The Beginning Of The Battle

‘Umar bin Sa‘d advanced towards [the camp of al-Husayn (as)] and called out: “Dhuwaid!1 Bring your standard closer!” So he brought it nearer. [Ibn Sa‘d] then put an arrow in his bow and let it fly. He said: “Be witnesses that I was the first [person] to shoot.”2 When ‘Umar bin Sa‘d came closer and shot an arrow, the people began to shoot at each other.

Then Yasar, the retainer of Ziyad bin Abi Sufyan, and Salim, the retainer of ‘Ubaidullah bin Ziyad, came forward and said: “Who is ready to combat us? Let some of you come forward.”

So Habib bin MuZahir and Burair bin Hudhair jumped up [to go to meet them], but al-Husayn (as) said to them: “Sit down.”

Then ‘Abdullah bin ‘Umair al-Kalbi3 stood and said: “O Aba ‘Abdillah –may Allah have mercy on you, allow me to go and meet them.” Al-Husayn (as) found him to be tall, strong and with broad shoulders. Al-Husayn (as) said: “I think he can kill his peers! Go if you wish.” So he went out to meet them.

The two [men] said to him: “Who are you.” So he gave them his lineage. They said: “We do not know you. Let Zuhair bin al-Qain or Habib bin MuZahir or Burair bin Hudair come out against us!”

Yasar, [the retainer of Ziyad], was ready for combat before Salim [the retainer of ‘Ubaidullah bin Ziyad]. So al-Kalbi said to [Yasar]: “O son of adulteress! It seems you do not like to combat with any one who comes forward. [Know that] no one is going to come to fight you except that he is better than you.” With that he attacked him and struck him with his sword until he died.

While [al-Kalbi] was occupied striking [Yasar] with his sword, Salim [the retainer of ‘Ubaidullah] attacked him. [Al-Husayn’s companions] cried out [in warning]: “The [other] servant is closing in on you.” [Al-Kalbi] did not pay attention to him until [Salim] was upon him and gave him an unexpected blow. [Ibn al-Kalbi] warded off his blow with his left arm but the fingers of his left hand were cut off. Then he turned on [Salim] and struck him and killed him.

After having killed them both, he recited the following as he was returning:

If you do not know me, I am the son of Kalbi. It is sufficient for me as a noble descent that my family is from the Banu ‘Ulaim.

I am a man of bitterness and anger, I am not a weakling in the face of disaster.

I guarantee you O Umm Wahab, I will stab and strike them and make my way ahead.

The blow of a young man who believes in the Lord.

Umm Wahab, his wife [who was witnessing the combat of al-Kalbi], took up the post [of a tent] and began going towards her husband while she said to him: “May my father and mother be your ransom. Fight for the pure ones, the childeren of Muhammad!” [Seeing this] al-Kalbi tried to send her back where the women were, but she held on to his clothes, pulling it back and forth. She said: “I will never leave you until I die along with you!”

So al-Husayn (as) called her and said: “May you be rewarded the best on behalf of [my] family. Go back to the women – may Allah have mercy on you - and sit with them; for women have no obligation to fight.”

Umm Wahab then returned to the [place where the] women [had gathered].

The First Attack

‘Amru bin Hajjaj, who had the command of the right wing of the people, launched an attack on the right wing of [al-Husayn (as)]. When he [and his forces] drew near to al-Husayn (as), [the followers of al-Husayn (as)] knelt down and pointed their spears at them. Hence, the horses [of the attackers] could not come forward against the spears and began to retreat. The [companions of al-Husayn (as)] began to shoot arrows at them, killing some of them and wounding others.4

A Miracle and Guidance

A man from the Banu Tamim called ‘Abdullah bin Hawzah [came forward and] stopped in front of al-Husayn (as) and said: “Husayn! Husayn!”

Al-Husayn (as) said: “What do you want?”

He said: “Know that you are going to enter the hell [fire]!”

