Table of Contents

Sura An-Nur, Chapter 24

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful

Verses 1 – 10

سُورَةٌ أَنْزَلْنَاهَا وَفَرَضْنَاهَا وَأَنْزَلْنَا فِيهَا آيَاتٍ بَيِّنَاتٍ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ {1}

1. This is one of the chapters which We have revealed to you and in which We have made duties obligatory and in which We have revealed open commands for your action.

الزَّانِيَةُ وَالزَّانِي فَاجْلِدُوا كُلَّ وَاحِدٍ مِنْهُمَا مِائَةَ جَلْدَةٍ ۖ وَلَا تَأْخُذْكُمْ بِهِمَا رَأْفَةٌ فِي دِينِ اللَّهِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ تُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَالْيَوْمِ الْآخِرِ ۖ وَلْيَشْهَدْ عَذَابَهُمَا طَائِفَةٌ مِنَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {2}

2. Whip 100 lashes to a prostitute and a fornicator without taking pity on them, in discharge of religious duty, if you have faith in God and in eternity, and keep a group of the faithful to bear witness while punishing them.

الزَّانِي لَا يَنْكِحُ إِلَّا زَانِيَةً أَوْ مُشْرِكَةً وَالزَّانِيَةُ لَا يَنْكِحُهَا إِلَّا زَانٍ أَوْ مُشْرِكٌ ۚ وَحُرِّمَ ذَٰلِكَ عَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ {3}

3. A fornicator should not marry except a prostitute or an associator, and likewise a prostitute should not marry but a fornicator or associator, and they are illegal to marry the faithful.

وَالَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ ثُمَّ لَمْ يَأْتُوا بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاءَ فَاجْلِدُوهُمْ ثَمَانِينَ جَلْدَةً وَلَا تَقْبَلُوا لَهُمْ شَهَادَةً أَبَدًا ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ {4}

4. Those who allege falsely the pure of prostitution and fail to produce four witnesses, are liable to punishment of 80 lashes, and do not accept their evidence in the future, for they are unreliable

إِلَّا الَّذِينَ تَابُوا مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ وَأَصْلَحُوا فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {5}

5. except who does penance thereafter, and improves himself, for God is Forgiving and Merciful

وَالَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ أَزْوَاجَهُمْ وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَهُمْ شُهَدَاءُ إِلَّا أَنْفُسُهُمْ فَشَهَادَةُ أَحَدِهِمْ أَرْبَعُ شَهَادَاتٍ بِاللَّهِ ۙ إِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ {6}

6. and those who allege falsely their wives of prostitution, without witnesses, except their own, unless they swear four times, as to their veracity

وَالْخَامِسَةُ أَنَّ لَعْنَتَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهِ إِنْ كَانَ مِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ {7}

7. and on the fifth time, invokes Divine curse on self if they tell a lie

وَيَدْرَأُ عَنْهَا الْعَذَابَ أَنْ تَشْهَدَ أَرْبَعَ شَهَادَاتٍ بِاللَّهِ ۙ إِنَّهُ لَمِنَ الْكَاذِبِينَ {8}

8. and the punishment (will be removed), i.e. withheld, if she, four times swears about his falsehood

وَالْخَامِسَةَ أَنَّ غَضَبَ اللَّهِ عَلَيْهَا إِنْ كَانَ مِنَ الصَّادِقِينَ {9}

9. and the fifth time, if he is true, she invokes Divine curse on herself.

وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ تَوَّابٌ حَكِيمٌ {10}

10. Had not Divine bounty and grace been on you, He would not have issued these commands, and verily God is Mighty at accepting penance.

Moral

This chapter is particularly required to be strictly studied and followed and obeyed by the Muslim ladies so as to guard their chastity.

Fornication is a major sin and so also false allegation, which brings about forced divorce, in the absence of evidence, on either side, except in involving of Divine curse and these commands prove intense Divine Mercy for, without them, religion and social life should have been impossibility.

