The Holy Prophet Muhammad (S) & his Ahlul Bayt (a)
Surah Ash–Shura, 42:52-53
وَكَذَلِكَ أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ رُوحًا مِّنْ أَمْرِنَا مَا كُنتَ تَدْرِي مَا الْكِتَابُ وَلَا الْإِيمَانُ وَلَكِن جَعَلْنَاهُ نُورًا نَّهْدِي بِهِ مَنْ نَّشَاء مِنْ عِبَادِنَا وَإِنَّكَ لَتَهْدِي إِلَى صِرَاطٍ مُّسْتَقِيمٍ
صِرَاطِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ أَلَا إِلَى اللَّهِ تَصِيرُ الأمُورُ
Surah At–Tawbah, 9:61
وَمِنْهُمُ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ النَّبِيَّ وَيِقُولُونَ هُوَ أُذُنٌ قُلْ أُذُنُ خَيْرٍ لَّكُمْ يُؤْمِنُ بِاللّهِ وَيُؤْمِنُ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَرَحْمَةٌ لِّلَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ مِنكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ رَسُولَ اللّهِ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
Abdulla bin Naofil was a hypocrite; whatever he used to hear from the Holy Prophet (S), he would divulge everything to the public. Allah informed the Holy Prophet (S) of this man’s conduct. The man was calledHHH
and asked by the Holy Prophet (S), if he actually did it. He took an oath, saying he did not do so. The Holy Prophet (S) said that he would be pardoned. The hypocrites came and told men that the Holy Prophet (S) had very big ears for he hears whatever is said outside, away from him. It was then that this verse was revealed.
The leniency of the Holy Prophet (S) towards the mischief-maker hypocrites and listening to their excuses with toleration made them to think that he was very credulous, one who is easily deceived by them. Hence this verse which explains that it is due to his kindness and leniency and not any credulity that he listens to every one. At the end it also warns them against annoying the Holy Prophet (S). Refer to Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:57-61.
The hypocrites used to annoy the Holy Prophet (S) by accusing him of being unworthy of his position or annoying the members of his family or the innocent believers. The Holy Prophet (S) had prophesied that the annoyance of the members of his family will continue after his death.
Surah Al–Ahzab, 33:56
إِنَّ اللَّهَ وَمَلَائِكَتَهُ يُصَلُّونَ عَلَى النَّبِيِّ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا صَلُّوا عَلَيْهِ وَسَلِّمُوا تَسْلِيمًا
It is said that whenever there is a mention of the name of the Holy Prophet (S), a believer must in duty bound recite the ‘Salawat’ or the salutation, and the one who does not do it, shall be away from God’s mercy and he who forgets to do it shall forget the right way to salvation. This is the least that every Muslim can do for the person who borne all pains and sufferings with patience to guide humanity aright and save it from being lost forever. This is highly regarded by Allah (swt) too, and amply rewarded by Him.
Hence, the believers are advised that if they want their prayers to be surely and certainly granted, encircle it with ‘Salawat’ i.e. by reciting it in the beginning of the prayer and at the end of it, for it is far from the Grace of Allah (swt) to accept the initial and the terminal part of the prayer which is the irrejectable offer (i.e. salawat) and reject only the middle part of the submission to Him.
The very act of ‘Salawat’ or Salutation implies that the Holy Prophet (S) is not considered a deity, but rather a ‘Devoted Servant’ deserving the highest blessings of Allah (swt).
Surah Ali-’Imran, 3:31
قُلْ إِن كُنتُمْ تُحِبُّونَ اللّهَ فَاتَّبِعُونِي يُحْبِبْكُمُ اللّهُ وَيَغْفِرْ لَكُمْ ذُنُوبَكُمْ وَاللّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
The love of God has to be proved by faithfully following the Prophet (S). It is only when we follow the Holy Prophet (S), Allah (swt) will love us and forgive our sins.
