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Marriage

Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock, is a socially or ritually recognized union between spouses that establishes rights and obligations between them, between them and their children, and between them and their in-laws.1

Islam, which has provided the answer to all questions pertaining to human life, did not neglect the issue of marriage. Indeed, Islam attaches much importance to marriage rulings, etiquette, and the spouses’ rights in such a way as to guarantee marital stability and permanence, and create a successful family in which children are brought up enjoying psychological stability, observing devoutness and moral integrity, and displaying excellence in various aspects of life.

Importance Of Marriage In Islam

Marriage is a highly recommended act in Islam and Almighty God has invited people to marry those who are single, and He has promised that He will solve the problems and difficulties. The Qur’an says:

Marry off those who are single among you ... If they are poor, God will enrich them out of His grace, and God is all-bounteous, all-knowing.” (Qur’an, 24:32).

According to this verse of the Qur’an, the Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) has said: “Anybody who refuses marriage out of fear of poverty, he entertained an evil thought about Almighty God. God says: ‘If they are poor, God will enrich them out of His grace’ (24:32).”2

He also said: “God had made it obligatory to himself to help those who are married to preserve their chastity.”3 He has invited to help for marriage and has said about its reward, “He who arranges for his brother in faith to get married to a woman whom he takes comfort in; God will marry him with a Houri and He will comfort him through someone he loves among his family and friends.”4 Imam Ali (peace be upon him) said: “The best intercession is to make intercession for two people to get married.”5

From the psychological and psychiatric points of view, sexual deviation, not having a spouse and sexual strains are of the major causes of spiritual and moral or nervous problems. Proper marriage can be the best cure for many diseases haunting the youth being a completing and maturity-creating factor. The anxiety, distress, and boiling sentiments of girls and boys are comforted and soothed through marriage. The Qur’an says:

And of His signs is that He created for you mates from your own selves that you may take comfort in them, and He ordained affection and mercy between you; most surely there are signs in this for a people who reflect.” (Qur’an, 30:21).

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) has said (about the results of marriage), “Marry those who are single among you for verily God will develop their moral traits [through marriage], He will increase their sustenance for them, and will enhance their integrity and gallantry”.6 He also said: “O, young men, those among you who can support a wife (Sexually) should marry, for it restrains eyes from casting (evil glances) and preserves one from immorality.”7

As various studies have proved that married people remain healthier, physically and mentally, Islam also has always maintained that marriage is beneficial for people in many ways. According to the Islamic teachings, marriage is a way to acquire spiritual perfection. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “One who marries, has already guarded half of his religion, therefore he should fear God for the other half.”8 He also said: “Whoever wants to meet God pure and immaculate should meet Him accompanied by a spouse.”9 Moreover, he said: “Take up a wife for verily that will bring about an increase in your sustenance.”10

Marriage and family raising imprints such an effect upon the existence of man by upgrading the worth of his personality on the way to its maturity, that even his practices and services become more valued and worthier before Almighty God and the angels so that its value goes up to many times than the previous one. The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “A married person sleeping is better in the sight of God than an unmarried person spending his day in the state of fasting and his night in prayer.”11

On another occasion, he said: “The best people of my nation (Ummah) are those who get married and have chosen their wives, and the worst people of my nation are those who have kept away from marriage and are passing their lives as bachelors.”12 He also said about dead people, “The worst ones from among your dead are the unmarried.”13 Maybe because of these reasons he said: “If the dead singles came back to this world they would marry.”14

Marriage is one of the strongest relationships, which Islam stresses, encourages, and considers as one of the prophets’ practices. The Qur’an says:

Certainly We have sent apostles before you, and We appointed for them wives and descendants.” (Qur’an, 13:38).