Verses 11 – 20

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ جَاءُوا بِالْإِفْكِ عُصْبَةٌ مِنْكُمْ ۚ لَا تَحْسَبُوهُ شَرًّا لَكُمْ ۖ بَلْ هُوَ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ ۚ لِكُلِّ امْرِئٍ مِنْهُمْ مَا اكْتَسَبَ مِنَ الْإِثْمِ ۚ وَالَّذِي تَوَلَّىٰ كِبْرَهُ مِنْهُمْ لَهُ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ {11}

11. Indeed, those who allege falsely are members of a large influential group. Do not think they are doing you harm, it is to your good. Everyone shall (taste) punishment to the degree of his crime and he who leads a major share in crime (having started it) shall have intense punishment.

لَوْلَا إِذْ سَمِعْتُمُوهُ ظَنَّ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتُ بِأَنْفُسِهِمْ خَيْرًا وَقَالُوا هَٰذَا إِفْكٌ مُبِينٌ {12}

12. Why did you not entertain well of the faithful when you heard about him and say they have alleged ill of them1?

لَوْلَا جَاءُوا عَلَيْهِ بِأَرْبَعَةِ شُهَدَاءَ ۚ فَإِذْ لَمْ يَأْتُوا بِالشُّهَدَاءِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ هُمُ الْكَاذِبُونَ {13}

13. Why did they not bring you witnesses and when they did not bring (evidence) they were liars before God.

وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ لَمَسَّكُمْ فِي مَا أَفَضْتُمْ فِيهِ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ {14}

14. Had not God’s bounty and grace been on you, in this world and eternity, you would have tasted intense punishment due to your deeds

إِذْ تَلَقَّوْنَهُ بِأَلْسِنَتِكُمْ وَتَقُولُونَ بِأَفْوَاهِكُمْ مَا لَيْسَ لَكُمْ بِهِ عِلْمٌ وَتَحْسَبُونَهُ هَيِّنًا وَهُوَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ عَظِيمٌ {15}

15. when you were carrying tales and speaking with your mouth of which you had no (personal) knowledge, and you thought it easy, although it was very wrong before God.

وَلَوْلَا إِذْ سَمِعْتُمُوهُ قُلْتُمْ مَا يَكُونُ لَنَا أَنْ نَتَكَلَّمَ بِهَٰذَا سُبْحَانَكَ هَٰذَا بُهْتَانٌ عَظِيمٌ {16}

17. God advises you not to ever repeat the like of it, if you are faithful

وَيُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {18}

18. and He clearly points out His commands, and He is Omnipotent and Wise.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُحِبُّونَ أَنْ تَشِيعَ الْفَاحِشَةُ فِي الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ وَأَنْتُمْ لَا تَعْلَمُونَ {19}

19. Verily those who indulge in pursuing evil activities, in connection with the faithful, shall have intense punishment in this world and eternity. God knows and you do not know.

وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ {20}

20. Had not God’s bounties and mercy been on you (you would have been destroyed) and verily God is Forbearing and Merciful.

Moral

This is an important paragraph wherein Aysha, wife of the Prophet, when she saw the Prophet in grief on his son, Ibrahim’s, death, born of Mary (Kutbia), she accused Ibrahim born of Jarih Kutbi, who was put on trial at the Prophet’s instance, on hearing this allegation of Aysha under deputation of Ali, to conduct the inquiry on the alleged charge and was declared eunuch and these couplets are a warning to Aysha (this has been interpreted otherwise and is avoided to enter into vain litigation, retaining exposition by Divine Light). Violent natures make history. All history is but a romance unless it is studied as an example.

Verses 21 – 26

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَّبِعْ خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ فَإِنَّهُ يَأْمُرُ بِالْفَحْشَاءِ وَالْمُنْكَرِ ۚ وَلَوْلَا فَضْلُ اللَّهِ عَلَيْكُمْ وَرَحْمَتُهُ مَا زَكَىٰ مِنْكُمْ مِنْ أَحَدٍ أَبَدًا وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُزَكِّي مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {21}

21. Oh you believers, do not follow the devil and he who will follow the devil, will he (devil) surely order you to do sins and shameless talk and if God had not bounty and mercy on you, then none of you would have been purified of sins. But God, whom He wants to purify of sin and God is All-hearing.

