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Children’s Responsibilities

In the eyes of Islam, the status of the father and the mother is very exalted. They are pillars of the family. Almighty God, the Holy Prophet, and the Infallible Imams have exhorted the people in this regard. There are many verses in the Holy Qur’an relevant to the subject. From the viewpoint of the Qur’an, respecting the parents is so important and the exemplary behavior of children towards their parents is rated as one of the best acts of worship. Because of this, after advising about monotheism (Tawhid), which is the most important topic in the Qur’an, it advises about parents:

When Luqman said to his son, as he advised him: “O my son! Do not ascribe any partners to God. Polytheism is indeed a great injustice.” (Qur’an, 31:13).

“We have enjoined man concerning his parents: His mother carried him through weakness upon weakness, and his weaning takes two years. Give thanks to Me and to your parents. To Me is the return.” (Qur’an, 31:14).

The Qur’an says in chapter Maryam that Almighty God has enjoined His prophet to be good to his mother1:

He has made me blessed, wherever I may be, and He has enjoined me to maintain the prayer and to pay the zakat (alms) as long as I live.” (Qur’an, 19:31).

“And to be good to my mother, and He has not made me self-willed and wretched.” (Qur’an, 19:32).

In other verses, the Qur’an advises all people to be kind to their parents:

We have enjoined man to be kind to his parents. His mother has carried him in travail, and bore him in travail, and his gestation and weaning take thirty months.” (Qur’an, 46:15).

And your Lord decreed that you shall not serve except Him, and do good to your parents. When one of them or both of them reaches old age (and they live with you), do not say to them “Fie” (a word of disrespect) nor shout at them, but say to them a kind saying (noble words).” (Qur’an, 17:23).

“Moreover, lower for them the wing of humility through mercy, and say, “My Lord, have mercy upon them as they have raised me when I was small.” (Qur’an, 17:24).

According to these verses, one of the responsibilities of children towards parents is being benevolent and kind towards them in speaking2 and in behavior3. They must be so humble to their parents out of compassion, must show their love in their behavior, and should pray for them4.

(About this verse) Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “If God the Almighty had known anything lower than “Fie”, He would surely have forbidden it.”5 He said: “Anyone who looks towards his parents with hatred, even if they had been unjust to him, God shall not accept his Prayers.”6

Children should be well-wishers for their parents and if they were wrong, advise them. The Qur’an mentions Abraham (peace be upon him), who advised his father7 and invited him to the right path:

And mention in the Book Abraham. Indeed, he was a truthful one, a prophet.” (Qur’an, 19:41).

“When he said to his father: “Father! Why do you worship that which neither hears nor sees, and is of no avail to you in any way?” (Qur’an, 19:42).

“Father! Indeed a knowledge has already come to me which has not come to you. So follow me that I may guide you to a right path.” (Qur’an, 19:43).

“Father! Do not worship Satan. Indeed Satan is disobedient to the All-beneficent.” (Qur’an, 19:44).

“Father! I am indeed afraid that a punishment from the All-beneficent will befall you, and you will become Satan’s accomplice.’” (Qur’an, 19:45).

Ibrahim bin Shu‘ayb narrated that he said to Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him), “My father has become very old and weak so much so that we carry him [to the toilet] when needs be.” He said: “If you can help him with that, then do so, and [also] feed him with your hand because this [service] will be a shield [against the hell-fire] for you tomorrow [i.e., in the next world].8

We may summarize the duties of children towards parents as follows:

• Be kind towards them and respect them in speaking and in behavior.

• Be so humble to your parents out of compassion, and show your love in your behavior.

• Obey them in permissible acts.

• If they are in need, assist them even if they are not Muslims.

• If you have the finances, fulfill their unpaid debts.

• You should not cause them any harm even if they commit any excesses.

• Pray for them and continue making the prayer of forgiveness and mercy for them after their death.

• Continue sending rewards to them in the form of optional acts of worship and charity on their behalf.

• Meet their friends and relatives in a friendly way wherever possible and assist them.

Traditions

There are a large number of Hadiths about parents. Here are some of them.