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) has said: “Marry, because marriage is the tradition of the Messenger of God. He used to say, “Whosoever likes to follow my manner and my tradition, then he should know that marriage is from my tradition.’”15

Celibacy and monasticism are forbidden in Islam. ‘Uthman bin Maz’un was a close companion of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny). One day his wife came to the Prophet and complained, “O Messenger of God! ‘Uthman fasts during the day and stands for prayers during the night.” In other words, she meant to say that her husband was avoiding sexual relations during the night as well as the day. The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) went to ‘Uthman’s house angry and found him praying. When ‘Uthman finished his prayers and turned towards the Prophet, he said: “O ‘Uthman! God did not send me for monasticism, rather He sent me with a simple and straight Shariah. I fast, pray and also have intimate relations with my wife. So whosoever likes my tradition, then he should follow it, and marriage is one of my traditions.”16

According to the Islamic teachings, marriage is a beloved foundation. The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “There is no foundation that has been built in Islam more loved by God, than marriage.”17 This hadith shows the great importance that God Almighty and His Messenger (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) have placed on marriage. It is the most beloved foundation or establishment upon which the faithful man and woman can build their life. If such a foundation is built with love, honesty, sincerity, and true faith in God and all that He has commanded, then there is nothing that could destroy such a firm building.

To sum up, we can say that Islam, unlike other religions is a strong advocate of marriage. Marriage in Islam is a religious duty and is consequently a moral safeguard. It acts as an outlet for sexual need and regulates it so one does not become a slave to his/her desires. Islam takes the middle of the road position to sexual relations, it does not condemn it like some religions, nor does it allow it freely. Islam urges man to control and regulate his desires, whatever they may be so that he remains dignified and not become like animals. The general purpose of marriage is that the sexes can provide company to one another, love to one another, procreate children, and live in peace and tranquility to the commandments of God. Furthermore, marriage is a social necessity because through it, families are established and the family is the fundamental unit of society.

The Right Age To Get Married

Marriage is a solemn covenant (agreement), not a matter, which can be taken lightly. It should be entered into with total commitment and full knowledge of what it involves. It is not like buying a new dress where you can exchange it if you do not like it. Your partner should be your choice for life. One should be mature enough to understand the demands of marriage so that the union can be a lasting one. Therefore, the proper time and age of marrying are when the individual reaches sexual as well as mental maturity. Mental maturity means the capability of establishing a cordial family life and the ability to fulfill rights of family members.

The need for a spouse and raising a family is a natural and instinctive need, which God through His wisdom, has placed in the human being, and it wakes up at its particular time and season and makes its demand. If it is answered on time and properly and its requirement is fulfilled, it traverses its natural course and makes the person perfect. According to the interpretation of the Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) it is like a fruit whose ripening is its maturity and adult age.

He has said: “The archangel Gabriel descended to me and said: O Muhammad, verily your lord extends salutations to you and says, Verily the virgins from among your women are as fruits on a tree, which when they ripen must be plucked otherwise the sun rots them and the wind alters them. So when young women reach the marriageable age they have no other recourse apart from husbands, otherwise, they will not be safe from corruption.”18 He also said: “When any young person gets married at the prime of his youth, his inner Satan cries out in rage, Woe unto him! He has secured his faith against me.”19

Therefore, although the Qur’an does not give the right time for marriage, neither an ideal age to marry, but Islam highly recommends the early marriage and commands believers to marry as soon as they reach puberty and maturity.

Selection Of A Spouse

The romantic notions that young people often have, have proven in most cases to be unrealistic and harmful to those involved. Romance and puppy love die out very quickly when they have to deal with the real world. Therefore, in Islam, there is no physical relationship and no concept of courtship before marriage.

The irony is that statistically arranged marriages prove to be more successful and lasting than romantic types of courtship. This is because love by the physical attraction blinds people to potential problems in the relationship, and when they are blinded, do not choose the compatible partner. Arranged marriages, on the other hand, are based not on physical attraction or romantic notions but rather on critical evaluation of the compatibility of the couple. Islam asks people to look for some particular characteristics, not just try to get the best from the worldly point of view.20 Therefore, The Sharia permits the intended spouses to see each other for the purpose of selection and permits asking about each other.

Now the question is: What are the guidelines provided by Islam to select a spouse? With what sort of qualities, standards, and criterions, we may lead a prosperous life with each other, and be the cause of each other’s progress, completion, and comfort?