وَلَا يَأْتَلِ أُولُو الْفَضْلِ مِنْكُمْ وَالسَّعَةِ أَنْ يُؤْتُوا أُولِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينَ وَالْمُهَاجِرِينَ فِي سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ ۖ وَلْيَعْفُوا وَلْيَصْفَحُوا ۗ أَلَا تُحِبُّونَ أَنْ يَغْفِرَ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ ۗ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {22}

22. Rich and lucky people should not swear they will not give their poor relations and to the helpless people and refugees, who for the sake of God, left their homes and they should forgive and forbear them. Do you not like God should forgive you? And God is Forgiving and Merciful.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَرْمُونَ الْمُحْصَنَاتِ الْغَافِلَاتِ الْمُؤْمِنَاتِ لُعِنُوا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَالْآخِرَةِ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ عَظِيمٌ {23}

23. Certainly those who allege falsely, the pure women, without their knowledge, the curse of God is to them in the world and in eternity, great punishment is for them.

يَوْمَ تَشْهَدُ عَلَيْهِمْ أَلْسِنَتُهُمْ وَأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَرْجُلُهُمْ بِمَا كَانُوا يَعْمَلُونَ {24}

24. When their tongues and their hands and their feet shall give witness about their deeds.

يَوْمَئِذٍ يُوَفِّيهِمُ اللَّهُ دِينَهُمُ الْحَقَّ وَيَعْلَمُونَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ الْمُبِينُ {25}

25. God shall give reward to them, according to their deeds and they will come to know justice is really the true Divine Nature.

الْخَبِيثَاتُ لِلْخَبِيثِينَ وَالْخَبِيثُونَ لِلْخَبِيثَاتِ ۖ وَالطَّيِّبَاتُ لِلطَّيِّبِينَ وَالطَّيِّبُونَ لِلطَّيِّبَاتِ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ مُبَرَّءُونَ مِمَّا يَقُولُونَ ۖ لَهُمْ مَغْفِرَةٌ وَرِزْقٌ كَرِيمٌ {26}

26. Wicked women are fixed for wicked men and wicked men for wicked women and the virtuous women are virtuous men and virtuous men are for virtuous women. They are pure from the faults, which wicked people allege, and they shall be forgiven ad they shall be given honourable provision.

Moral

1. God has warned not to follow the devil who shall lead you astray. Rule your passions else they shall rule you. With cool mind and virtuous demeanour handle affairs.

2. He has warned the rich not to think they are innocent and not entitled to help their poor relatives and helpless, to practice charity as a gratefulness to Divine Bounty.

3. False allegation will have its confirmation by its own organs on Dooms Day, so keep in view Divine C.I.D. as else destruction for them is permanent hell.

4. Evil acts befit the evil and virtues to the virtuous, be of the latter and avoid evil society. Know Divine Nature is True and Just.

Verses 27 – 34

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ بُيُوتِكُمْ حَتَّىٰ تَسْتَأْنِسُوا وَتُسَلِّمُوا عَلَىٰ أَهْلِهَا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ خَيْرٌ لَكُمْ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَذَكَّرُونَ {27}

27. Oh you Faithful, do not enter other houses without obtaining permission and salute on entering inmates thereof. This is good for you, so listen to advice.

فَإِنْ لَمْ تَجِدُوا فِيهَا أَحَدًا فَلَا تَدْخُلُوهَا حَتَّىٰ يُؤْذَنَ لَكُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ قِيلَ لَكُمُ ارْجِعُوا فَارْجِعُوا ۖ هُوَ أَزْكَىٰ لَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ عَلِيمٌ {28}

28. If you do not find anyone therein, do not enter it until permission is granted, and if you are asked to turn back, go back to your benefit. God knows your acts.

لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ تَدْخُلُوا بُيُوتًا غَيْرَ مَسْكُونَةٍ فِيهَا مَتَاعٌ لَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَعْلَمُ مَا تُبْدُونَ وَمَا تَكْتُمُونَ {29}

29. There is no objection to your entering a house not occupied by anyone, if it is advantageous to you.2 God knows what you expose andhide.

قُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ يَغُضُّوا مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِمْ وَيَحْفَظُوا فُرُوجَهُمْ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ أَزْكَىٰ لَهُمْ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا يَصْنَعُونَ {30}

30. Tell the faithful to shut their eyes and hide their private parts. It is food for them. God knows how they behave.

وَقُلْ لِلْمُؤْمِنَاتِ يَغْضُضْنَ مِنْ أَبْصَارِهِنَّ وَيَحْفَظْنَ فُرُوجَهُنَّ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا مَا ظَهَرَ مِنْهَا ۖ وَلْيَضْرِبْنَ بِخُمُرِهِنَّ عَلَىٰ جُيُوبِهِنَّ ۖ وَلَا يُبْدِينَ زِينَتَهُنَّ إِلَّا لِبُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَائِهِنَّ أَوْ آبَاءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَائِهِنَّ أَوْ أَبْنَاءِ بُعُولَتِهِنَّ أَوْ إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي إِخْوَانِهِنَّ أَوْ بَنِي أَخَوَاتِهِنَّ أَوْ نِسَائِهِنَّ أَوْ مَا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُهُنَّ أَوِ التَّابِعِينَ غَيْرِ أُولِي الْإِرْبَةِ مِنَ الرِّجَالِ أَوِ الطِّفْلِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يَظْهَرُوا عَلَىٰ عَوْرَاتِ النِّسَاءِ ۖ وَلَا يَضْرِبْنَ بِأَرْجُلِهِنَّ لِيُعْلَمَ مَا يُخْفِينَ مِنْ زِينَتِهِنَّ ۚ وَتُوبُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ جَمِيعًا أَيُّهَ الْمُؤْمِنُونَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُفْلِحُونَ {31}

31. Tell women to shut their eyes by means of a veil and guard their faces and not to expose toilet, except what automatically comes out and throw veil over their chest. And do not expose their toilets to any except their husbands, fathers, fathers-in-law, sons, sons of husbands, brothers, and sisters, cousins, nephews, by brother and sisters or ladies of the same faith or slave women or aged servants or children not acquainted with human parts and not to strike their feet to draw public attention of their adoration. You all do penance to God. Oh you faithful to attain salvation

وَأَنْكِحُوا الْأَيَامَىٰ مِنْكُمْ وَالصَّالِحِينَ مِنْ عِبَادِكُمْ وَإِمَائِكُمْ ۚ إِنْ يَكُونُوا فُقَرَاءَ يُغْنِهِمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ وَاسِعٌ عَلِيمٌ {32}

32. and marry bachelors and maids and virtuous slaves and slave girls. If they are poor, God shall enrich them out of His grace, as He is bountiful and Omniscient.

وَلْيَسْتَعْفِفِ الَّذِينَ لَا يَجِدُونَ نِكَاحًا حَتَّىٰ يُغْنِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۗ وَالَّذِينَ يَبْتَغُونَ الْكِتَابَ مِمَّا مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ فَكَاتِبُوهُمْ إِنْ عَلِمْتُمْ فِيهِمْ خَيْرًا ۖ وَآتُوهُمْ مِنْ مَالِ اللَّهِ الَّذِي آتَاكُمْ ۚ وَلَا تُكْرِهُوا فَتَيَاتِكُمْ عَلَى الْبِغَاءِ إِنْ أَرَدْنَ تَحَصُّنًا لِتَبْتَغُوا عَرَضَ الْحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا ۚ وَمَنْ يُكْرِهْهُنَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ مِنْ بَعْدِ إِكْرَاهِهِنَّ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {33}

33. and those who cannot afford to marry should be chaste until God enriches them out of His grace, and if any of your slaves wants to execute a bond of freedom, do so if you find in them good, giving out of what God has granted you and do not force them to adopt fornication to set themselves free for worldly profit and if any (is so forced) and does so, God shall forgive them out of Mercy.

وَلَقَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا إِلَيْكُمْ آيَاتٍ مُبَيِّنَاتٍ وَمَثَلًا مِنَ الَّذِينَ خَلَوْا مِنْ قَبْلِكُمْ وَمَوْعِظَةً لِلْمُتَّقِينَ {34}

34. Verily We have revealed to you clear commands, like of which were given to your predecessors as a mark of advice of the virtuous.

Moral

This is a very important paragraph on ethics and morality and deals with items of everyday occurrence, but mostly neglected which results in tremendous accidents to the loss in this world and eternity.

Present tendency of the world is to set at naught everything old and neglect by setting up cinemas, strikes, public agitations against state affairs, without having any consideration to the existence of God and His commands – which He will, certainly, on Reckoning Day, ask about.

His suggestion to marry, where circumstances permit and wait with chastity by fasts where economic conditions are not appreciated but are strictly to be adhered to by men and women.

Last, but not least, is the question of toilet by the softer sex, where and how far it is permissible are facts of great importance but the universal republican, socialistic conditions have rendered this part practically very difficult, though not impossible.3

Verses 35 – 40

اللَّهُ نُورُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ مَثَلُ نُورِهِ كَمِشْكَاةٍ فِيهَا مِصْبَاحٌ ۖ الْمِصْبَاحُ فِي زُجَاجَةٍ ۖ الزُّجَاجَةُ كَأَنَّهَا كَوْكَبٌ دُرِّيٌّ يُوقَدُ مِنْ شَجَرَةٍ مُبَارَكَةٍ زَيْتُونَةٍ لَا شَرْقِيَّةٍ وَلَا غَرْبِيَّةٍ يَكَادُ زَيْتُهَا يُضِيءُ وَلَوْ لَمْ تَمْسَسْهُ نَارٌ ۚ نُورٌ عَلَىٰ نُورٍ ۗ يَهْدِي اللَّهُ لِنُورِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَيَضْرِبُ اللَّهُ الْأَمْثَالَ لِلنَّاسِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ {35}

35. God is a guide to the inmates of heaven and Earth. His guidance is like a lamp post4 wherein is a candle in which a wick5 enclosed in6 and a chimney like a shining star7 lighted from an auspicious tree8 yielding olive oil,9 which is neither eastern10 nor western11 may automatically glow12 without touch fire13 emanated from light14; God guides with His light15 whomsoever He chooses, and He has exemplified His guidance for people16 and God is Omniscient.

فِي بُيُوتٍ أَذِنَ اللَّهُ أَنْ تُرْفَعَ وَيُذْكَرَ فِيهَا اسْمُهُ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ فِيهَا بِالْغُدُوِّ وَالْآصَالِ {36}

36. In those houses, Cries of God in remembrance of Him, and in praise of Him, day and night, are heard.

رِجَالٌ لَا تُلْهِيهِمْ تِجَارَةٌ وَلَا بَيْعٌ عَنْ ذِكْرِ اللَّهِ وَإِقَامِ الصَّلَاةِ وَإِيتَاءِ الزَّكَاةِ ۙ يَخَافُونَ يَوْمًا تَتَقَلَّبُ فِيهِ الْقُلُوبُ وَالْأَبْصَارُ {37}

37. Inmates thereof are not affected by worldly avocations. They are steady at prayers and payment of tithe (observing fasts), fearing the day when hears and eyes will throb

لِيَجْزِيَهُمُ اللَّهُ أَحْسَنَ مَا عَمِلُوا وَيَزِيدَهُمْ مِنْ فَضْلِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ يَرْزُقُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ بِغَيْرِ حِسَابٍ {38}