Surah Muhammad, 47:33
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ وَلَا تُبْطِلُوا أَعْمَالَكُمْ
Merely doing of any amount of good deeds in the life has no guarantee of their being of any avail to the individual. He must be a sincere believer in God and he must obey God and His Apostle Muhammad. Otherwise all the good that has been done by the individual would be made null and void. Apply this verse to those who disobeyed the Holy Prophet (S) even before he had left the world. At the verge of his departure he commanded those surrounding him, to get him pen and paper to record something so that the people may never get astray. But what was the reply? A flat denial with an insult saying “The man (i.e. the Holy Prophet) is delirious”. The injury thus caused to the Holy Prophet (S) was deep and grievous. The people created such noises that the Holy Prophet (S) at last, had to order them saying “Qoom Anni” i.e. ‘get yea away from me’.
Surah Ash – Shura, 42:48
فَإِنْ أَعْرَضُوا فَمَا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ عَلَيْهِمْ حَفِيظًا إِنْ عَلَيْكَ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ وَإِنَّا إِذَا أَذَقْنَا الْإِنسَانَ مِنَّا رَحْمَةً فَرِحَ بِهَا وَإِن تُصِبْهُمْ سَيِّئَةٌ بِمَا قَدَّمَتْ أَيْدِيهِمْ فَإِنَّ الْإِنسَانَ كَفُورٌ
Surah Ash – Shura, 42:23
ذَلِكَ الَّذِي يُبَشِّرُ اللَّهُ عِبَادَهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ قُل لَّا أَسْأَلُكُمْ عَلَيْهِ أَجْرًا إِلَّا الْمَوَدَّةَ فِي الْقُرْبَى وَمَن يَقْتَرِفْ حَسَنَةً نَّزِدْ لَهُ فِيهَا حُسْنًا إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ شَكُورٌ
This verse is clear in its meaning that the Holy Prophet (S), is being commanded to ask the believers to love his kith and kin i.e. the holy Ahlul Bayt (a) and that would be the return for his apostolic services.
Surah Al – Hujurat, 49:1-5
ِ يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تُقَدِّمُوا بَيْنَ يَدَيِ اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَرْفَعُوا أَصْوَاتَكُمْ فَوْقَ صَوْتِ النَّبِيِّ وَلَا تَجْهَرُوا لَهُ بِالْقَوْلِ كَجَهْرِ بَعْضِكُمْ لِبَعْضٍ أَن تَحْبَطَ أَعْمَالُكُمْ وَأَنتُمْ لَا تَشْعُرُونَ
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَغُضُّونَ أَصْوَاتَهُمْ عِندَ رَسُولِ اللَّهِ أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ امْتَحَنَ اللَّهُ قُلُوبَهُمْ لِلتَّقْوَى لَهُم مَّغْفِرَةٌ وَأَجْرٌ عَظِيمٌ
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُنَادُونَكَ مِن وَرَاء الْحُجُرَاتِ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ
وَلَوْ أَنَّهُمْ صَبَرُوا حَتَّى تَخْرُجَ إِلَيْهِمْ لَكَانَ خَيْرًا لَّهُمْ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَّحِيمٌ
This verse ordains perfect and implicit obedience and reverence to the Holy Prophet (S). It is implied that none should sit before the Holy Prophet (S) but in a respectable posture and none should even go before him while walking along with him on the way but to be behind him. When there is a discourse with him or before him, not to sound any verdict of one’s own opinion, unless the Holy Prophet (S) himself grants his own decision.
Before this verse was revealed, people used to come and stand out of the apartment in which the Holy Prophet (S) lived and shout, calling him by name ‘O Muhammad! come out!’. When addressing him they would call him by name.
