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Parental Responsibility

As parents have rights over their offspring, children also have rights over their parents. The Qur’an states that every person should pay attention to his family.

And bid your family to prayer and be steadfast in its maintenance. We do not ask any provision of you. It is We who provide for you, And the good end is for the righteous.” (Qur’an, 20:132).

And mention in the Book Ishmael. Indeed, he was true to his promise, an apostle, and a prophet. He used to bid his family to [maintain] the prayer and to [pay] the zakat (alms), and was pleasing to his Lord.” (Qur’an, 19: 54-55).

“O you who have faith! Save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is people and stones.” (Qur’an, 66:6).

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said about this verse, “(It means) Bid them what God likes, and forbid them what He does not like.”1 He also said: “Know that every one of you is a guardian, and responsible for what is in his custody. The ruler is a guardian of his subjects and responsible for them; a husband is a guardian of his family and is responsible for it; a woman is a guardian of her husband’s house and is responsible for it … so all of you are guardians and responsible for your wards and things under your care. ”2

The Qur’an says about the mother of Mary that she was concerned about her child upbringing, even before her birth, and dedicated her to Almighty God,

“When the wife of Imran said: “My Lord, I dedicate to You what is in my belly, in consecration. Accept it from me; indeed, You are the All-hearing, the All-knowing.” … Therefore Her Lord accepted her with His gracious acceptance and made her grow pure and graceful, growing [to be a mother of God’s Messenger].” (Qur’an, 3: 35-37)

Rearing The Child

Rearing the Child3

One of the important duties of parents is caring for their children. This is not an easy task but one, which is very sensitive and vital. It is the most sacred and most valuable responsibility, which has been bestowed upon parents by the order of creation. The existence of a child is the fruit of the marital tree and a natural desire of men and women. A marriage without a child is like a fruitless tree. A child would strengthen the bonds of love between couples. It encourages the parents to care for their family. The Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “A pious child is a sweet-smelling plant from among the plants of Paradise.”4
One of the most important duties of parents about their children is teaching and showing them the right path and what is right and wrong.

Although both the parents should share this responsibility, it weighs more heavily on the shoulders of mothers. This is because a mother is able to constantly protect and monitor her child. If mothers, through a correct program try to bring up their children, then a whole nation and even the world would undergo revolutionary changes. Thus, the progress or deterioration of a society is in the hands of mothers. The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) stated, “The Paradise is under the feet of mothers.”5

The excellent examples of teaching and training of children are found in the words of Luqman and some of the prophets to their children, related in the Qur’an:

Luqman said to his son, as he advised him, “O my dear son, do not ascribe any partners to God. Polytheism is indeed a great injustice.” (Qur’an, 31:13).6

Abraham enjoined this [creed] upon his children, and [so did] Jacob [saying], “My children! God has indeed chosen this religion for you; so never die except as Muslims (surrendered).” (Qur’an, 2:132).

These are model examples of parental responsibility and advice. They guide their children on the path to paradise with simple but memorable words.

As the major problems in life are spiritual problems and thus require spiritual solutions, parents should help their children to observe the principles of honor, worship, relationship, gifts, spiritual strength, faith, hope, charity, endurance, mercy, forgiveness, and salvation. They should help their children see and experience the unconditional love of God in every aspect of their lives.

Children who demonstrate compassion, respect, responsibility, perseverance, initiative, and integrity have parents who have demonstrated these qualities on a regular basis. In value-centered homes, children not only observe moral decision-making but they are also taught the ethical decision-making skills.

The Qur’an asks parents to inform their children about ethical rules and to train them when they are young the modesty, and morality,

O you who believe, let those who are your dependents and have not yet attained puberty request your permission regarding three times: Before the Dawn assembly, and during the noon-time when you put-off your outer garments, and after the Evening assembly. These are three private times for you. Other than these times, it is not wrong for you or them to invite or visit others. God thus clarifies the revelations for you. God is all-knowing, all-wise. ” (Qur’an, 24:58).

“Moreover, when the children among you reach puberty, then they must still seek both your permission like those who were before them did also. God thus clarifies His revelations for you. God is Knowledgeable, Wise.” (Qur’an, 24:59).

