحَاق مِنْ سَارَةَ، فَخَرَّ للَّهِ سَاجِدًا.

Unconditional Obedience To God

God ordered Abraham to sacrifice his son. In compliance with God’s order, Abraham made him lie on his face and then God ransomed him with a great sacrifice.

أَمَرَ اللَّهُ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ بِذَبْحِ وَلَدَهُ فَبَادَرَهُ إِلى طَاعَةِ رَبِّهِ وَتَلَّهُ لِلْجَبينِ، فَفَداهُ اللَّهُ بِذَبْحٍ عَظيمٍ.

"O my son! Surely I have seen in a dream that I should sacrifice you; Consider then what you say. He said: O my father! Do what you are commanded; if Allah please, you will find me of the patient ones. So when they both submitted and he threw him down upon his forehead, and We called out to him saying: O Ibrahim! You have indeed shown the truth of the vision; surely thus do We reward the doers of good: Most surely this is a manifest trial. And We ransomed him with a great sacrifice." (37:102- 107)

فَلَمَّا بَلَغَ مَعَهُ السَّعْيَ قَالَ يَا بُنَيَّ إِنِّي أَرَىٰ فِي الْمَنَامِ أَنِّي أَذْبَحُكَ فَانْظُرْ مَاذَا تَرَىٰ ۚ قَالَ يَا أَبَتِ افْعَلْ مَا تُؤْمَرُ ۖ سَتَجِدُنِي إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ مِنَ الصَّابِرِينَ. فَلَمَّا أَسْلَمَا وَتَلَّهُ لِلْجَبِينِ. وَنَادَيْنَاهُ أَنْ يَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ. قَدْ صَدَّقْتَ الرُّؤْيَا ۚ إِنَّا كَذَٰلِكَ نَجْزِي الْمُحْسِنِينَ. إِنَّ هَٰذَا لَهُوَ الْبَلَاءُ الْمُبِينُ. وَفَدَيْنَاهُ بِذِبْحٍ عَظِيمٍ.

Mocking At Artificial Gods

Azar used to make idols which people worshipped and gave them to Abraham to sell them. Abraham used to take them to people calling out: "Who wishes to buy something which brings him harm and no good?" Nobody, of course, would buy anything from him. When he became expert in this job, he would go to a river dipping their heads into water and saying: Drink! to ridicule people and those who were in error.

وَكَانَ آزَرُ يَصْنَعُ أَصْنامَ قَوْمِهِ الَّتِي يَعْبُدُونَ ثُمَّ يُعْطِيها إِبْراهيمَ يَبِيعُهَا فَذَهَبَ بِهَا إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلام فِيما يَذْكُرُونَ فَيَقُولُ: مَنْ يَشْتَري مَا يَضُرُّهُ وَلا يَنْفَعُهُ فَلا يَشْتَرِيها مِنْهُ أَحَدًا. فَإِذَا بَارَتْ عَلَيْهِ ذَهَبَ بِها إِلى نَهْر فَصَوَّبَ فِيه رُؤوسُهَا وَقَالَ اشْرَبي اسْتهْزَاءً بِقَوْمِه وَما هُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنَ الضَّلالَةِ.

His Migration From The Land Of Infidelity

Abraham used to invite Azar to his religion saying: O father! Why are you worshipping something which neither hears nor sees and will not meet any one of your needs. His father refused to accept his son’s call. Then Abraham and whoever was with him from among his followers decided to keep aloof from their relatives saying: We hate you and whatever you worship. We do not believe in your artificial gods. There is hatred and enmity between you and us till you worship the One God.

Then Abraham and Lot left that land. Abraham married Sarah, his cousin to perfect his religion and to attain peace in his creed till he alighted in the Land of Horraan. He halted and stayed there for a time as God willed then he left it for Egypt where he settled.

وَدَعا إِبْراهيمُ أَبَاهُ آزَرَ إِلى دِينِهِ فَقَالَ لَهُ يَا أَبَتِ لِمَ تَعْبُدُ مَا لا يَسْمَعُ وَلا يَبْصُرْ وَلا يُغْنِي عَنْكَ شَيْئًا فَأَبى أَبُوهُ الإِجابَةَ إِلى مَا دَعَاهُ إِلَيْهِ ثُمَّ إِنَ إِبْراهيمَ وَمَنْ كَانَ مَعَهُ مِنْ أَصْحَابِهِ الَّذِينَ اتَّبَعُوهُ أَمَرَهُ، فَاجْمَعُوا لِفِرَاقِ قَوْمِهِمْ فَقَالوا إِنَّا بُرَآؤا مِنْكُمْ وَمِمّا تَعبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنا بِكُمْ أَيُّهَا الْمَعْبُودُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ وَبَدا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءَ أَبَدًا أَيُّهَا الْعَابِدُونَ حَتّى تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ، ثُمَّ خَرَجَ إِبْراهيمُ مُهاجِرًا إِلى رَبِّهِ وَخَرَجَ مَعَهُ لُوطًا مُهَاجِرًا وَتَزَوَّجَ سَارَةَ ابْنَةَ عَمِّهِ فَخَرَجَ بِهَا مَعَهُ يَلْتَمِس الْفِرارَ بِدِينِهِ وَالأَمَانَ عَلَى عِبَادَةِ رَبَّهُ حَتَّى نَزَلَ حَرّانَ فَمَكَثَ بِهَا مَا شَاءَ اللَّهُ أَنْ يَمْكُثَ ثُمَّ خَرَجَ مِنْهَا مُهَاجِرًا حَتّى قَدِمَ مِصْرَ، الخ.

