Surah Al – Ahqaf, 46:15-16
وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ إِحْسَانًا حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ كُرْهًا وَوَضَعَتْهُ كُرْهًا وَحَمْلُهُ وَفِصَالُهُ ثَلَاثُونَ شَهْرًا حَتَّى إِذَا بَلَغَ أَشُدَّهُ وَبَلَغَ أَرْبَعِينَ سَنَةً قَالَ رَبِّ أَوْزِعْنِي أَنْ أَشْكُرَ نِعْمَتَكَ الَّتِي أَنْعَمْتَ عَلَيَّ وَعَلَى وَالِدَيَّ وَأَنْ أَعْمَلَ صَالِحًا تَرْضَاهُ وَأَصْلِحْ لِي فِي ذُرِّيَّتِي إِنِّي تُبْتُ إِلَيْكَ وَإِنِّي مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ
Wa was-say-nal-’insaana bi-waali-day-i’ ihsaanaa: hamalat-hu ’um-muhuu kurhanw-wa waza-‘at-hu kurhaa. Wa hamluhuu wa fisaaluhuu thalaa-thuuna shahraa. Hat-taaa ’izaa balagha ’ashud-dahuu wa balagha ’arba-‘iina sana-tan-qaala Rab-bi ’awzi‘-niii ’an ’ashkura ni‘-matakal-latii ’an-‘amta ‘alay-ya wa ‘alaa waaliday-ya wa ’an ’a‘-mala saalihan-tar-zaahu wa ’aslih lii fii zur-riy-yatii. ’In-nii tubtu ’ilay-ka wa in-ni- minal-Muslimiin.
15. Now (among the best of the deeds which) We have enjoined upon man is goodness towards his parents. In pain did his mother bear him, and in pain did she give him birth; and her bearing him and his utter dependence on her took thirty months. And so, when he attains to full maturity and reaches forty years, he (that is righteous) prays: “O my Sustainer! Inspire me so that I may forever be grateful for those blessings of Thine with which Thou hast graced me and my parents, and that I may do what is right (in a manner) that will meet with Thy goodly acceptance; and grant me righteousness in my offspring (as well). Verily, unto Thee have I turned in repentance: for, verily, I am of those who have surrendered themselves unto Thee!”
أُوْلَئِكَ الَّذِينَ نَتَقَبَّلُ عَنْهُمْ أَحْسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوا وَنَتَجاوَزُ عَن سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ فِي أَصْحَابِ الْجَنَّةِ وَعْدَ الصِّدْقِ الَّذِي كَانُوا يُوعَدُونَ
’Ulaaa-’ikal-laziina nataqab-balu ‘anhum ’ahsana maa-‘amiluu wa natajaa-wazu ‘an say-yi-’aatihim fiii ’as-haabil-Jan-na: wa‘-das-sidqil-lazii kaanuu yuu-‘aduun.
16. It is (such as) these from whom We shall accept the best that they ever did, and whose bad deeds We shall overlook: (they will find themselves) among those who are destined for paradise, in fulfilment of the true promise which they were given (in this world).
Note the reasoning with which man is enjoined to regard, revere, honour, and respect the parents. ‘Ihsan’ is not what is done in return or for any good but the initiative in doing good without expecting any return for it.
Surah Luqman, 31 :14
وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْنًا عَلَى وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيْكَ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ
Wa was-say-nal’ insaana biwaaliday: hamalat-hu ’um-muhuu wahnan ‘alaa wahninw-wa fisaaluhuu fii ‘aamayni ’anish-kur lii wa li-waalidayk: ’ilay-yal-Masiir.
14. And (God says:) “We have enjoined upon man goodness towards his parents: his mother bore him by bearing strain upon strain, and his utter dependence on her lasted two years: (hence, O man,) be grateful towards Me and towards thy parents, (and remember that) with Me is all journey’s end.