Compatibility

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) gave no recognition to class distinction, but in marriage, he has stressed upon compatibility.21 There should be equality between marrying partners to avoid unnecessary misgivings later. For example, it is better for a religious woman who is committed to laws and principles to marry a man like herself.

A man questioned the Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny), “Whom must we marry?” the Prophet replied, “The suitable (matches).” He asked, “Who are the suitable matches?” The Prophet responded, “Some of the faithful are matched for others.”22 This is what the Qur’an says:

Vicious women are for vicious men and vicious men for vicious women. Good women are for good men, and good men for good women.” (Qur’an, 24:26).

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “An intelligent and wise woman must not be matched except with a sage and wise man.”23 He also said about Fatimah, daughter of Prophet Muhammad and her husband Ali, the successor of the Prophet (peace be upon them), “Had God not created the commander of faithful (Ali), there would have been no match and equivalent on the earth for Fatimah, from the age of Adam to the end.”24

Faith And Religiousness

A man came to the Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) to seek guidance in connection with the selection of a spouse. The Prophet said to him, “It is (binding) upon you to have a religious spouse.”25 It shows the importance of faith in selecting the spouse. In another occasion, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “A man who marries a woman for the sake of her wealth, God leaves him in his own condition, and the one who marries her (only) for her beauty, he will find in her (things) which he dislikes (displeasing matters) and the one who marries her for the sake of her faith (religiousness), God will gather up all these things for him.”26

According to the Islamic teachings, faith and morality are more important than wealth. Imam Al-Ridha’ (peace be upon him) said: “When someone comes to you with a proposal of marriage and you are well pleased with his faith and his morality, then accept his proposal. Moreover, do not be concerned if he is poor for God says, “God will suffice each of them out of His bounty” (4:130), and says, “If they are poor, God will enrich them out of His grace” (24:32).”27

On the other hand, it has been said about the danger of marrying unfaithful, “Anybody who marries his daughter to a wicked person there will be thousands of curses on him and do not ascend any of his works to the heaven and God does not respond to his prayers.”28 Moreover, Imam Al-Ridha’ (peace be upon him) said: “Beware of the marriage with an alcoholic; if you do not do so, it likes you lead to adultery.”29

Morality (Good Nature)

Morality means virtues, good etiquette, and lovely habits from an intellectual and religious point of view.

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said about the virtues and qualities of a suitable and decent spouse, “When someone with whose morality and religion you are pleased comes to you (for marriage), conclude the marriage. If you do not do it, then a great commotion and disturbance and corruption will take place on earth.”30

Hosein-bin-Bashar Al-vaseti says, I wrote to Imam Al-Ridha’ (peace be upon him), “A person from among my relatives, who is ill-natured, has asked the hand of my daughter in marriage. What must I do now? Imam replied, “If he is moody do not marry your daughter to him.”31

Family Nobility

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said about the importance of family and the effect of the gene, “Marry into a good tribe for verily what is bred-in-the-bone will come out in the flesh.”32 He also said: “Carefully choose for your seed (semen), for verily women give birth to children who resemble their own brothers and sisters.”33

In another occasion, the Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “Beware of the verdure growing in manure.” When they asked about the meaning of verdure growing in manure, he replied, “It is the beautiful woman that was raised and brought up in an evil environment and bad family.”34

Reason

Imam Ali (peace be upon him) forbade marrying a foolish and insane person and said: “Beware of marrying a stupid girl for her company is a woe (distress) and her offspring are wasted.”35

Beauty And Health

Though religiousness and piety are very important, it does not mean that we totally disregard the physical appearance and beauty of the prospective spouse. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “When one intends to marry a woman, he should ask about her hair, just as he asks about her face (beauty), since the hair is one of the two beauties (of women).”36

Consent

Islam teaches that consent from both man and woman is necessary before a marriage can take place and for a marriage to be valid, both parties must give their consent freely. The act of forcing someone to marry is in fact, an act that is against the practices and teachings of Islam.37