Surah Al – Ahzab, 33:57
إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لَعَنَهُمُ اللَّهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ عَذَابًا مُّهِينًا
Surah Al – Fath, 48:29
مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاء عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاء بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذَلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَى عَلَى سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
‘Those who are (truly) with him’ could never be any of the companions who remained with the Holy Prophet (S) when it served their own purpose in peace and prosperity and deserted him and took to their heels from the battle-fields leaving him in the midst of his enemies as done at Ohad and Hunain - history will give the names of these deserters among the companions. And those who sat quiet on the Day of Badr and Ahzab (Khandaq) and returned defeated by the enemies of Khaiber frightened, and refused to go even as a messenger to the Meccans to carry the message of the Holy Prophet (S) on the day of the first attempt for the pilgrimage.
Was it not ‘Ali’ who laid himself down in the bed of the Holy Prophet (S) and covered himself with the same mantle which the Holy Prophet (S) used, and helped him to escape from the house surrounded by the enemy on the night of Hijrat, risking his life under the swords of the plotters?
Was it not ‘Ali’ who stood single handed fighting the enemy and protecting the life of the Holy Prophet (S) when every one of his companions had deserted and ran away saving their lives in the battle of Ohad and Hunain?
Was it not ‘Ali’ who provided for the beggar even when he was approached while he was in prayer in the Mosque at which the verse in Surah Maaida, 5:55 was revealed?
Was it not ‘Ali’ and his family who gave away their bread to the poor for three days, themselves fasting consecutively at which the verse in Surah al-Insaan, 76:8-9 was revealed?
These are the ones referred to here.
The pity is whenever any interpretation of any verse brings out the super excellence of the holy personalities of the Ahlul Bayt, some commentators have tried to include all the companions of the Holy Prophet (S), in spite of their knowing fully about the personal qualities, character and the conduct of every one of them particularly of those brought in comparison or contrast to that of the holy Ahlul Bayt (a). Can anyone deny any of the disloyalties, treacheries and the desertions on the part of some of those who called themselves as the companions of the Holy Prophet (S), dreading the disbelievers and escaped from the battlefield at Ohad and Hunain. Could this ever be in any sense whatsoever, taken as the firmness against the disbelievers?
It would therefore be most appropriate and just to conclude that the whole of the above verse refers to ‘Ali’ and to those of the holy Ahlul Bayt (a), who possessed all the qualities of personal excellence mentioned in this verse.
Mubahila and its importance in Defining Who are The Ahlul Bayt in Surah 33 (Surah Al-Ahzaab) Ayat 33
Surah Ali-’Imran, 3:61
فَمَنْ حَآجَّكَ فِيهِ مِن بَعْدِ مَا جَاءكَ مِنَ الْعِلْمِ فَقُلْ تَعَالَوْاْ نَدْعُ أَبْنَاءنَا
وَأَبْنَاءكُمْ وَنِسَاءنَا وَنِسَاءكُمْ وَأَنفُسَنَا وأَنفُسَكُمْ ثُمَّ نَبْتَهِلْ فَنَجْعَل لَّعْنَةُ اللّهِ عَلَى الْكَاذِبِينَ
This verse is a reference to the historic Mubahila or the Spiritual Contest with the Christians of Najran. At the appointed hour the Holy Prophet (S) entered the field with Hussein (a) in his lap, Hasan (a) holding his finger and walking beside him, Lady Fatima (a) following him and Ali (a) behind her.. The Holy Prophet (S) then raised his hands towards heaven and said “Allahumma haa’oolaae Ahlu-Bayti” i.e. Lord these are the people of my house. At the appearance of these godly souls with the hallow of the divine light radiating from their holy faces, the chief monk who had brought the selected group of Christians, began to gaze at their faces and exclaimed “By God! I see the faces which, if they pray to God for mountains to move from their places, the mountains will immediately move.”
This historic event has a great significance with regard to what it discloses about those who accompanied the Holy Prophet (S) on that memorable and unique occasion of highest sanctity. Many great Sunni scholars, commentators and traditionalists have given the details of the event with the various aspects of its significance, saying :
a. The event unquestionably establishes the truth about the spiritual purity and the holiness of the holy Ahlul Bayt (a).
b. It proves beyond all doubts as to who are the members of the family of the Holy Prophet (S), i.e., the holy Prophet’s Ahlul Bayt (a).
c. The seriousness and the solemnity of the occasion demands absolute purity, spiritual as well as physical in the individuals, to serve in the fateful occasion for the Holy Prophet (S) to present them to Allah (swt) as the best of His creation to be heard in their prayers for the Truth.
