Preface: Diversity in the Topics of Fiqh
If we study the subjects of Fiqh in detail, we find that every one of them is peculiar and singular in itself. There may seem to be some similarity at, first glance, but a deeper study reveals a different aspect contained. It meets with the requirements of all walks of human life.
Some of the laws relate to the natural urge in human beings to adore and worship. It guides us to worship none but Allah, in the prescribed form, seeking His pleasure. Then there are laws which prompt us to serve, be helpful and useful to human society, at the same time affirming our obedience to Allah. These are Zakat, Khums, our social and political duties, Jihad, Amr bil Ma'roof and Nahy anil Munkar, training in martial arts etc.
Other laws enunciate man's duties towards oneself like refraining from suicide or harming oneself or even avoiding celibacy. Certain laws deal with human life in relation to nature surrounding him like food, drinks, hunting, slaughtering, dresses, use of utensils and so on. Then there are laws of judiciary, requital and compensation. As for personal life, Fiqh guides us in matters of nikah, talaq, dhihar, and lian. In matters of economy and earning one's bread, there are rules governing business, partnership, silent partnerships, bankruptcy etc. Fiqh also deals with such versatile acts like Hajj which apart from being an act of worship, is an opportunity of unity, collaboration and an international conference.
In spite of this diversity, Fiqh has one single aim. To lead human beings to happiness on earth, conjoining it with salvation in the hereafter. Therefore, Fiqh is considered as one, composite science of Islam and is taught as such in the Hawzas. The basis of Fiqh is the Holy Quran, the sound Traditions, Consensus and Reason. A faqeeh looks at the diverse component of Fiqh as parts interwoven into one fabric, with a single aim to guide mankind in respect of its duties and responsibilities towards Allah.