Therefore, in value-centered homes, parents are not just careful about committing sins in front of their children but also they are careful about their privacy.7

The advice and teachings should be comprehensive which contain doctrines, practical laws, and ethical issues. They should be started with the most important issues and must be reasonable. When you are giving your children the reasons, you are indirectly respecting them and they subconsciously understand it. The Qur’an teaches us to talk with our children and illustrate the issue for them:

He (Jacob) said: “O my dear son, do not relate your vision (dream) to your brothers, or they will scheme against you. The devil is to man a clear enemy.” (Qur’an, 12:5).

The method of advising children is important. Parents should advise not just by tongue and orally, but also by behavior and practically. Their instructions, advice, and commands will profit little unless they are backed up by the pattern of their own life. Children will never believe that their parents are in earnest, and really wish their children to obey them, so long as their actions contradict their counsel. Therefore, parents themselves should practice what they say. The Qur’an says:

Do you order the people to do good, but forget yourselves, while you are reciting the Scripture? Do you not understand?” (Qur’an, 2:44).

The Qur’an teaches that we as human need models, and so it introduces some models:

“There is certainly a good exemplar for you in Abraham and those who were with him.” (Qur’an, 60:4).

“In the Apostle of God there is certainly for you a good exemplar.” (Qur’an, 33:21).

“And God cites as an example of those who believed the wife of Pharaoh, also Mary, the daughter of Imran who maintained her chastity.” (Qur’an, 66:11).

The best models for children are their parents. Children especially in the first seven ages, learn through the behavior of their parents, so they should try to be a role model for their kids and their teachings should be more practically. It is good to involve children in daily acts especially in religion practices. As Abraham (peace be upon him) did this with his son:

We charged Abraham and Ishmael, “Purify My House for those who go around it.” … As Abraham raised the foundations of the House with Ishmael, [they prayed], “Our Lord, accept it from us! Indeed, You are the All-hearing, the All-knowing.” (Qur’an, 2:125).

The advice must be expressed gently and respectfully. The Qur’an says about the prophets that they spoke to their children kindly and politely,

Noah called out to his son, who stood aloof, “O my dear son!” Board with us, and do not be with the faithless!” (Qur’an, 11:42).

He (Jacob) said: “My dear son, do not recount your dream to your brothers, lest they should devise schemes against you.’” (Qur’an, 12:5).

Luqman said to his son, as he advised him: “O my dear son! Do not ascribe any partners to God. Polytheism is indeed a great injustice.’” (Qur’an, 31:13).

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “Be affectionate to your children and have pity on them. Fulfill your promises to them for they see that you provide for their maintenance.”8

Consultation with children is also a kind of attention and respect to them. The Qur’an says about Abraham (peace be upon him) that he consulted with his child, before doing his mission:

When he was old enough to assist in his endeavor, he (Abraham) said: “My dear son! I see in a dream that I am sacrificing you. See what you think.” He said: “Father! Do whatever you have been commanded. If God wishes, you will find me to be patient.” (Qur’an, 37:102).

One of the manifestations of respect to children is to treat them justly. Discriminating between children unjustly may corrupt them. The Qur’an says that when the brothers of Joseph felt that their father loves him more than them, they decided to kill their brother:

They said: ‘Surely Joseph and his brother are dearer to our father than us, though we are a hardy group. Our father is indeed in manifest error’. ” (Qur’an, 12:8).

“‘Kill Joseph or cast him in the land, then your father’s favor will be all yours’.” (Qur’an, 12:9).

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “Treat your children justly as you would like them to treat you justly.”9

One of the duties of parents towards their children that reflect the parental attention as well is praying for them. The Qur’an has mentioned some of the prayers of the faithful for their children:

The believers are those who pray to God saying, Our Lord! Grant us comfort in our spouses and descendants, and make us the role models of the righteous.” (Qur’an, 25:74).

My Lord! … Grant me righteous Offspring and make my progeny be righteous.” (Qur’an, 46:15).

And when Abraham said: “My Lord! Make this city a sanctuary, and save me and my children from worshiping idols.’” (Qur’an, 14:35).