Thus it was unquestionably and firmly established and openly proved beyond all doubts before the huge crowds of the Muslims as well as the non-Muslims to bear witness that the Holy Prophet (S), his daughter Lady Fatima (a), her sons, and her husband are the divinely purified ‘Ahlul Bayt’, addressed to, in Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:33 and none else, for Allah’s (swt) command in this verse contains plurals as regards each kind of the relations to be summoned for the event, i.e., to call sons, women, and the selves to invoke the heavens curse on the liars, but the Holy Prophet (S) took only two children whereas there were innumerable other children of his followers, only one lady was taken whereas there were nine other ladies in his own household who were his wives among who were the daughter of Abu Bakr and also of Omar; and only one soul Ali (a), who is called as one of the ‘Selves’ of the Holy Prophet (S) ‘Anfosona’ was taken, whereas there were those who claim to be his companions and very close companions too. This act of the godly selection on the part of the Holy Prophet (S), loudly declares that there were no others either among the children or the women or the other adults to be compared to these godly souls in their personal purity and holiness.
The whole Muslim world recognizes these five as the ‘Panjatane-Pak’ the ‘Pure Five’ and this sacred term is not used for any others.
Surah Al – Ahzab, 33: 28-33
يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ قُل لِّأَزْوَاجِكَ إِن كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ الْحَيَاةَ الدُّنْيَا وَزِينَتَهَا فَتَعَالَيْنَ
أُمَتِّعْكُنَّ وَأُسَرِّحْكُنَّ سَرَاحًا جَمِيلًا
وَإِن كُنتُنَّ تُرِدْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَالدَّارَ الْآخِرَةَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ أَعَدَّ لِلْمُحْسِنَاتِ مِنكُنَّ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا
يَا نِسَاء النَّبِيِّ مَن يَأْتِ مِنكُنَّ بِفَاحِشَةٍ مُّبَيِّنَةٍ يُضَاعَفْ لَهَا الْعَذَابُ ضِعْفَيْنِ وَكَانَ ذَلِكَ عَلَى اللَّهِ يَسِيرًا
وَمَن يَقْنُتْ مِنكُنَّ لِلَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتَعْمَلْ صَالِحًا نُّؤْتِهَا أَجْرَهَا مَرَّتَيْنِ وَأَعْتَدْنَا لَهَا رِزْقًا كَرِيمًا
يَا نِسَاء النَّبِيِّ لَسْتُنَّ كَأَحَدٍ مِّنَ النِّسَاء إِنِ اتَّقَيْتُنَّ فَلَا تَخْضَعْنَ بِالْقَوْلِ فَيَطْمَعَ الَّذِي فِي قَلْبِهِ مَرَضٌ وَقُلْنَ قَوْلًا مَّعْرُوفًا
وَقَرْنَ فِي بُيُوتِكُنَّ وَلَا تَبَرَّجْنَ تَبَرُّجَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ الْأُولَى وَأَقِمْنَ الصَّلَاةَ وَآتِينَ الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِعْنَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ إِنَّمَا يُرِيدُ اللَّهُ لِيُذْهِبَ عَنكُمُ الرِّجْسَ أَهْلَ الْبَيْتِ وَيُطَهِّرَكُمْ تَطْهِيرًا
The verses referring to the wives of the Holy Prophet (S), clearly indicates that the wives of the Holy Prophet (S), were not of equal footing in faith and fidelity. Of them were those inclined towards worldly pleasures and some were inclined toward the external happiness of the life in this world and no assurance had been granted to any of them of their success in their life hereafter. The wives of the Holy Prophet (S) during their wedlock was not free from the impurities of mischief, envy, greed, intrigue, pride and prejudice.