[Al-Husayn (as)] said: “Never! I am advancing to a merciful Lord and an intercessor who is listened to [i.e. the Prophet]. Who is that?”

His companions said to him: “This is Ibn Hawzah.”

[Al-Husayn (as)] said: “O Lord, drive him into the fire!”

With that his horse upset him in a creek and he fell in it, [such that] his leg was stuck in the stirrups and he fell to the ground headfirst. The horse galloped off [dragging] him [along] while his head struck every stone and tree until he died!5

Masruq bin Wail says: “I was at the front of the cavalry that was advancing towards [the camp of] al-Husayn (as). I said to myself: let me be at the front. The head of al-Husayn might fall in my hands and by that I will gain status before ‘Ubaidullah bin Ziyad. When we reached al-Husayn (as), a man from the [army of Ibn Sa‘d] called Ibn Hawzah came forward and said: “Is al-Husayn amidst you?”

Al-Husayn (as) kept silent. He said that for a second time, but al-Husayn did not reply. When he said it the third time, al-Husayn (as) said: “Tell him: yes, al-Husayn is here. What do you want?”

The man said: “O Husayn! Know that you are going to enter the hell [fire]!”

[Al-Husayn (as)] retorted: “You are lying. I am advancing to a forgiving Lord and an intercessor who is listened to. Who are you?”

He replied: “Ibn Hawzah.”

Al-Husayn (as) then raised both his hands -such that we could see the whiteness of his armpits through his clothes- and prayed: “O Allah, take him away from us and throw him into the hell fire.”

Ibn Hawzah became angry and wanted to attack [al-Husayn (as)] with his horse. A brook ran between them. [As he was mounting his horse] his leg got stuck in the stirrups. The horse started moving and he [was upset by that] and fell to the ground. His foot, calf and thigh were severed and were left hanging on the stirrups.

‘Abd al-Jabbar bin Wa’il al-Hadhrami narrates: “Masruq left the cavalry behind him and came back. So I asked him what had happened and he said: ‘Indeed, I have seen from the people of this House [i.e. of the Prophet (S)] something that I will never fight them!’6

The Malediction of Burair and His Martyrdom

Yazid bin Ma’qil came forward from the army of ‘Umar bin Sa‘d and said: “Burair bin Hudhair! Do you not see what Allah has done to you?!”

He replied: “By Allah, He has done good to me and evil to you!”

[Ibn Ma’qil] said: “You are lying. You were not a liar before this! Do you remember –[one day] as I was walking with you in the area of Banu Laudhan– you were saying: ‘‘Uthman bin ‘Affan was indeed extravagant, and that Mu’awiyah bin Abi Sufyan was a person who went astray (dhall) and misled others (mudhill), and that the leader of the truth and guidance was ‘Ali bin Abi Talib?!”

Burair said to him: “I testify that this is my opinion and my statement!”

Yazid bin Ma’qil said: “I bear witness that you are among those who have gone astray.”

So Burair bin Hudhair said to him: “Are you ready for invoking a curse [upon the the one who is on the wrong among us]? Let us pray to Allah to curse the liar and that the one [who is] on the falsehood should be killed. [After that] come forward so that I can combat you!”

So both of them came forward and raised their hands towards Allah beseeching him to send down his curse on the liar [among the two] and that the one who is on the right should kill the one who is on the wrong.

Thereafter, each of them began attacking the other. They exchanged two blows, Yazid bin Ma’qil struck Burair bin Hudhair with a light blow of no avail. Burair gave him [in return] a blow that penetrated [his] helmet and reached the brain. [Yazid] fell down as if he fell from [high] above, while Burair’s sword was still [stuck] in his head. [Ibn Abi al-Akhnas says: “I still remember the event and] it is as if I am seeing [Burair] wrenching his sword off [Yazid’s] head.”

