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Insofar as we do not physically have the Qur'anic manuscript compiled by Imam 'Ali, it is not possible to answer this question with the certainty that comes from seeing things with one's own eyes. Rather, it is necessary to rely on historical reports, and the validity of historical reports can be debated.

Anyway, one difference is that it is reported that Imam 'Ali added commentary and explanations to the codex that he compiled, including an explanation of when/why the ayat were revealed (asbab al-nuzul) and also a broader explanation of the ayat.

It is also reported that Imam 'Ali's manuscript was arranged chronologically, in order of the date of revelation, whereas the 'Uthmanic codex is not arranged chronologically.

In any case, we have been told by the Imams to use the codex that we have today as it is, so it is good to have faith that this is what we are meant to be using.

Allah knows best.


No. No one can change Quranic text at all. Usman took the same Quran which was compiled by Ameerul Mo'mineen Ali (AS) with the meanings of verses, and removed the meanings and write the text only with out any meaning.


There is no evidence what so ever that the Prophet himself allowed such marriage. Both of the ladies were divorcees of two sons of Abu Lahab, the enemy-uncle of the Prophet (SAWA). After their divorce, they were free to marry whom so ever they wanted from Muslims. In fact, the real daughter of the Prophet Muhammad (SAWA) was Fatima (AS) and he marriage was by order of Allah (SWT). It is mentioned in Sunni books that when Ruqayyah passed away, the Prophet (SAWA) did not allow Othman to attend her funeral.


Simple search in Sunni books of Hadeeth leads to the fact that all the three whom you named ran away from the Jihad.

1. Abu Bakr: 

Al-Haakim Al-Nisaboori who is one of the well known Sunni scholars narrated in his famous book  Al-Mustadrak Alal Saheehayn, Volume 3, Page 37 that Abu Bakr ran away.

2. Umar:

In Saheeh Bukhari and Dalaa'l Al-Sidq , V. 1, P.362 and Noor Al-Absaar by Shiblanji, P. 87, you find that Umar ran away.

3. Uthman:

Ibn Katheer (student of Ibn Yatmiyyah) mentioned in his books Al-Bidayah Wal Nihayah V.4, P. 28 that Uthman ran away.

Many other Muslims have also run away from the battles due to weakness in the faith. Only the firm and strong in faith stood fast and never ran away.

Exposing the hypocrites was declared in Quran by their deeds but not by their names. Same was done by the Prophet (SAWA) who did not expose their names.

The Prophet  (SAWA) has clearly stated that many of his companions will change and turn back from right path after him then will be sent to hellfire. (Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 4259

and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6098,

and Saheeh Bukhari , Hadeeth number 6099,

and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6026,

and Saheeh Bukhari, Hadeeth number 6528.