38. so God may reward them at His best, by virtue of their acts, granting more out of His grace and God is providing whomsoever He likes, countlessly

وَالَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا أَعْمَالُهُمْ كَسَرَابٍ بِقِيعَةٍ يَحْسَبُهُ الظَّمْآنُ مَاءً حَتَّىٰ إِذَا جَاءَهُ لَمْ يَجِدْهُ شَيْئًا وَوَجَدَ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ فَوَفَّاهُ حِسَابَهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَرِيعُ الْحِسَابِ {39}

39. and those who deny Him have their acts like a mirage when a thirsty (one is in need of guidance) goes to it for water, finds it little of water. (Seeker of Divine knowledge cannot get anything out of him) and he will find before God, who will account from him and God is speedy at accounting.

أَوْ كَظُلُمَاتٍ فِي بَحْرٍ لُجِّيٍّ يَغْشَاهُ مَوْجٌ مِنْ فَوْقِهِ مَوْجٌ مِنْ فَوْقِهِ سَحَابٌ ۚ ظُلُمَاتٌ بَعْضُهَا فَوْقَ بَعْضٍ إِذَا أَخْرَجَ يَدَهُ لَمْ يَكَدْ يَرَاهَا ۗ وَمَنْ لَمْ يَجْعَلِ اللَّهُ لَهُ نُورًا فَمَا لَهُ مِنْ نُورٍ {40}

40. Or their example is like darkness under the deep sea, intensified by rising waves, one over another, darkness over darkness. When they raise their hands from the sea, you cannot see anything thereof. And for them, for whom God does not provide light (of His knowledge) there is no light.

Moral

This is the essence of the chapter and of the text wherein God has clearly “laid down and restricted” the method of His guidance by selection of Prophets and Imams as Divine Lights, only acceptable sources of guidance – exemplifying them as “lights amidst darkness,” regarding having developed reason against undeveloped reason of man in general giving their attributes to enable men to distinguish the authorized from false claimants who simply wad through the deep dark ocean, overcast with dark clouds.

“Where no sign of guidance is visible (but a streak here and there)” meaning thereby having obscure Divine knowledge being, not being initiated by Him, are not in a position to guide others being blind themselves. He has most eloquently represented 12 Divine Lights by a Lamp with (1) a wick, in a glass chimney (2 and 3), emitting light like a shining star (4), by means of oil of live (5), froman auspicious tree (6) which is neither eastern (7) nor western (8) and is automatically klighted (9) up without a touch of fire (10) and these lights emanate one from another (11) and by means of which (12) God guides whom He likes.

In the mineral kingdom are radioactive materials, which alike Divine Lights automatically glow.

These Divine Lights, having perfect reason, and thus capable of viewing the Eternal Path can lead followers to the Divine Way and none others can do so. They are thus allegorically termed Divine Lights or Benchmarks on the way leading to Divine Proximity.

God has similarly termed the Prophet, in the text (vide Couplet 46 Surah “The Tribes”). (He has sent you) an inviter towards God, with His sanction and as an Emissive Luminary, a Torch Bearer of Islam, i.e. a Divine Light, and just as light dispels darkness, so Divine Light dispels darkness of the soul, i.e. misguidance of man. This is why Jesus calls himself as “Divine Light” of his age, vide St. John (9:5): “As long as I am in the world, I Am the light of the world.” St. John (13:46): “I am come a light unto the world, whosoever believeth in me should not abide in darkness.” St. John (14:6): “I am the way, the truth and the life. No man cometh unto the Father but by me.” What is, therefore, true of Jesus is true of Prophet Mohammad and his Immaculate Family. Thus, Divine Guidance in Islam is limited to these 14 Torch Bearers of Islam alone (as per Shia Tenets) viz. (1) The Prophet, with his daughter, (2) Fatima, Queen of Paradise , and the 12 Divine Lights beginning with Ali and ending with the 12th Divine Taught and Heaven Born.