Radhiyy bin Munqidh al-‘Abdi [from the army of ‘Umar bin Sa‘d] attacked on [Burair] and grappled with him. They fought one another for sometime before Burair sat on his chest. Radhiyy called out: “Where are the fighters and the defenders?!”

[At this] Ka’b bin Jabir al-Azdi attacked Burair with a spear and stabbed him in [his] back. When [Burair] felt the penetration of the spear, he knelt on [the body of Radhiyy bin Munqidh al-‘Abdi] and bit off his nose and severed part of it. Ka’b bin Jabir [again] stabbed him and took him off [al-‘Abdi]. The spearhead had pierced deep into [Burair’s] back. Ka’b then began striking him with his sword until he killed him. [May Allah’s mercy be upon him7].8

Thereafter, ‘Amru bin QaraZah al-Ansari came forward fighting in defense of al-Husayn (as). He was saying:

The group of Ansar certainly knows, that I am going to defend [its] honour.

[With] the blow of a young man who does not turn away from the enemy; [I will sacrifice] my life and my household for al-Husayn.9

He was then killed. [May Allah have mercy on him].

His brother, ‘Ali [bin QaraZah] was with ‘Umar bin Sa‘d. He called out: “O Husayn! O liar son of the liar! You misled my brother, deceived him and then killed him.”

[Al-Husayn (as)] replied: “Indeed Allah did not mislead your brother. Rather, he guided your brother and misled you!”

[Ibn QaraZah] said: “May Allah kill me if I do not kill you or die in the way of destroying you.” [With that] he launched an attack on [the Imam (as)].

Nafi’ bin Hilal al-Muradi obstructed him and stabbed him, throwing him [to the ground]. [Ibn QaraZah’s] companions attacked [Nafi’] and rescued him.10

[The situation was such that] the people were moving here and there and fighting each other. Hurr bin Yazid [al-Riyahi] was one of them. He attacked the [army of Ibn Sa‘d] saying: “With my charger’s neck and breast thrust forward I will launch myself at them again and again until [I am] clothed in blood.”11 His horse was struck at its ears and forehead and it was bleeding.

Yazid bin Sufyan [al-Tamimi was saying]: “By Allah, if I happen to see Hurr bin Yazid coming out, I will throw a spear at him!” Husayn bin Tamim12 said to him: “Here is Hurr bin Yazid the one you wished [to see]!” He said: “Yes.” He then went towards him and said: “O Hurr bin Yazid, are you ready for a single combat?” Hurr said: “Yes, I want it.” Hurr then went out to meet him. It was as though [Yazid’s] soul was in the hands [of Hurr]. It did not take long before Hurr went out to him and killed him.13

Nafi’ bin Hilal al-Muradi al-Jamali was [also] fighting [the enemy] saying: “I am the Jamali. I follow the religion of ‘Ali.”

A man called Muzahim bin Huraith came forward against him and said: “I believe in the religion of ‘Uthman!”

Nafi’ said to him: “You are on the religion of Shaitan.” [Saying this,] he attacked him and killed him.

[So] ‘Amru bin al-Hajjaj [al-Zubaidiyy] shouted [at his men]: “O fools! Do you know who are you fighting with?! [These] knights of the town are people who are seeking death. Do not let any of you go forward to fight them in single combat. They are only few and they are hardly going to remain [in this state]. By Allah, if you only threw stones at them, you would kill them.”

‘Umar bin Sa‘d said: “True, you have come to the right conclusion.” He then sent [the message] to his army that: “None of you should fight any of them in single combat.”14

The Second Attack

‘Amru bin al-Hajjaj drew closer to al-Husayn’s companions while he was saying: “O people of Kufah! Keep to your obedience and stay united. Do not doubt in killing one who has renounced the religion and has gone against the leader [i.e. Yazid]!”