My Lord! Make me a maintainer of the prayer, and my descendants too. Our Lord, accept my supplication.” (Qur’an, 14:40).

I have named her Mary, and (I pray that You will keep her and) I commend her and her offspring to Your care against [the evil of] the outcast Satan.” (Qur’an, 3:36).

Good Relationship

The relationship between parents and their children is so important. Warm and loving interaction between parents and their children prepare them well for things they will come across later in their life, like working through problems, dealing with stress and forming healthy relationships with other people in adolescence and adulthood.

There are some steps to develop a good parent and child relationship:

Spend Plenty Of Time With Your Child

Parents should spend plenty of time with their children because this will later ensure that they know they are being cared for and loved. This will also lead to a nice atmosphere in the house.

Avoid Holding Grudges Or Malice Against Your Child

No matter how badly your child behaves, your love for them should never wilt. Consider your child and their behavior as two different matters: this way you can hate the wrongdoings, yet love your child with all your heart. Love them no matter how the odds are stacked against them or what their attitude is. Therefore, show your child great love, but tell them that something they did is not right when a need for that arises. Never agree to the fault of your child simply because they are yours.

Monitor Your Child’s Attitude

Parents should monitor their children’s attitude, but that does not mean you should poke your nose in their affairs. Remember, ask them questions about certain things you need to know always with a mild voice.10 As a parent, you have every right to know your child’s affair and monitor your child’s life but that does not imply poke nosing. When a parent pokes nose on its child affair, it will make the latter to be secretive and when your child starts being secretive, he will no longer trust telling you things and will go on trusting the friends who will handle him or her wrong advice that will lead to troubles and regret in the future.11

Build Trust With Your Child

The relationship between parents and their children has to be built on trust. Trust is the basis on which parents can enjoy a lifetime of togetherness with their children. It is a fundamental building block of parent-child relationships, especially as children develop into teenagers. Trust is a two-way street and as parents want to be trusted, children need their parent’s trust as well. Trusting in children cause self-confidence in them and makes them trust their parents, and accept their advice. Parents should not say to their children that they do not trust in them. In the Qur’an, we read that even though Jacob knew that his sons want to devise schemes against Joseph, did not inform them about his distrust,

They said: “Our father, why do you not trust us with Joseph, we are to him well-wishers. Send him with us tomorrow to enjoy and play,12 and we will take care of him.” He said: “It saddens me that you should take him, and I fear that the wolf would eat him if you would be absent from him.” (Qur’an: 12: 11-13).

It is better that parents accept the excuse of their kids and forgive them; it is a good way to build trust. The Qur’an says about Jacob (peace be upon him) and his sons,

They (sons of Jacob) said: “Father! Plead with God for the forgiveness of our sins! We have indeed been erring.” He (Jacob) said: “I shall plead with my Lord to forgive you; indeed He is the All-forgiving, the All-merciful.’” (Qur’an, 12: 97-98).

Such a father rears a son like Joseph who accepts the excuse of his brothers easily and overlooks their misdeed:

He (Joseph) said: There shall be no reproach on you today. God will forgive you, and He is the most merciful of the merciful.’” (Qur’an, 12:92).

Conclusion

As it mentioned, Almighty God creates children with pure innate nature, and whatever defects that happen later are the result of wrong education. That is why Islam has ordered parents to take care of their children and to bring them up according to the Islamic manners. Parents bear the responsibility to raise up their children in the correct method and the right way. If they do that, they will be blessed in this life and in the Hereafter, and if they do not, they will get bad result during their life and in the Hereafter. The good education and training mean the physical, mental, and moral preparation of the child so he can become a righteous individual in the society.

Methods of moral upbringing can be summarized as follows:

• Showing the values of good deeds and their effects on the individuals and society; also showing the effects of bad deeds, all within the child’s capability of understanding.

• Being a good practical model, as children like to imitate their parents in their sayings and their deeds.

• Teaching children the religious principles and tutoring them in worship, taking into account their capability of understanding.