Abraham’s Initiatives

Ibn-Abbas has reported that Abraham was the first person who received guests, the first person who sopped bread in soup, the first person who wore sandals, the first person who divided booties, the first person who fought with sword, the first person who circumcised, the first person was worried by seeing white hair in his face and said: O Lord! What is this? He said: Dignity. He said: O Lord! Enrich me with dignity, the first person who performed rituals and this is because he said: O Lord! Show us our rituals, and his prayer was answered and the first person who sacrificed a lamb in the feast, the first person who was thrown into fire in the cause of Allah and the fire became a comfort to him, the first Prophet for whom God made a dead alive saying: O Lord! Show me how you make a dead alive? The first person who cut his mustache short, the first person who clipped his nail, the first person who removed pubes, the first person who brushed his teeth, the first person who parted his hair, the first person who rinsed his mouth, the first person who rinsed his nostrils, the first person who washed the site of defecation with water, the first person who migrated for the pleasure and in the path of God.

عَنْ ابنِ عَبّاسٍ قَالَ: إِنَ إِبْراهيمُ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ أَوَّلُ مَنْ أَضَافَ الضَّيْفَ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ ثَرَدَ الثَّرِيدِ، وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ لَبِسَ النَّعْلَيْن، وَأَوَّلَ مَنْ قَسَّمَ الْفَيْءَ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ قَاتَلَ بِالسَّيْفِ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ اخْتَتَنَ، وَأَوَّلَ مَنْ شَابَ، فَلَمّا رَآهُ هَالَهُ ذَلِكَ فَقَالَ يَا رَبِّ مَا هَذَا؟ قَالَ الْوَقَارُ، فَقَالَ: يَا رَبِّ زِدْني وقَارًا، وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ أَقَامَ الْمَنَاسِكَ وَذَلِكَ بِدَعْوَتِهِ حَيْثُ قَالَ: وَأَرِنَا مَناسِكَنا، فَاسْتُجِيبَ لَهُ، وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ ضَحَّى، وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ أُلْقِيَ في النَّارُ في اللَّه فَجُعِلَتِ النّارُ عَلَيْهِ بَرْدًا وَسَلامًا، وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ نَبِيٍّ أَحْيَا اللَّهُ لَهُ الْمَوْتَى بِسُؤالِهِ حَيْثُ قَالَ، رَبِّ أَرِنِي كَيْفَ تُحْي الْمَوْتَى، وَهُوَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ قَصَّ شَارِبَهُ،وَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ قَلَّمَ أَظْفَارَهُ، وَأَوَّلُ مَن اسْتَحَدَّ،وَ أَوَّلُ مَنْ اسْتَاكَ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ فَرَّقَ شَعْرَهُ، وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ تَمَضْمَضَ وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ اسْتَنْشَقَ، وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ اسْتَنْجى بِالْمَاءِ، وَأَوَّلُ مَنْ هَاجَرَ للهِ.

Nomenclature Of Abraham

Sheikh Sadooq has quoted knowledgeable people as saying: Abraham was so called because he endeavored and did good deeds. It is said that he endeavored for the hereafter and did not care for the world.

سَمِعْتُ بَعْضَ الْمَشايِخِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْعِلْمِ يَقُولُ: إِنَّهُ سَمَّى إِبْراهيمُ إِبْراهيمَ لأَنَّهُ هَمَّ فَبَرَّ وَقَدْ قِيلَ: إِنَّهُ هَمَّ بِالآخِرَةِ وَبَرِئ مِنَ الدُّنْيا.

His Mornings And Evenings

It has been reported on the authority of Imam Sadeq that Abraham said: In the mornings and evenings, I start the day while my Lord is Praiseworthy; I start the day while I associate no one with Allah, I do not call any god beside Allah, I do not take any guardian beside Him. For this reason that he is called a thankful servant.

عَنْ أَبي عَبْدِ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ السَّلامُ: في قَوْلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَجَلَّ [وَإِبْراهيمُ الَّذِي وَفّى] قَالَ: إِنَّهُ يَقُولُ: إِذَا أَصْبَحَ وَأَمْسَى، أَصْبَحْتُ وَرَبّي مَحْمُودٌ، أَصْبَحْتُ لا أُشْرِكُ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا، وَلا أَدْعُو مَعَ اللَّهِ إِلهًا آخَر وَلا أَتَّخِذُ مِنْ دُونِهِ وَلِيًّا فَسُمِّيَ بِذَلِكَ عَبْدًا شَكُورًا.