A man asked the Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny), “O, Messenger of God, there is an orphan with us who has two suitors, one is rich, and the other is poor. We like the rich but she likes the poor? The Messenger of God said: “For then there is nothing better than two lovers to marry.”38 He also has said: “Some of you marry off your daughters to unattractive men by force. (Do not do that,) for they want whom they love.”39 Moreover, Imam Ali (peace be upon him) said: “Do not marry off your daughter unless you ask her, for she knows better about her wants, and if she did not agree do not marry her off.”40

Someone asked Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him), “I love a girl and want to marry her but my parents prefer somebody else (what should I do)? Imam said: “Marry the one who you love.”41

  • 1. Cultural Anthropology: The Human Challenge, Haviland, William A.
  • 2. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 331.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «مَن تَرَكَ التَّزويجَ مَخافَةَ العَيلَةِ فَقَد أساءَ ظَنَّهُ بِاللّهِ عَزَّ وجَلَّ، إنَّ اللّهَ عَزَّ وجَلَّ يَقولُ : «إِن يَكُونُواْ فُقَرَاءَ يُغْنِهِمُ اللَّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ».
  • 3. Kanz al-Ummal, no. 44443.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «حَقٌّ عَلَى اللّه عَونُ مَن نَكَحَ اِلتِماسَ العَفافِ عَمّا حَرَّمَ اللّهُ».
  • 4. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 72, p. 364.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «مَن زَوَّجَ أخاهُ المؤمنَ امرَأةً يَأنَسُ بِها و تَشُدُّ عَضُدَهُ و يَستَرِيحُ إلَيها، زَوَّجَهُ اللّهُ مِنَ الحُورِ العِينِ و آنَسَهُ بِمَن أحَبَّهُ مِنَ الصِّدِّيقِينَ مِن أهْلِ بيتِهِ و إخوانِهِ و آنَسَهُم بهِ».  
    In another hadith he said: “Anybody who tries to marry off two believers to each other, God will marry him a lot of Houris in paradise and the reward for each step of him in this way is like the reward of fasting and praying in one year.” (Thawab al-Amal, p.340(.
  • 5. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 103, p. 222.
    قال الإمامُ عليٌّ: «أفضَلُ الشَّفاعاتِ أن يَشفَعَ بينَ اثنَينِ في نِكاحٍ حتّى يَجمَعَ شَملَهُما».
  • 6. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 100, p. 222.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «زَوِّجُوا أياماكُم، فَإنَّ اللّه يُحسِنُ لَهُم في أخلاقِهِم، و يُوَسِّعُ لَهُم في أرزاقِهِم، و يَزِيدُهُم في مُرُوّاتِهِم».