Al-Husayn (as) said to him: “‘Amru bin al-Hajjaj! Are you inciting the people against me?! We are the ones who have renounced [the religion], while you have remained firm on it?! By Allah, you will come to know -when your souls will be taken and you will die on these actions- that who among us deviated from the religion and who deserves most to enter the hell [fire]!”

Thereafter, ‘Amru bin al-Hajjaj launched an attack against al-Husayn (as) from the right wing of ‘Umar bin Sa‘d’s [army], from the direction of the Euphrates. The two armies clashed for some time [and a number of al-Husayn’s companions] fell [to the ground].

The Martyrdom of Muslim bin ‘Awsajah

The Martyrdom of Muslim bin ‘Awsajah15

‘Abd al-Rahman al-Bajali and Muslim bin ‘Abdillah al-Dabbabi [were the ones from the companions of ‘Amru bin al-Hajjaj who killed Ibn ‘Awsajah]. The companions of ‘Amru shouted: “We have killed Muslim bin ‘Awsajah al-Asadi! [Hearing this,] ‘Amru bin al-Hajjaj and his companions withdrew, leaving a cloud of dust. [When the dust settled] al-Husayn’s companions found Muslim stretched out dying.

Al-Husayn (as) walked towards him and he was on the point of death. He said: “May your Lord have mercy on you, O Muslim bin ‘Awsajah. ‘Of them are some who have fulfilled their pledge, and of them are some who still wait, and they have not changed in the least.’”16

Habib bin MuZahir went closer to him and said: “O Muslim, your death is hard for me to bear. Receive the good news of Heaven.”

“May Allah bring you good news too”, replied Muslim in a weak voice.

Habib said to him: “Had it not been that I would follow you at this very moment, I would like you to make your will to me regarding what concerns you, so that I may have carried it out as was deserving to you by virtue of [our] kinship and religion.”

[Muslim] said as he pointed towards al-Husayn with his hand: “I enjoin you [not to leave] this man, may Allah bless you, and to die for him.”

[Habib] said: “By the Lord of Ka’bah, I will [do so].”

It was not long before he died in their hands. [May Allah have mercy on him]. [At this,] a slave girl of his screamed: “O Ibn ‘Awsajah! O my master!”17

The Third Attack

Shamir bin Dhi al-Jaushan launched an attack with his left wing on the left wing [of al-Husayn’s companions]. They stood firm against him and forced him and his companions away. Then Hani bin Thubait al-Hadhrami and Bukair bin Hayy al-Tamimi attacked [‘Abdullah bin ‘Umair] al-Kalbi and killed him. [May Allah bless him].18

The Attacks of the Companions of al-Husayn (as)

The companions of al-Husayn (as) fought a severe battle. Their cavalry –which consisted of thirty-two horsemen19- began to launch attacks. They did not attack any side of the Kufan army without putting it to flight.

When ‘Azarah bin Qais [al-Tamimi], the commander of the Kufan cavalry, saw that his forces were dispersing from every side, he sent ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Hidhn to tell ‘Umar bin Sa‘d: “Do you not see what my cavalry is receiving today from this small number [of men]! Send the foot soldiers and archers against them!”

‘Umar bin Sa‘d said to Shabath bin Rib’i [al-Tamimi]: “Will you not go [to help them]?” He said: “Glory be to Allah! Do you approach the leader (shaikh) of the Mudhar and the people for leading the archers! Did you not find anyone else other than me who could get this task done for you?!”

‘Umar bin Sa‘d summoned Husayn bin Tamimi and dispatched him with [a group of] the armour-clad soldiers and five hundred archers. They advanced and as they got closer to al-Husayn and his companions, they showered them with arrows and lamed their horses. [Then] they [all turned to become] foot soldiers.20

[The horse of Hurr bin Yazid a l-Riyahi was lamed]. It was not long before his horse trembeled and became upset and fell to the ground. So Hurr jumped from it as though he was a lion. His sword was in his hands, while he was saying:

Even if you lame my [horse], I am the son of free man [hurr], braver than a maned lion.21

[The followers of al-Husayn (as)] continued to fight them fiercely until it was midday. [The enemy] could not advance against them except from one side, due to their tents being closer together. When ‘Umar bin Sa‘d saw this, he sent [his] men to strike [their] tents from the right and left sides, so that they might surround them. So three or four men from al-Husayn’s companions positioned themselves between the tents. They would attack [any] one who was striking [the tents], kill him, shoot at him and lame [his horse].