• Treating children nicely and kindly.13

• Teaching children to choose the good company and to avoid the bad one, and helping them to choose good friends. Because children are always influenced by the company they keep. The good or bad behavior can be easily transmitted through the good or bad company.14

• Encouraging the child’s sense of belonging to the believers’ community, by teaching him to care for believers in any land.

• Building in children the feeling of love of Almighty God, and love of His Prophets, believers, and all people. This love will lead to special behavior towards all those loved.

These are general guidelines to raise children in an Islamic way.

Traditions

Parents’ responsibilities for the care and upbringing of their children are mentioned in several Hadiths as well as verses of the Qur’an. Here are some of them:

Do Not Be The Cause Of Disinheriting The Child

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “God’s curse on such parents who become the cause of disinheriting their child. As are the child disinherited for their disobedience so also it is possible that the parents may be disowned by the child for not fulfilling their bonding duties.”15

Do Good To Your Child

Imam Al-Sajjad (peace be upon him) said: “Your child have the right that you consider if they are good or they are bad, you have been the cause of their birth and the world recognizes them as your offspring. It is your responsibility that you teach them good manners and guide them toward the recognition and obedience of their Lord. Your behavior towards your child must be of a person who believes that a good deed shall get a suitable reward and ill-treatment shall call for retribution.”16

Gladden The Family

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “When a person makes his family happy, God creates a being from that pleasure who asks forgiveness for him until the Day of Resurrection.”17

Bring A Gift

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “Whenever one of you returns from a trip, bring a gift for your family, even if it is a piece of stone.”18

Eat With Your Family

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “God loves the believer and his wife and children. And the most popular thing in the sight of God is to see the husband with his wife and his children eating together so when they gather God blesses them and forgives them before they disperse.”19

Pray With Family

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “Any time my father had a problem he gathered his family and prayed, and they said amen.”20

Save Your Family

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) recited this verse: “O you who have faith! Save yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is people and stones.” (Qur’an, 66:6). His companions asked, “How could we protect them?” Prophet answered, “Bid them what God likes, and forbid them what He does not like.”21

Be Affectionate To Your Children

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “Be affectionate to your children and have pity on them. Fulfill your promises to them for they see that only you provide for their maintenance.”22

Behave Generously

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “There are a group of angels who Almighty God commands them to call twice every day, before sunrise and sunset: ‘beware! If anyone behaves with his family and neighbors generously, God will behave with him generously and give him more in this world. Beware! One who is tight (with his family and neighbors), God will make him feel the squeezing in the grave.’”23

Start With Your Dependents

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “The upper hand is better than the lower hand, and start with your dependents.” (The giver is better than the receiver and beggar)24

Go Back To Your Family Soon

Go Back to Your Family Soon25

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “Whenever one of you travels to the Shrine for Pilgrimage after performing his Hajj, he should go back to his family soon, for this increases his reward.”26

Refrain From Unlawful Earning

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “Unlawful (Haram) earning will show itself in offspring.”27

The Right Of The Child To The Father

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “The right of the child to his father28 is: Choosing him a good name, teaching him good manners and establish for him a proper position in life.”29

The Best Gift

The Holy Prophet (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “The best gift a father provide to his child is good manners.”30

Do Not Eat Alone

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “Among the worst men among you are those who accuse people, eat lonely, beat their subordinates, neglect their dependents so they need others, are barefaced, foul-mouthed and stingy.”31

Consider The Family’s Interest

Imam Al-Sadiq (peace be upon him) said: “It is not good for a man to choose some food exclusively for himself and deprive his family.”32

Protect Your Offspring From Satan

Protect Your Offspring from Satan33

The Prophet (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “Before beginning sexual relations with your wife say, “In the name of God. O’ God! Protect us from Satan and also protect what you bestow upon us (i.e. the coming offspring) from Satan” and if it is destined that you should have a child then, Satan will never be able to harm that offspring.”34

Provide Means Of Comfort To Her

Provide Means of Comfort to Her35

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his pure progeny) said: “To whomsoever, a daughter is born should strive to impart norms of good behavior to her and make efforts to educate her. Provide means of comfort to her that she becomes a cause of his deliverance from the Hell Fire.36