Attachment To Parents

[A person once approached the Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) and said: “I have an old father and mother, who due to their attachment towards me, are not keen for me to go to Jihad.” Hearing this,] the Noble Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “(If such is the case then) Stay with your parents for, by the One in whose control lies my soul, their attachment of one day and one night to you is better than one year of Jihad.”9

The Most Beloved Deed

[Ibn Masud states,] “I questioned the Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny), which deed is the most beloved in the eyes of God, the Mighty, the Glorious?” He (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) replied, “(Offering) prayers at their stipulated times.” I then asked, “Which is the next most beloved deed?” He answered, “Goodness towards (one’s) parents.” I asked him again, “After this which is the most beloved act?” He (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “Jihad in the way of God.”10

Looking At Parents

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “Every righteous child who casts a look of mercy and affection upon his parents shall be granted, for every look of his, rewards equivalent to that of an accepted Hajj.”11

Obedience Towards Parents

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) has stated, “One who is obedient towards his parents and his Lord shall be accommodated in the most exalted of places on the Day of Judgment.”12

Repayment Of Debt

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) has said: “One who performs Hajj on behalf of his parents and repays their debt shall be raised by God on the Day of Judgment amongst the righteous ones.”13

Pleasing Parents

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “One who pleases his parents has verily pleased God and one who has angered his parents has verily angered God.”14

Travel To Do Good

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “Travel even for two years to do good to your parents. Travel even for one year to establish bonds of kinship (with your relatives).”15

Exhibit Goodness Towards Parents

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “One who desires a long life and an increase in livelihood should exhibit goodness towards his parents and establish bonds of kinship (with his relatives).”16

Worship In Looking

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) has said: “The look of a child towards his parents out of love for them is an act of worship.”17

Visiting The Graves Of Parents

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his family) said: “Whoever visits the graves of his parents or one of them every week, God shall forgive his sins and shall regard him to be of those who had been kind to his parents.”18

Paradise Or Hell

The Noble Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure family) said: “Be good and kind (to your parents) so that your recompense is paradise, and if you have been disowned (by them), your abode shall be the fire (of Hell).”19

Do Not Make The Parents Sad

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “One who causes his parents to become sad has indeed been disowned by them.”20

Beware Of Disownment

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure family) has said: “Beware of becoming disowned by your parents, for verily the fragrance of paradise which can be smelt from a distance of a thousand years, shall never reach the nostrils of one who has been disowned by his parents and one who has severed the bonds of kinship (with his relatives).”21

Chastisement In This World

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his family) has stated, “There are three sins, the punishments of which are hastened and not deferred for the hereafter: disownment by one’s parents, committing oppression upon the people, and ingratitude with respect to kindness.”22

Do Good To Your Mother

Once a person approached the Noble Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) and asked, “O’ Messenger of God! Towards whom should I exhibit goodness and kindness?” The Noble Prophet replied, “Towards your mother.” The man then asked, “And after that towards whom?” The Noble Prophet again said: “Your Mother.” He asked again, “And then?” Once again, he replied, “Your mother.”23 For the fourth time, the man asked, “And then?” This time he said: “Your father.”24

The Rights Of The Father

A person once asked the Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny), “What are the rights of the father upon the son?” The Noble Prophet replied, “He should not call his father by name, he should not walk ahead of him, he should not sit until his father has seated himself and he should not do such acts as a result of which people abuse his father.”25

The Greatest Obligatory Act

The Commander of the Faithful (peace be upon him) has said: “Goodness towards (one’s) parents is the greatest obligatory act.”26

Forgiveness Of Sins

Imam Al-Sajjad (peace be upon him) has related, “Once a person approached the Prophet (peace be upon him and his family) and said: ‘O’ Messenger of God! I have committed every known evil act. Is there a chance that I may be forgiven?’ The Messenger of God asked him, ‘Are any of your parents still alive?’ The man replied, ‘My father.’ He said to him, ‘Go and be good and kind to him.’ When he left, the Messenger of God muttered, ‘If only his mother had been alive.’”27

Be Good Even To Evil Parents

Imam Al-Baqir (peace be upon him) has said: “There are three things which God, the Mighty and the Glorious has not permitted anyone to forsake: returning a trust to its owner, irrespective of whether he is a good person or an evil one; fulfilling one’s promises and covenants, irrespective of whether it has been made to a good person or an evil one; being good and kind towards one’s parents, irrespective of whether they are good or evil.”28

The Happiness Of God

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) has said: “Goodness towards parents is an indication of a person’s excellent cognizance of God. This is because there is no worship that can take a person towards the happiness of God faster than exhibiting respect towards his faithful parents for the sake of God.”29

The Best Of Deeds

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “The best deeds are: prayer (Salat) in its stipulated hour, goodness towards parents and Jihad in the way of God.”30

Benefits Of Kindness Towards Parents

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) [addressing one of his companions], said: “O’ Muyassir! On several occasions, your end had drawn near, but on each occasion, God delays your death due to your acts of establishing bonds of kinship with your relatives (Silat al-Rahim). If you desire to have your life-span increased, exhibit goodness and kindness towards your parents.”31

As You Sow So Shall You Reap!