  • 7. Al-Bukhari, vol. 5, p. 1950 & Makarim al-Akhlaq, p. 197.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «يا مَعشَرَ الشَّبابِ، مَنِ استَطاعَ مِنكُمُ الباءَةَ فَليَتَزَوَّج؛ فَإِنَّهُ أغَضُّ لِلبَصَرِ، وأحصَنُ لِلفَرجِ».
  • 8. Al-Amali, p. 518.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:مَنْ تَزَوَّجَ فَقَدْ أَحْرَزَ نِصْفَ‏ دِينِهِ‏، فَلْيَتَّقِ اللَّهَ فِي النِّصْفِ الْبَاقِي.
  • 9. Al-Faqih, vol. 3, p. 385.
    قَالَ النَّبِيُّ: «مَنْ سَرَّهُ أَنْ يَلْقَى‏ اللَّهَ‏ طَاهِراً مُطَهَّراً فَلْيَلْقَهُ بِزَوْجَة».
  • 10. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 329.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «اِتَّخِذُوا الأهلَ؛ فإنّه أرْزَقُ لَكُم».
  • 11. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 100, p.221.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «المُتَزَوِّجُ النائمُ أفضَلُ عِندَ اللّه مِنَ الصائمِ القائمِ العَزَبِ».
  • 12. Mustadrak Al-Wasa’il, vol. 14, p. 156.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «خِيَارُ أُمَّتِي‏ الْمُتَأَهِّلُونَ‏ وَ شِرَارُ أُمَّتِي‏ الْعُزَّاب‏».
  • 13. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 100, p. 221.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «شِرارُ مَوتاكُمُ العُزّابُ».
  • 14. Awali al-Laali, vol. 3, p. 283.
    قال رسول اللَّه: «لَو خَرَجَ العُزّابُ مِن أمواتِكُم إلَى الدُّنيا لَتَزَوَّجوا».
  • 15. Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 20, p. 15.
    عَنْ عَلِيٍّ 7 فِي حَدِيثِ الْأَرْبَعِمِائَةِ قَالَ: «تَزَوَّجُوا فَإِنَّ التَّزْوِيجَ سُنَّةُ رَسُولِ اللَّه‏ فَإِنَّهُ كَانَ يَقُولُ مَنْ كَانَ يُحِبُّ أَنْ يَتَّبِعَ سُنَّتِي فَإِنَّ مِنْ سُنَّتِيَ التَّزْوِيج‏».
  • 16. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 495.
    جَاءَتِ امْرَأَةُ عُثْمَانَ‏ بْنِ مَظْعُونٍ إِلَى النَّبِيِّ 6 فَقَالَتْ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ إِنَّ عُثْمَانَ يَصُومُ النَّهَارَ وَ يَقُومُ اللَّيْلَ فَخَرَجَ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ص مُغْضَباً يَحْمِلُ نَعْلَيْهِ حَتَّى جَاءَ إِلَى عُثْمَانَ فَوَجَدَهُ يُصَلِّي فَانْصَرَفَ عُثْمَانُ حِينَ رَأَى رَسُولَ اللَّه فَقَالَ لَهُ: يَا عُثْمَانُ لَمْ يُرْسِلْنِي اللَّهُ تَعَالَى بِالرَّهْبَانِيَّةِ وَ لَكِنْ بَعَثَنِي بِالْحَنِيفِيَّةِ السَّهْلَةِ السَّمْحَةِ أَصُومُ وَ أُصَلِّي وَ أَلْمِسُ أَهْلِي فَمَنْ أَحَبَّ فِطْرَتِي فَلْيَسْتَنَّ بِسُنَّتِي وَ مِنْ سُنَّتِيَ‏ النِّكَاحُ.
  • 17. Al-Faqih, vol. 3, p. 383.