Start With The Daughter

The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said: “Everyone who buys fruit at the market and brings it for his children, he is as one who has carried charity. He should begin with his daughters because Almighty God is sympathetic towards girls. Everyone who is sympathetic towards girls is like the one who cries for the fear of God. Moreover, everyone who cries for the fear of God will be forgiven, and the one who makes a female happy, God will make him happy on the Day of Sorrow.”37

  • 1. Al-Durr Al-Manthur Fi Tafsir Bi’l-Ma’thur, vol. 8, p. 225.
  • 2. Warram, vol. 1, p. 6, & al-Bukhari, vol. 3, p. 592.
  • 3. Parenting or child rearing is the process of promoting and supporting the physical, emotional, social, financial, and intellectual development of a child from infancy to adulthood. Parenting refers to the aspects of raising a child aside from the biological relationship. (The Blackwell encyclopedia of social work, Davies Martin)
  • 4. Al-Kafi, vol. 6, p. 3.
    قَالَ رَسُولُ اللَّه:«إِنَّ الْوَلَدَ الصَّالِحَ‏ رَيْحَانَةٌ مِنْ رَيَاحِينِ الْجَنَّةِ».
  • 5. Nahj al-Fasaha, p. 434.
    عَنِ النَّبِيِّ أَنَّهُ قَالَ: «الْجَنَّةُ تَحْتَ‏ أَقْدَامِ‏ الْأُمَّهَات».‏
  • 6. The advices of Luqman are as follows:
    Not to ascribe any partner to God
    To be good and kind to parents
    To obey parents unless they command what is wrong
    To understand that all our deeds, however minor, are recorded and will be brought to light
    To be constant in prayer
    To enjoin what is right and forbid what is wrong
    To bear what befalls him with patience
    To avoid pride, arrogance and boastfulness
    To be modest in manner and speech
  • 7. The Messenger of God (peace be upon him and his progeny) said that Man should not have intercourse with his wife while their child is present. (Al-Jafariyat, p. 96).
  • 8. Mustadrak Al-Wasa’il, vol. 15, P. 170, No. 17896.
  • 9. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 101, p. 92.
  • 10. The Qur’an says, “Lower your voice. Indeed the ungainliness of voices is the donkey’s voice. ” (Qur’an: 31:19).
  • 11. Allusion to the Qur’an; 25:27-29.
  • 12. This verse shows that children need to play. They learn many things through playing. Therefore, parents should give the child opportunities to play and to experience the excitement of exploration.
  • 13. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his pure progeny) taught us that practically. When he was praying as an Imam with the people, his grandson Hasan, son of his daughter Fatimah, (may God be pleased with them) rode his back while he was bowing. The Prophet lengthened his bow. When he finished his prayer, some attending companions said: “You lengthened your bow?” Then the Prophet answered, “My grandson rode my back and I hate hastening him.” (Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 43, p. 294).