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) has said: “Be good towards your parents and your children will be good towards you. (And) Look upon the womenfolk of others with purity (in conduct and intention) and your womenfolk will be looked upon with purity.”32

Meaning Of Good Conduct

A person once asked Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) about the meaning of the words of God (in the Qur’an): “And be good to parents.”33 The Imam (peace be upon him) replied, “Being good to them means to accompany them in a good manner and never to wait for them to ask you for what they need, even though they are rich.” Then Imam said: “Do not cast your gaze upon them except with love and compassion; do not raise your voice above theirs; do not raise your hands above theirs; do not walk ahead of them.”34

On Behalf Of Parents

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) had said: “What prevents a person from doing good to his parents - whether alive or dead - by offering prayers, giving charity, performing Hajj on behalf of them, (knowing that) the rewards of these acts are also granted to him, in addition to his parents? Besides, due to his good deeds and prayers (for them), God, the Mighty and the Glorious, shall grant him abundant good.”35

A Stern Look

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) has said: “Had God known of a thing more trivial and insignificant than the word "fie"36 (‘ugh’), he would have forbidden it (to be spoken to the parents). Uttering ‘ugh’ (to the parents) is the mildest form of ill conduct towards the parents. One of the ways in which a person can be regarded as being disowned by the parents is that he casts a hard and stern look upon them.”37

A Hateful Look

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) has said: “God shall not accept the prayers of a person who looks at his parents with hatred, even if they have been unfair to him!”38

Do Not Quarrel

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “There are three individuals that whoever argues with them shall suffer humiliation and disgrace: one’s father; a (just) ruler; and one in debt.”39

The Great Sin

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) has stated, “Becoming disowned by one’s parents is one of the Great Sins. This is because God, the Mighty and the Glorious, has termed such a person disobedient and wretched40.”41

The Great Rank Of Parents

Imam Al-Ridha’ (peace be upon him) has said: “God, the Mighty, the Glorious, has commanded three things with which he has associated three other things. He associated payment of zakat along with prayers such that one who offers prayers but desists from offering zakat, his prayers are rejected. He associated gratitude to Him with gratitude towards parents such that one, who is grateful to God, but ungrateful to his parents, will be deemed as ungrateful to God. He associated righteousness with bonds of kinship such that one who is righteous, but has severed relations with his kin, will be deemed as not being righteous.”42

Do Good To Pagan Parents

In a letter to Ma`mun, Imam Al-Ridha’ (peace be upon him) wrote, “To do good to one’s parents is obligatory, even if they are of the polytheists, however, they should not be obeyed in acts that go against the commands of the Creator.”43