At this point ‘Umar bin Sa‘d ordered [his men] saying: “Set the tents on fire.”

Al-Husayn (as): “Leave them alone. Let them burn [the tents]. If they do so, they will not be able to cross over to you.” And it happened to be so. [Accordingly, the enemy] could not fight them except from one direction.

The Fourth Attack

Shamir bin Dhi al-Jaushan, among the others, launched an attack and struck the tents of al-Husayn (as) with his spear and shouted: “Bring me fire so that I may burn down this house on its inhabitants!” [At this,] the women started screaming and came out of the tents.

Al-Husayn (as) shouted at him: “O son of Dhi al-Jaushan! You are asking for fire to burn down my house on its dwellers?! May Allah burn you with the fire!”22

Humaid bin Muslim [al-Azdi] says: “I said to Shamir: Glory be to Allah! This does not suit you. Do you want to bear upon yourself two things: to punish [the creatures] with the punishment of Allah and to kill the children and women! By Allah, by killing these men you can [only] please your governor.”23

Shabath bin Rib’i [al-Tamimi also] came to Shamir and said: “I have not seen a word worst than what you have said, nor a standing more wicked than that of yours. Have you [now] turned to become one who frightens the women?!”

Zuhair bin al-Qain attacked Shamir with ten of his colleagues. They fought Shamir and his followers fiercely. They drove them away from the tents until they moved away.

Thereafter, the [enemy] turned against the [followers of al-Husayn (as)] in large number. The number of the killed from al-Husayn’s companions continued to grow. [Even] if one or two among their men were killed, it would be apparent [due to the fewness of their number], while it was not so apparent among the [enemy] because of their great number.

Preparation for the Noon (Zuhr) Prayers

When Abu Thumamah ‘Amru bin ‘Abdillah al-Saidi24 saw this, he said to al-Husayn (as): “O Aba ‘Abdillah, my life be sacrificed for you! I see these people getting closer to you. By Allah, you will not be killed until I am killed defending you, if Allah wills. I wish to meet my Lord while I have offered this prayer (salat) whose time has now entered.”

Al-Husayn (as) raised his head and said: “You have remembered the prayers. May Allah make you among those who establish prayers and remember [Him]. Yes, this is the beginning of its time.” He then said: “Ask them to cease [fighting] so that we can pray.”

Husayn bin Tamim said to [al-Husayn’s companions]: “They will not be accepted!”

So Habib bin MuZahir retorted: “Do you think that the prayers of the family of the Messenger of Allah (S) will not be accepted, but they will be accepted from you, O donkey?!

  • 1. Al-Mufid refers to him in al-Irshad (pg.233&236; Najaf edition) as ‘Duraid’.
  • 2. Al-Tabari (5:429): “[Abu Mikhnaf says: ‘I narrate on the authority of Saq’ab bin Zuhair and Sulaiman bin Abi Rashid, from Humaid bin Muslim…” See also al-Irshad (pg.236).
  • 3. Al-Tabari: He had come to Kufah and took up residence near Bi’r al-Ju’d where people of the tribe of Hamdan used to live. He saw the people being examined at al-Nukhailah in order to be sent against al-Husayn (as). So he inquired about them and was told: ‘They are going to be sent against Husayn bin Fatimah, the daughter of the Messenger of Allah (S).’ Al-Kalbi said: ‘By Allah, I was [very] eager to participate in the jihad against the idolaters. I hope that the jihad against these people, who are going to fight the son of the daughter of their Prophet, is not lesser in reward before Allah than the reward he would have given me for fighting the mushrikin!’ (5:429)

    He had a wife called Umm Wahab. He went to his wife and informed her of what he heard and of what he intended to do. She said: ‘You are right. May Allah guide you to the most correct of your affairs. Do so and take me with you!’ So he left [Kufah] at night together with her until he joined al-Husayn (as) and stayed with him.