  • 14. The Prophet (peace and blessings be upon him and his pure progeny) warned us by saying, “Man is inclined to get influenced by his friend’s manners, so one must be careful in choosing friends.” (Al-Amali (Tusi), p. 518).
  • 15. Makarim al-Akhlaq, p. 443.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «لَعَنَ اللَّهُ وَالِدَيْنِ حَمَلَا وَلَدَهُمَا عَلَى عُقُوقِهِمَا. يَلْزَمُ الْوَالِدَيْنِ مِنْ وَلَدِهِمَا مَا يَلْزَمُ الْوَلَدَ لَهُمَا مِنْ عُقُوقِهِمَا».
  • 16. Al-Faqih, vol. 2, p. 622.
    قال زینُ العابدین: «حَقُّ وَلَدِكَ فَأَنْ تَعْلَمَ أَنَّهُ مِنْكَ وَ مُضَافٌ إِلَيْكَ فِي عَاجِلِ الدُّنْيَا بِخَيْرِهِ وَ شَرِّهِ وَ أَنَّكَ مَسْئُولٌ عَمَّا وَلِيتَهُ بِهِ مِنْ حُسْنِ الْأَدَبِ وَ الدَّلَالَةِ عَلَى رَبِّهِ عَزَّ وَ جَلَّ وَ الْمَعُونَةِ لَهُ عَلَى طَاعَتِهِ فَاعْمَلْ فِي أَمْرِهِ عَمَلَ مَنْ يَعْلَمُ أَنَّهُ مُثَابٌ عَلَى الْإِحْسَانِ إِلَيْهِ مُعَاقَبٌ عَلَى الْإِسَاءَةِ إِلَيْه‏».
  • 17. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 16, p. 379, no. 44995.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «مَن أدخَلَ عَلى أهلِ بَيتِهِ سُرورا، خَلَقَ اللّهُ مِن ذلِكَ السُّرورِ خَلقا يَستَغفِرُ لَهُ إلى يَومِ القِيامَةِ».
  • 18. Sunan al-Darqotni, vol. 2, p. 300 & Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 73, p. 283.
    قال رسول اللَّه: «إذا قَدِمَ أحَدُكُم مِن سَفَرٍ، فَليَهدِ إلى أهلِهِ وَ ليُطرِفهُم ولَو كانَت حِجارَةً».
  • 19. Tanbih al-Ghafelin, p. 343.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «إنَّ اللّهَ يُحِبُّ المُؤمِنَ ويُحِبُّ أهلَهُ ووُلدَهُ، وأحَبُّ شَيءٍ إلَى اللّهِ تَعالى أن يَرَى الرَّجُلَ مَعَ امرَأَتِهِ ووُلدِهِ عَلى مائِدَةٍ يَأكُلونَ، فَإِذَا اجتَمَعوا عَلَيها نَظَرَ إلَيهِم بِالرَّحمَةِ لَهُم، فَيَغفِرُ لَهُم قَبلَ أن يَتَفَرَّقوا مِن مَوضِعِهِم».
  • 20. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 487.
    قال الإمام الصادق: «كانَ أبي عليه السّلام إذا حَزَنَهُ أمرٌ جَمَعَ النِّساءَ وَ الصِّبيانَ ثُمَّ دَعا و أمَّنوا».
  • 21. Al-Durr Al-Manthur Fi Tafsir Bi’l-Ma’thur, vol. 8, p. 225.
    تَلا رَسولُ اللّهِ هذِهِ الآيَة: «قُواْ أَنفُسَكُمْ وَ أَهْلِيكُمْ نَارًا» فَقالوا: يا رَسولَ اللّهِ، كَيف نَقي أهلَنا نارا؟ قالَ: «تَأمُرونَهُم بِما يُحِبُّهُ اللّهُ، وتَنهَونَهُم عَمّا يَكرَهُ اللّهُ».
  • 22. Mustadrak Al-Wasa’il, vol. 15, P. 170.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «بَرُّوا أَوْلَادَكُمْ‏ وَ أَحْسِنُوا إِلَيْهِمْ فَإِنَّهُمْ يَظُنُّونَ أَنَّكُمْ تَرْزُقُونَهُم‏».
  • 23. Kanz al-Ummal, vol. 6, p. 442.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «إنَّ للّهِ عَزَّ وجَلَّ أملاكا تَحتَ عَرشِهِ، ألهَمَهُم أن يُنادوا قَبلَ طُلوعِ الشَّمسِ وقَبلَ غُروبِ الشَّمسِ في كُلِّ يَومٍ مَرَّتَينِ : ألا مَن وَسَّعَ عَلى عِيالِهِ وجيرانِهِ وَسَّعَ اللّهُ عَلَيهِ فِي الدُّنيا، ألا مَن ضَيَّقَ ضَيَّقَ اللّهُ عَلَيهِ قَبرَهُ».
  • 24. Al-Kafi, vol. 4, p. 11.
    قال رسول اللَّه: «اليَدُ العُليا خَيرٌ مِنَ اليَدِ السُّفلى، وَابدَأ بِمَن تَعولُ».
  • 25. Presence of parents in home and being with their family is recommended in Islam.
  • 26. Al-Mustadrak al-Sahihayn, vol. 1, p. 650.
    قال رسول اللَّه: «إذا قَضى أحَدُكُم حَجَّهُ فَليُعَجِّلِ الرِّحلَةَ إلى أهلِهِ، فَإِنَّهُ أعظَمُ لِأَجرِهِ».