  • 1. Here the Qur’an just advised about mother because Jesus (peace be upon him) did not have father.
  • 2. “Do not say, “Fie” even if they made you angry. Do not shout at them; say noble words and speak so kindly and address them in terms of honor.”
  • 3. “Lower for them the wing of humility through mercy.”
  • 4. See Qur’an:
    رَبِّ ارْحَمْهُمَا كَمَا رَبَّيَانِي صَغِيرًا
    “Say, “My Lord, have mercy upon them as they have raised me when I was small.’” (17:24).
  • 5. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 348.
    قال الصادق: «أَدْنَى الْعُقُوقِ أُفٍّ وَ لَوْ عَلِمَ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ شَيْئاً أَهْوَنَ مِنْهُ لَنَهَى عَنْه».
  • 6. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 349.
    قال الصادق: «مَنْ نَظَرَ إِلَى أَبَوَيْهِ نَظَرَ مَاقِتٍ وَ هُمَا ظَالِمَانِ لَهُ لَمْ يَقْبَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ صَلَاةً».
  • 7. He was not his real father, but he was his uncle who had raised Abraham.
  • 8. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, 162.
    قُلْتُ لِأَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّه إِنَّ أَبِي قَدْ كَبِرَ جِدّاً وَ ضَعُفَ فَنَحْنُ نَحْمِلُهُ إِذَا أَرَادَ الْحَاجَةَ فَقَالَ: «إِنِ اسْتَطَعْتَ أَنْ تَلِيَ ذَلِكَ مِنْهُ فَافْعَلْ وَ لَقِّمْهُ بِيَدِكَ فَإِنَّهُ جُنَّةٌ لَكَ غَدا»ً.
  • 9. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 160.
    قالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«فَقِرَّ مَعَ وَالِدَيْكَ فَوَ الَّذِي نَفْسِي بِيَدِهِ لَأُنْسُهُمَا بِكَ يَوْماً وَ لَيْلَةً خَيْرٌ مِنْ‏ جِهَادِ سَنَةٍ».
  • 10. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 71, p. 70.
    سَأَلْتُ رَسُولَ اللَّه أَيُّ الْأَعْمَالِ أَحَبُّ إِلَى اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ قَالَ: «الصَّلَاةُ لِوَقْتِهَا قُلْتُ ثُمَّ أَيُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَالَ بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ قُلْتُ ثُمَّ أَيُّ شَيْ‏ءٍ قَالَ الْجِهَادُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَل»‏.
  • 11. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 71, p. 73.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«مَا وَلَدٌ بَارٌّ نَظَرَ إِلَى أَبَوَيْهِ بِرَحْمَةٍ إِلَّا كَانَ لَهُ بِكُلِّ نَظْرَةٍ حِجَّةٌ مَبْرُورَة».
  • 12. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 467.
    قالَ رَسولُ اللَّه: «العَبدُ المُطيعُ لِوالِدَيهِ وَ لِرَبِّهِ فِي أعلَى عِليّين».
  • 13. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 468.
    قالَ رَسولُ اللَّه: «مَن حَجَّ عَن والِدَيهِ أو قَضَى عَنهُما مَغرَماً بَعَثَهُ اللهُ يَومَ القِيامَةِ مَعَ الأَبرَار.
  • 14. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 470.
    قالَ رَسولُ اللَّه: «مَن أَرضَى وَالِدَيه فَقَد أرضى الله، وَ مَن أَسخَطَ وَالِدَيهِ فَقَد أَسخَطَ الله».
  • 15. Al-Faqih, vol. 4, p. 361.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«سِرْ سَنَتَيْنِ بَرَّ وَالِدَيْكَ سِرْ سَنَةً صِلْ رَحِمَك‏».
  • 16. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 475.
    قال رسول اللَّه: «مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يُمَدَّ لَهُ‏ فِي‏ عُمُرِهِ‏ وَ يُبْسَطَ رِزْقُهُ فَلْیُبرْ أَبَوَيْهِ وَ لْيَصِلْ ذَا رَحِمِه‏».
  • 17. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 71, p. 80.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«نَظَرُ الْوَلَدِ إِلَى وَالِدَيْهِ حُبّاً لَهُمَا عِبَادَة».