  • 4. Al-Tabari (5:429): “[Abu Mikhnaf says:] ‘Abu Janab has related to me [saying]…” See also al-Irshad (pg.236; Najaf edition).
  • 5. Al-Tabari (5:430): “[Abu Mikhnaf says:] ‘Abu Ja’far Husayn narrated to me saying…”
  • 6. Al-Tabari (5:421): “[I narrate] on the authority of ‘Ata bin Saib from ‘Abd al-Jabbar bin Wail al-Hadhrami, who was relating from his brother, Masruq bin Wail, that…”
  • 7. Al-Tabari (5:431): “Yusuf bin Yazid has narrated to me from ‘Afif bin Zuhair bin Abi al-Akhnas -who had witnessed the martyrdom of al-Husayn (as)…” The remaining part of the report follows in footnote no. 2.
  • 8. When Ka’b bin Jabir al-Azdi returned [home after the event of Karbala’], his wife or his sister, called Nawwar bint Jabir, said to him: “You assisted [the people] against the son of Fatimah and killed the chief of the reciters [of the Qur’an]?! You have indeed commited a heinous deed! By Allah, I will never speak a word to you!”
  • 9. Al-Tabari (5:433): “[Abu Mikhnaf says:] ‘Abd al-Rahman bin Jundab narrated to me that…”
  • 10. Al-Tabari (5:434): “[Abu Mikhnaf says:] ‘I narrate from Thabit bin Hubairah...”
  • 11. These are the words of ‘Antarah.
  • 12. He was the head of the bodyguards of ‘Ubaidullah bin Ziyad. He had sent him with ‘Umar bin Sa’d against al-Husayn (as) and put him in command of the armoured soldiers.
  • 13. Al-Tabari (5:434): “[Abu Mikhnaf says:] ‘Abu Zuhair Nadhr bin Salih al-‘Abasi related to me that…”
  • 14. Al-Tabari (5:435): “[Abu Mikhnaf reports:] ‘Yahya bin Hani’ bin ‘Umar al-Muradi has related to me that…”
  • 15. This report says: “Then Muslim bin ‘Awsajah al-Asadi fell to the ground, being the first among al-Husayn’s companions to be martyred,” whereas Burair and Ibn Qara¨ah were martyred before this. Taking into consideration that the single combat were stopped [at a stage by the command of Ibn Sa’d] and instead the general attacks began, Ibn ‘Awsajah was, accordingly, the first to be killed in the first attacks [after the single combat ceased]. Al-Tabari: [Ibn ‘Awsajah] was receiving allegiance from the people for al-Husayn (as). It was through him that Ma’qil [the spy of Ibn Ziyad] could see Muslim bin ‘Aqil (5:362). Muslim bin ‘Aqil had made him in charge of the Madhhij and Asad [during his attempted rise in Kufah] (5:369).
    He is the one who stood up after the address of the Imam (as) on the night of ‘Ashura’ and said: “If we leave you alone, what excuse would we give to Allah for not fulfilling your rights [on us]? By Allah! [I will fight] till I break my spear in their chests. I will strike them with my sword as long as its hilt remains in my hand. I will not part with you. If I remain without any weapon to fight them, I will throw stones at them in your defence until I die along with you!” (5:419). He was the one who asked for permission from al-Husayn (as) to shoot at Shamir and said: “O son of the Messenger of Allah! May I be your ransom, should I not shoot him with an arrow? He is among the great tyrants.” Al-Husayn (as) replied: “Do not shoot at him, for I indeed dislike beginning [the fight]” (5:424). It is not known how Ibn ‘Awsajah joined al-Husayn (as) from Kufah, as history has mentioned nothing about this.
  • 16. Qur’an, 33:23.