    قَالَ رسولُ اللَّه: «مَا بُنِيَ‏ بِنَاءٌ فِي‏ الْإِسْلَامِ‏ أَحَبُّ إِلَى اللَّهِ تَعَالَى مِنَ التَّزْوِيجِ»‏.
  • 18. Wasa’il al-Shia, vol. 20, p. 62.
    نَزَلَ جَبرئيلُ فقالَ: «یا محمّدُ، إنّ رَبَّكَ يُقرِئُكَ السلامَ، و يقولُ: إنّ الأبكارَ مِنَ النساءِ بمَنزِلَةِ الثَّمَرِ على الشَّجَرِ، فإذا أينَعَ الثَّمرُ فلا دَواءَ لَهُ إلاّ اجتِناؤهُ و إلاّ أفسَدَتْهُ الشَّمسُ، و غَيَّرَتْهُ الرِّيحُ، و إنّ الأبكارَ إذا أدرَكنَ ما تُدرِكُ النساءُ فلا دَواءَ لَهُنَ إلاّ البُعُولُ، و إلاّ لَم يُؤمَنْ علَيهِنَّ الفِتنَةُ، فَصَعِدَ رسولُ اللّهِ صلى الله عليه و آله المِنبَرَ فَجَمَعَ الناسَ ثُمّ أعلَمَهُم ما أمَرَ اللّهُ عزّ و جلّ بِهِ».
  • 19. Kanz al-Ummal, no. 44441.
    قال رسول اللَّه: «أیّما شَابٍ‏ تَزَوَّجَ‏ فِي حَدَاثَةِ سِنِّهِ عَجَّ شَيْطَانُهُ يَقُولُ يَا وَيْلَاهْ عَصَمَ مِنِّي دِينَه»‏.
  • 20. Islam teaches us to choose and to marry for the sake of God. The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “Whoever marries for God and for God took a person into marriage, deserves guardianship and love of God.” (Mahajjah al-Beyda, vol. 3, p. 54)
  • 21. It means compatibility in religion, culture, morality, education, and family.
  • 22. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 337.
    فَقَامَ إِلَيْهِ رَجُلٌ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ فَمَنْ نُزَوِّجُ فَقَالَ الْأَكْفَاءَ فَقَالَ يَا رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَ مَنِ الْأَكْفَاءُ فَقَالَ «الْمُؤْمِنُونَ‏ بَعْضُهُمْ‏ أَكْفَاءُ بَعْضٍ‏ الْمُؤْمِنُون‏».
  • 23. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 350.
    قَالَ أَبَا عَبْدِ اللَّه‏: «إِنَّ الْعَارِفَةَ لَا تُوضَعُ‏ إِلَّا عِنْدَ عَارِفٍ».
  • 24. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 107.
    عَنْ أَبِي عَبْدِ اللَّه قَالَ: «لَوْ لَا أَنَّ اللَّهَ تَعَالَى خَلَقَ أَمِيرَالْمُؤْمِنِينَ لَمْ‏ يَكُنْ‏ لِفَاطِمَةَ كُفْوٌ عَلَى وَجْهِ الْأَرْضِ آدَمُ فَمَنْ دُونَهُ».
  • 25. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 332.
    أَتَى رَجُلٌ النَّبِيَّ يَسْتَأْمِرُهُ فِي النِّكَاحِ فَقَالَ لَهُ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«انْكِحْ وَ عَلَيْكَ‏ بِذَاتِ‏ الدِّينِ‏ تَرِبَتْ يَدَاكَ».
  • 26. Tahzib al-Akam, vol. 7, p. 400.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «مَنْ‏ تَزَوَّجَ‏ امْرَأَةً لِمَالِهَا وَكَلَهُ اللَّهُ إِلَيْهِ وَ مَنْ تَزَوَّجَهَا لِجَمَالِهَا رَأَى فِيهَا مَا يَكْرَهُ وَ مَنْ تَزَوَّجَهَا لِدِينِهَا جَمَعَ اللَّهُ لَهُ ذَلِكَ».