  • 27. Al-Kafi, vol. 5, p. 125.
    قال الصادقُ :: «كَسْبُ الْحَرَامِ يَبِينُ فِي الذُّرِّيَّةِ».
  • 28. Although mother has the main role in raising children but father, also has a direct impact on the well-being and development of children. He has a crucial role to play in the cognitive, social, and emotional development of his children. He can be the source of support to his children and their mother, both financially and emotionally.
  • 29. Al-Faqih, vol. 4, P. 372.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «حَقُّ الْوَلَدِ عَلَى وَالِدِهِ أَنْ يُحْسِنَ اسْمَهُ وَ أَدَبَهُ وَ يَضَعَهُ مَوْضِعاً صَالِحا».
  • 30. Majma al-Zawaid, vol. 8, p. 159.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «مَا نَحَلَ وَالِدٌ وَلَدًا أَفْضَلَ مِنْ أَدَبٍ حَسَنٍ».
  • 31. Al-Kafi, vol. 2, p. 292.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «إنَّ مِن شِرارِ رِجالِكُمُ البَهّاتَ الجَريءَ الفَحّاشَ، الآكِلَ وَحدَهُ، وَالمانِعَ رِفدَهُ وَ الضارِبَ عَبدَهُ، وَالمُلجِئَ عِيالَهُ إلى غَيرِهِ».
  • 32. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 9, p. 221.
    قال الإمام الصادق: «لا يَجوزُ لِلرَّجُلِ أن يَخُصَّ نَفسَهُ بِشَيءٍ مِنَ المَأكولِ دونَ عِيالِهِ».
  • 33. In accordance with the teachings of Islam, which is a holistic religion that covers all aspects of life, children’s rights come into play even before conception. When man and woman make the decision to marry and start a family, they are securing their future children’s rights.
  • 34. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 74, p. 66.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «إِذَا جَامَعْتَ فَقُلْ: «بِسْمِ اللَّهِ اللَّهُمَ‏ جَنِّبْنَا الشَّيْطَانَ‏ وَ جَنِّبِ الشَّيْطَانَ مَا رَزَقْتَنِي فَإِنْ قَضَى أَنْ يَكُونَ بَيْنَكُمَا وَلَدٌ لَمْ يَضُرَّهُ الشَّيْطَانُ أَبَدا».
  • 35. In Islam, there is no preference for either a male or a female child. The Qur’an says that both the male and the female were created from a single person (Adam) and that are equal except in terms of piety and righteousness. (Allusion to the Qur’an; 4:1) However, as Islam was revealed at a time when the Arabs practiced infanticide and would often bury their female babies alive, and this was an ignorant practice, the Prophet stated categorically that female children are a blessing and insisted on respecting their rights.
  • 36. Majma al-Zawaid, vol. 8, p. 158.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «مَنْ كَانَتْ لَهُ ابْنَةٌ فَأَدَّبَهَا وَأَحْسَنَ أَدَبَهَا، وَعَلَّمَهَا وَأَحْسَنَ تَعْلِيمَهَا، وَأَوْسَعَ عَلَيْهَا مِنْ نِعَمِ اللَّهِ الَّتِي أَوْسَعَ عَلَيْهِ، كَانَتْ لَهُ مَنَعَةً وَسِتْرًا مِنَ النَّارِ».
  • 37. Tanbih Al-Ghafelin, p. 352.
    قال رسولُ اللَّه: «مَن حَمَلَ مِنَ السّوقِ طُرفَةً إلى وُلدِهِ، كانَ كَمَن حَمَلَ صَدَقَةً حَتّى يَضَعَها في فيهِم، وَليَبدَأ بِالإِناثِ؛ فَإِنَّ اللّهَ تَعالى يَرِقُّ لِلإِناثِ، ومَن رَقَّ لِلاُنثى كانَ كَمَن بَكى مِن خَشيَةِ اللّهِ، ومَن بَكى مِن خَشيَةِ اللّهِ غُفِرَ لَهُ، ومَن فَرَّحَ اُنثى فَرَّحَهُ اللّهُ يَومَ الحُزنِ».