Surah Al – Isra’, 17:23
وَقَضَى رَبُّكَ أَلاَّ تَعْبُدُواْ إِلاَّ إِيَّاهُ وَبِالْوَالِدَيْنِ إِحْسَانًا إِمَّا يَبْلُغَنَّ عِندَكَ الْكِبَرَ
أَحَدُهُمَا أَوْ كِلاَهُمَا فَلاَ تَقُل لَّهُمَا أُفٍّ وَلاَ تَنْهَرْهُمَا وَقُل لَّهُمَا قَوْلاً كَرِيمًا
Wa qazaa Rab-buka ’al-laa ta‘-buduuu ’il-laaa ’iy-yaahu wa bil-waa-lidayni ’ihsaa-naa. ’Im-maa yablu-ghan-na ‘indakal-ki-bara ’ahadu-humaaa ’aw kilaa-humaa falaa taqul-lahumaa wa ’uf-finw-wa laa tanhar-humaa wa qul-lahumaa qawlan-kariimaa.
23. And your Lord has commanded that you shall not serve (any) but Him, and do good to your parents. If either or both of them reach old age with you, say not to them (so much as) “ugh” nor chide them, but (always) speak to them reverent speech.
Islam ranks the obedience to parents second only to God. The extent to which one has to regard his parents and obey them is peculiar only to Islam. None shall even raise his voice higher than the voice of his parents - nor look towards them even eye to eye - nor walk in advance of them - nor address them with their names. Nothing shall be done to bring disrepute or blame on them from the people and if they be believers, the children should pray for their salvation, and if they be disbeliever, they might be gently invited towards the right belief and goodness. If man cannot venerate the ones responsible in bringing him in this world, he will never be able to acknowledge truly the Only One Creator of all mankind.
Surah Ibrahim, 14:41
رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَوْمَ يَقُومُ الْحِسَابُ
Rab-ba-nagh-fir lii wa li-waa-li-day-ya walil-Mu’mi-niina Yawma yaquu-mul-Hisaab!
41.Grant Thy forgiveness unto me, and my parents, and all the believers, on the Day on which the (last) reckoning will come to pass!”
Surah Al-Isra’, 17:24
وَاخْفِضْ لَهُمَا جَنَاحَ الذُّلِّ مِنَ الرَّحْمَةِ وَقُل رَّبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي
Wakh-fiz la-humaa janaa-haz-zul-li minar-rahmati wa qur-Rab-bir-ham-humaa kamaa rab-ba-yaanii saghiiraa.
24. And make yourself submissively gentle to them with compassion, and say: “O my Lord! have compassion on them, as they brought me up (when I was) a child.”
These ayats are recited in Salatul Walidain which is a Salat prayed for the well-being and blessing of Almighty onto one’s parents in this world and the hereafter. This is a two rakaat Salat prayed similiar to Salat al-Fajr. In the first rakaat, after Surah Al-Hamd, 1:1-7, Surah al-Ibrahim, 14:41 is recited ten times in Qunoot, and in the second rakaat, after Surah Al Hamd, 1:1-7, Surah Nooh, 71:28 is recited ten times in Qunoot. After ending the Salat, Surah al-Israa, 17:24 is recited ten times and then plead to the Sustainer of all the worlds for blessing for ones’ parents.
Surah Nuh, 71:28
رَبِّ اغْفِرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيَّ وَلِمَن دَخَلَ بَيْتِيَ مُؤْمِنًا وَلِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ وَلَا تَزِدِ الظَّالِمِينَ إِلَّا تَبَارًا
Rab-bigh-fir lii wa liwaali-day-ya wa liman-dakhala bay-tiya Mu’-minaw wa lil-mu‘miniina wal mo‘minaat; wa laa tazidiz - zaalimiina ’il-laa tabaaraa!
28. “O my Sustainer! Grant Thy forgiveness unto me and unto my parents, and unto everyone who enters my house as a believer, and unto all believing men and believing women (of later times); and grant Thou that the doers of evil shall increasingly meet with destruction!”
This verse is recited in the Qunoot of Salaat Hadiyan-e-Walidain.