    In another hadith: “Do not marry women for their beauty because it may corrupt them and do not marry them for their wealth, because it may cause rebellion, so look to marry women for their faith.” (Sunan Ibn Maja’, vol. 1, p. 597).

  • 27. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 100, p. 372.
    قال الامامُ الرضا: «إن خَطَبَ إلَيكَ رَجُلٌ رَضِيتَ دِينَهُ و خُلُقَهُ فَزَوِّجْهُ، و لا يَمنَعْكَ فَقرُهُ و فاقَتُهُ، قالَ اللّهُ تعالى : «و إن يَتَفَرَّقا يُغْنِ اللّهُ كُلاًّ مِنْ سَعَتِهِ» و قالَ: «إنْ يَكُونُوا فُقَراءَ يُغْنِهِمُ اللّهُ مِن فَضْلِهِ».
  • 28. Irshad Al-Qulub, p. 174.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «مَن زَوَّجَ كَريمَتَهُ بِفاسِقٍ، نَزَلَ عَلَيهِ كُلَّ يَومٍ ألفُ لَعنَةٍ، ولا يَصعَدُ لَهُ عَمَلٌ إلَى السَّماءِ، ولا يُستَجابُ لَهُ دُعاؤُهُ، ولا يُقبَلُ مِنهُ صَرفٌ ولا عَدلٌ» .
  • 29. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 79, p. 142.
    قال الامامُ الرضا: «إيّاكَ أن تُزَوِّجَ شارِبَ الخَمرِ، فإن زَوَّجتَهُ فكأنّما قُدْتَ إلى الزِّنا» .
  • 30. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 347.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«إِذَا جَاءَكُمْ مَنْ تَرْضَوْنَ خُلُقَهُ وَ دِينَهُ فَزَوِّجُوهُ‏ إِلَّا تَفْعَلُوهُ‏ تَكُنْ‏ فِتْنَةٌ فِي‏ الْأَرْضِ‏ وَ فَسادٌ كَبِيرٌ».
  • 31. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 563.
    عن الحسين بن بشّار الواسطي: كَتَبتُ إلى أبِي الحَسَنِ الرِّضا 7 إنَّ لي قَرابَةً قَد خَطَبَ إلَيَّ وفي خُلُقِهِ شَيءٌ. فَقالَ: «لا تُزَوِّجهُ إن كانَ سَيِّئَ الخُلُقِ» .
  • 32. Kanz al-Ummal, no. 44559.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «تَزَوَّجُوا في الحِجْزِ الصالِحِ، فإنّ العِرْقَ دَسّاسٌ».
  • 33. Kanz al-Ummal, no. 44557.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «تَخَيَّرُوا لِنُطَفِكُم، فإنَّ النساءَ يَلِدْنَ أشباهَ إخوانِهِنَّ و أخَواتِهِنَّ».
  • 34. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 100, p. 232.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «إيّاكُم و خَضْراءَ الدِّمَنِ، قيلَ : يا رسولَ اللّهِ، و ما خَضراءُ الدِّمَنِ ؟ قالَ: المَرأةُ الحَسناءُ في مَنبِتِ السُّوء».
  • 35. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 354.
    قَالَ أَمِيرُ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ: «إِيَّاكُمْ‏ وَ تَزْوِيجَ‏ الْحَمْقَاءِ فَإِنَّ صُحْبَتَهَا بَلَاءٌ وَ وُلْدَهَا ضِيَاعٌ».
  • 36. Al-Faqih, vol. 3, p. 388.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«إِذَا أَرَادَ أَحَدُكُمْ أَنْ يَتَزَوَّجَ الْمَرْأَةَ فَلْيَسْأَلْ عَنْ شَعْرِهَا كَمَا يَسْأَلُ عَنْ وَجْهِهَا فَإِنَّ الشَّعْرَ أَحَدُ الْجَمَالَيْنِ».‏
  • 37. Forced marriage is a marriage in which one or both of the parties is married without his or her consent or against his or her will. A forced marriage differs from an arranged marriage, in which both parties consent to the assistance of their parents or a third party (such as a matchmaker) in identifying a spouse.
  • 38. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 489, no. 45597.
    جاءَ رَجُلٌ إلَى النَّبِيِّ فَقالَ: يا رَسولَ اللّهِ، عِندَنا يَتيمَةٌ خَطَبَها رَجُلانِ؛ موسِرٌ ومُعسِرٌ، وهِيَ تَهوَى المُعسِرَ ونَحنُ نَهوَى الموسِرَ »! فَقالَ رَسولُ اللَّه: « لَم يُرَ لِلمُتَحابَّينِ مِثلُ النِّكاحِ».
  • 39. Hilyat al-Muttaqin, vol. 7, p. 140.
    قال رسول اللَّه: «يَعمَدُ أحَدُكُم إلَى ابنَتِهِ فَيُزَوِّجُهَا القَبيحَ الذَّميمَ! إنَّهُنَّ يُرِدنَ ما تُريدونَ».
  • 40. Daaem al-Islam, vol. 2, p. 218.
    قال الإمام عليّ: «لا يُنكِح أحَدُكُمُ ابنَتَهُ حَتّى يَستَأمِرَها في نَفسِها، فَهِيَ أعلَمُ بِنَفسِها و إن أبَت لَم يُزَوِّجها».
  • 41. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 401.
    عن ابن أبي يعفور عن الإمام الصادق 7 قُلتُ لَهُ: إنّي اُريدُ أن أتَزَوَّجَ امرَأَةً وإنَّ أبَوَيَّ أرادا غَيرَها . قالَ 7: «تَزَوَّجِ الَّتي هَوَيتَ، ودَعِ الَّتي يَهوى أبَواكَ» .