  • 18. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 468.
    قالَ رَسُولَ اللَّه: «مَن زَارَ قَبرَ وَالِدَيهِ أو أَحَدِهمَا فِي كُلِّ جُمعَةٍ غَفَرَ اللهُ لَه وَكَتَبَ بِرّاً».
  • 19. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 348.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«كُنْ بَارّاً وَ اقْتَصِرْ عَلَى الْجَنَّةِ وَ إِنْ كُنْتَ عَاقّاً فَظّاً فَاقْتَصِرْ عَلَى النَّار».
  • 20. Al-Faqih, vol. 4, p. 372.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«مَنْ أَحْزَنَ وَالِدَيْهِ فَقَدْ عَقَّهُمَا».
  • 21. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 349.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«إِيَّاكُمْ‏ وَ عُقُوقَ‏ الْوَالِدَيْنِ‏ فَإِنَّ رِيحَ الْجَنَّةِ تُوجَدُ مِنْ مَسِيرَةِ أَلْفِ عَامٍ وَ لَا يَجِدُهَا عَاقٌّ وَ لَا قَاطِعُ رَحِم‏».
  • 22. Al-Amali (Mufid), p. 237.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«ثَلَاثَةٌ مِنَ الذُّنُوبِ تُعَجَّلُ‏ عُقُوبَتُهَا وَ لَا تُؤَخَّرُ إِلَى الْآخِرَةِ عُقُوقُ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَ الْبَغْيُ عَلَى النَّاسِ وَ كُفْرُ الْإِحْسَان».‏
  • 23. It shows the importance of mother. In another hadith, the Prophet has said: “Heaven lies under mother’s feet.” (Nahj al-Fasaha, p. 434)
  • 24. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 160.
    جَاءَ رَجُلٌ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ فَقَالَ: يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ مَنْ أَبَرُّ؟ قَالَ: «أُمَّكَ» قَالَ ثُمَّ مَنْ قَالَ «أُمَّكَ» قَالَ ثُمَّ مَنْ قَالَ «أُمَّكَ» قَالَ ثُمَّ مَنْ قَالَ «أَبَاك».‏
  • 25. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 159.
    سَأَلَ رَجُلٌ رَسُولَ اللَّه مَا حَقُّ الْوَالِدِ عَلَى وَلَدِهِ؟ قَالَ: «لَا يُسَمِّيهِ بِاسْمِهِ وَ لَا يَمْشِي بَيْنَ يَدَيْهِ وَ لَا يَجْلِسُ قَبْلَهُ وَ لَا يَسْتَسِبُّ لَه‏».
  • 26. Ghurar Al-Hikam, p. 312.
    قال امیرالمؤمنین: «بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ‏ أَكْبَرُ فَرِيضَةٍ».
  • 27. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 71, p. 82.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«فَهَلْ مِنْ وَالِدَيْكَ أَحَدٌ حَيٌّ؟ قَالَ أَبِي قَالَ فَاذْهَبْ فَبَرَّهُ قَالَ فَلَمَّا وَلَّى قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص لَوْ كَانَتْ‏ أُمُّهُ‏».
  • 28. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 162.
    عَنْ أَبِي جَعْفَرٍ قَالَ: «ثَلَاثٌ لَمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ لِأَحَدٍ فِيهِنَّ رُخْصَةً أَدَاءُ الْأَمَانَةِ إِلَى الْبَرِّ وَ الْفَاجِرِ وَ الْوَفَاءُ بِالْعَهْدِ لِلْبَرِّ وَ الْفَاجِرِ وَ بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ‏ بَرَّيْنِ‏ كَانَا أَوْ فَاجِرَيْنِ».
  • 29. Mesbah al-Shariah, p. 70.
    قَالَ الصادق: «بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ مِنْ حُسْنِ مَعْرِفَةِ الْعَبْدِ بِاللَّهِ إِذْ لَا عِبَادَةَ أَسْرَعُ بُلُوغاً بِصَاحِبِهَا إِلَى رِضَى اللَّهِ مِنْ حُرْمَةِ الْوَالِدَيْنِ الْمُؤْمنَيْنِ لِوَجْهِ اللَّهِ تَعَالَى».‏
  • 30. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 158.
    قالَ الصادق: «أَفْضَلُ الْأَعْمَالِ الصَّلَاةُ لِوَقْتِهَا وَ بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ‏ وَ الْجِهَادُ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ».
  • 31. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 71, p. 84.
    قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّه:«يَا مُيَسِّرُ قَدْ حَضَرَ أَجَلُكَ غَيْرَ مَرَّةٍ وَ لَا مَرَّتَيْنِ كُلَّ ذَلِكَ يُؤَخِّرُ اللَّهُ أَجَلَكَ لِصِلَتِكَ قَرَابَتَكَ وَ إِنْ‏ كُنْتَ‏ تُرِيدُ أَنْ‏ يُزَادَ فِي‏ عُمُرِكَ‏ فَبَرَّ شَيْخَيْكَ يَعْنِي أَبَوَيْهِ».
  • 32. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 554.
    قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّه:بَرُّوا آبَاءَكُمْ يَبَرَّكُمْ أَبْنَاؤُكُمْ وَ عِفُّوا عَنْ نِسَاءِ النَّاسِ تَعِفَّ نِسَاؤُكُمْ».
  • 33. Qur’an; 2:83 & 4:36 & 6:151 & 17:23.
  • 34. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 157.
    سَأَلْتُ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّه عَنْ قَوْلِ اللَّهِ‏ «وَ بِالْوالِدَيْنِ إِحْساناً». فَقَالَ: «الْإِحْسَانُ أَنْ تُحْسِنَ صُحْبَتَهُمَا وَ لَا تُكَلِّفَهُمَا أَنْ يَسْأَلَاكَ شَيْئاً هُمَا يَحْتَاجَانِ إِلَيْهِ وَ إِنْ كَانَا مُسْتَغْنِيَيْن ... لَا تَمْلَأْ عَيْنَيْكَ مِنَ النَّظَرِ إِلَيْهِمَا إِلَّا بِرَحْمَةٍ وَ رِقَّةٍ وَ لَا تَرْفَعْ صَوْتَكَ فَوْقَ أَصْوَاتِهِمَا وَ لَا يَدَيْكَ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمَا وَ لَا تَتَقَدَّمْ قُدَّامَهُمَا‏».
  • 35. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 159.
    قالَ الصادق: «مَا يَمْنَعُ الرَّجُلَ مِنْكُمْ أَنْ يَبَرَّ وَالِدَيْهِ حَيَّيْنِ وَ مَيِّتَيْنِ يُصَلِّيَ عَنْهُمَا وَ يَتَصَدَّقَ عَنْهُمَا وَ يَحُجَّ عَنْهُمَا وَ يَصُومَ عَنْهُمَا فَيَكُونَ الَّذِي صَنَعَ لَهُمَا وَ لَهُ مِثْلُ ذٌلِكَ فَيَزِيدَهُ اللٌّهُ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ بِبِرِّهِ وَ صِلَتِهِ خَيْراً كَثِيراً».
  • 36. Allusion to the Qur’an; 17:23.
  • 37. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 349.
    عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللٌّهِ قَالَ: «لَوْ عَلِمَ اللٌّهُ شَيْئاً أَدْنَى مِنْ أُفٍّ لَنَهَى عَنْهُ وَ هُوَ مِنْ أَدْنَى الْعُقُوقِ وَ مِنَ الْعُقُوقِ أَنْ يَنْظُرَ الرَّجُلُ إِلَى وَالِدَيْهِ فَيُحِدَّ النَّظَرَ إِلَيْهِمَا».
  • 38. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 349.
    عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّه قَالَ: «مَنْ نَظَرَ إِلَى أَبَوَيْهِ نَظَرَ مَاقِتٍ وَ هُمَا ظَالِمَانِ لَهُ لَمْ يَقْبَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ صَلَاةً».
  • 39. Al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 195.
    قَالَ أَبُو عَبْدِ اللَّه:«ثَلَاثَةٌ مَنْ عَازَّهُمْ ذَلَّ الْوَالِدُ وَ السُّلْطَانُ‏ وَ الْغَرِيمُ»‏.
  • 40. Allusion to the Qur’an; 19:14 & 19:32.
  • 41. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 71, p. 74.
    عَنِا الصَّادِقِ قَالَ: «عُقُوقُ‏ الْوَالِدَيْنِ‏ مِنَ‏ الْكَبَائِرِ لِأَنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ جَعَلَ الْعَاقَّ عَصِيّاً شَقِيّاً».
  • 42. Al-Khisal, vol. 1, p. 156.
    عَنْ أَبِي الْحَسَنِ الرِّضَا 7 قَالَ: «إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ أَمَرَ بِثَلَاثَةٍ مَقْرُونٍ بِهَا ثَلَاثَةٌ أُخْرَى أَمَرَ بِالصَّلَاةِ وَ الزَّكَاةِ فَمَنْ صَلَّى وَ لَمْ يُزَكِّ لَمْ تُقْبَلْ مِنْهُ صَلَاتُهُ وَ أَمَرَ بِالشُّكْرِ لَهُ وَ لِلْوَالِدَيْنِ‏ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَشْكُرْ وَالِدَيْهِ لَمْ يَشْكُرِ اللَّهَ وَ أَمَرَ بِاتِّقَاءِ اللَّهِ وَ صِلَةِ الرَّحِمِ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَصِلْ رَحِمَهُ لَمْ يَتَّقِ اللَّهَ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ».
  • 43. Uyun Akhbar Al-Ridha’, vol. 2, p. 124.
    «بِرُّ الْوَالِدَيْنِ وَاجِبٌ وَ إِنْ كَانَا مُشْرِكَيْنِ وَ لَا طَاعَةَ لَهُمَا فِي مَعْصِيَةِ الْخَالِق».‏