There are incidents and even verses in the Qur’an which relates the Holy Prophet’s (S) displeasure of this misconduct in his wives, where he even goes to the extend of taking an oath not to go near them for a period of time. This is the reason that they could not be included in the last clause of the verse 33 above in which is given the highest standard of purity referring to the Ahlul Bayt (a), i.e., the People of the House of the Holy Prophet (S).
This is the reason that throughout these verses referring to the wives of the Holy Prophet (S), the personal pronoun used is in plural in the feminine gender, but in that celebrated verse 33, the pronoun used is plural in the masculine gender. Always for a mixed assembly of men and women, the Qur’an uses the masculine gender.
This transition in the grammatical use of the language, makes it quite obvious that this clause is quite a different matter used for a different group other than the previous one, and has been suitably placed here to show a comparative position of the Ahlul Bayt in contrast to the wives of the Holy Prophet (S).
When this verse (Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:33) was revealed, the Holy Prophet (S) was in the house of Umme-Salema. At the revelation of: “Verily willeth God to keep away impurity from you O People of the House! and He purifieth you with the perfect purification,” (Surah al-Ahzaab, 33:33) the Holy Prophet (S) assembled his daughter Fatima (a), her two sons Hasan (a) and Hussein (a) and her husband, his cousin Ali (a) and covered the group including himself with his own mantle and addressing God said:
“O God! These constitute my progeny! Keep them away from every kind of impurity, purified with perfect purification.”
Umme Salma, who was indeed among the righteous wife of the Holy Prophet, witnessing this marvellous occasion, humbly submitted to the Holy Prophet (S) “O Apostle of God! May I also join the group?” to which the Holy Prophet replied, “No, remain thou in thine own place, thou art in goodness.”
Even Ummul Momineen Ayesha has reported this occasion.
There is not even a single, even inauthentic tradition to show that the Holy Prophet (S) included the wives in the verse of Surah Ahzaab, 33:33.
Surah al-Inshira, 94:1-8
أَلَمْ نَشْرَحْ لَكَ صَدْرَكَ
وَوَضَعْنَا عَنكَ وِزْرَكَ
الَّذِي أَنقَضَ ظَهْرَكَ
وَرَفَعْنَا لَكَ ذِكْرَكَ
فَإِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًا
إِنَّ مَعَ الْعُسْرِ يُسْرًا
فَإِذَا فَرَغْتَ فَانصَبْ
وَإِلَى رَبِّكَ فَارْغَبْ
While this verse is an assertion from Allah (swt) that He has given the heart of the Holy Prophet (S), the greatest expanse for knowledge, it is also a prophetic announcement of the mention or the eminence of the Holy Prophet (S) being raised to glorious heights both in this world and in the hereafter, high above the mention of any one in the world. Bringing into account the ‘Salawat’ or the salutation, every Muslim is obliged to recite it at least in each of the five times daily prayer.
There is none in the world to be compared to the Holy Prophet (S) in this regard for the name of no other apostle of God, is mentioned in such abundance. This prophesy was made when the Prophet (S) was a solitary figure, not much recognised even by the people of his own place and when most of the people in his surroundings were hostile to him. The whole life of the Holy Prophet (S) was of persecution, difficulties and toil, dangers and worries. The repeated statement here is to give emphasis to the promise and its assurance of the ultimate triumph of the cause even though in the earlier stages the situation was utterly hopeless and the survival of the Holy Prophet (S), the Muslims and the very name of the faith, Islam, seemed to be an impossibility.
Surah Al – Fath, 48:25
هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْيَ مَعْكُوفًا أَن يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌ مُّؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَاء مُّؤْمِنَاتٌ لَّمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَن تَطَؤُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُم مِّنْهُم مَّعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ لِيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ مَن يَشَاء لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا
- 1. do not allow your own desires to have precedence