  • 17. Al-Tabari (5:436): At this the companions of ‘Amru bin al-Hajjaj chanted to one another saying: ‘We have killed Muslim bin ‘Awsajah al-Asadi!’ Shabath bin Rib’i al-Tamimi said to those around him among his colleagues: ‘May your mothers mourn you! You are only killing yourselves with your own hands and humiliating yourselves for others’ sake. You are happy that someone like Muslim bin ‘Awsajah has been killed! I swear by the one to who I have submitted! How often I have seen him doing a noble deed amidst the Muslims! I have seen him on the highlands of Adharbaijan killing six idolaters even before the cavalry of the Muslims took its position. You are rejoicing when such a man has been killed from among you?!”
  • 18. It has appeared in this report that: “And he was the second martyr from among the companions of al-Husayn.” But it is no more than a delusion.
  • 19. Perhaps this was the number of the remaining horsemen from [al-Husayn’s] companions. Otherwise, according to al-Mas’udi: “[Al-Husayn (as)] diverted [his way] to Karbala’ with around 500 horsemen from among his family members and companions, and with around 100 foot soldiers.” He further says: “The total number of those killed alongside al-Husayn on the day of ‘Ashura’ in Karbala was 87 men” (Muruj al-Dhahab:3:70&71).
    Sayyid Ibn Tawus narrates in al-Malhuf (pg.88) from Imam al-Baqir (as) that: “There were 45 horsemen and 100 foot soldiers.” The same has been reported by Sibt bin al-Jawzi in Tadhkirat al-Khawass (pg.246&251). But what is amazing [here] is that Ibn al-Jawzi quotes al-Mas’udi saying that their total number was 1000 men, whereas this is not found in Muruj al-Dhahab!
  • 20. Al-Tabari (5:435-436): “[Abu Mikhnaf says:] ‘Husayn bin ‘Uqbah al-Muradi has related to me that al-Zubaidiyy said…”
  • 21. The above verse says: “I am the son of Hurr”, while it has been said by Hurr himself. None of Abu Mikhnaf, al-Kalbi, Tabari, or others have mentioned [any other verse] as a completion to the above mentioned verse. Those who believe that the son of Hurr was also present in Karbala’, and that he had repented and then martyred alongside al-Husayn (as), are likely to have developed this opinion as a result of the above verse. However, it is also probable that ‘Hurr’ was the name of his grandfather, or one among his great grandfathers, or he might have intended from the word hurr its literal meaning [i.e. a free man]. The above verse has also been recorded by al-Mufid in al-Irshad (pg.237), but he has not mentioned any other verse as a completion to the above one.
  • 22. Al-Tabari (5:437): “Abu Mikhnaf says: ‘Numair bin Wa’lah has narrated to me that Ayyub bin Mashrakh al-Khayawani used to say…”
  • 23. [Shamir] said: “Who are you?” But I was afraid that if he recognizes me, he would complain to the governer about me. So I replied: “I will not tell you who I am.”
  • 24. Al-Tabari: Al-Saidi al-Hamdani. He was in Kufah collecting funds to help the followers of Muslim bin ‘Aqil and purchase them weapons on the instructions of Muslim (5:364). Ibn ‘Aqil had given him the banner over the Tamim and Hamdan the day he rose (5:369). Abu Thumamah was the one who introduced the messenger of ‘Umar bin Sa’d [i.e. ‘Azarah bin al-Ahmasi] to the Imam (as) in Karbala’ by saying: “O Aba ‘Abdillah, the most vicious and the most daring in killing and the deadliest of the people on this earth has come to see you”, and did not allow him to see the Imam (as) lest he should harm him (5:410).