These Lights are steady at prayers and payment of tithe is not being affected by their worldly avocations and trials and in their homes. Divine remembrance is being ever heard by the Crier due to Divine awe all prevailing when hearts and eyes will shiver. They realize future events in this world guard themselves against them and ward off those who listen to them. Their enemies similarly are likened to darkness under the deep sea.

Verses 41 – 57

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَنْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ وَالطَّيْرُ صَافَّاتٍ ۖ كُلٌّ قَدْ عَلِمَ صَلَاتَهُ وَتَسْبِيحَهُ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ بِمَا يَفْعَلُونَ {41}

41. Have you not noticed those who are in Heaven and on Earth and the birds which fly in the air, pray unto God, and everyone knows their prayers thoroughly and god is acquainted with their deeds

وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ الْمَصِيرُ {42}

42. and God is (Lord Master) of the heavens and the earth and unto God is reversion.

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُزْجِي سَحَابًا ثُمَّ يُؤَلِّفُ بَيْنَهُ ثُمَّ يَجْعَلُهُ رُكَامًا فَتَرَى الْوَدْقَ يَخْرُجُ مِنْ خِلَالِهِ وَيُنَزِّلُ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مِنْ جِبَالٍ فِيهَا مِنْ بَرَدٍ فَيُصِيبُ بِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيَصْرِفُهُ عَنْ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۖ يَكَادُ سَنَا بَرْقِهِ يَذْهَبُ بِالْأَبْصَارِ {43}

43. Have you not noticed God driving the cloud and joining them together raises them as per need and you see rain dropping from them and God from heaven sends from hill-like clouds, hailing stones whereby He destroys whatever he likes and saves whoever He likes. Shortly lightning may dazzle the eyesight.

يُقَلِّبُ اللَّهُ اللَّيْلَ وَالنَّهَارَ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَعِبْرَةً لِأُولِي الْأَبْصَارِ {44}

44. God ultimately causes night and day. Verily for the wise, there is no room for taking lesson from this

وَاللَّهُ خَلَقَ كُلَّ دَابَّةٍ مِنْ مَاءٍ ۖ فَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ بَطْنِهِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ رِجْلَيْنِ وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَمْشِي عَلَىٰ أَرْبَعٍ ۚ يَخْلُقُ اللَّهُ مَا يَشَاءُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {45}

45. and God has created every creeping creature from liquid. Some of the creep on their stomach (like the snake) and others are bipeds (like man), others are quadrupeds. God creates whatever he likes. Verily God is Omnipotent.

لَقَدْ أَنْزَلْنَا آيَاتٍ مُبَيِّنَاتٍ ۚ وَاللَّهُ يَهْدِي مَنْ يَشَاءُ إِلَىٰ صِرَاطٍ مُسْتَقِيمٍ {46}

46. Verily We have revealed couplets, disclosing facts and God guides whomsoever He likes on the right path

وَيَقُولُونَ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَبِالرَّسُولِ وَأَطَعْنَا ثُمَّ يَتَوَلَّىٰ فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ ذَٰلِكَ ۚ وَمَا أُولَٰئِكَ بِالْمُؤْمِنِينَ {47}

47. and they say they have believed in God and His Prophet and they are obedient unto Him and one of their Group turns away

وَإِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ إِذَا فَرِيقٌ مِنْهُمْ مُعْرِضُونَ {48}

48. when they are invited before God and His Prophet to receive judgment on their litigation, a group among them turns away.

وَإِنْ يَكُنْ لَهُمُ الْحَقُّ يَأْتُوا إِلَيْهِ مُذْعِنِينَ {49}

48. and if they have got some of their rights with the Prophet, they approach the Prophet with due obedience.

أَفِي قُلُوبِهِمْ مَرَضٌ أَمِ ارْتَابُوا أَمْ يَخَافُونَ أَنْ يَحِيفَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَرَسُولُهُ ۚ بَلْ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ {50}

50. Is there any disease in their hearts to have any doubt or are they afraid of God and His Prophet’s injustice to their cause? Rather, they are disobedient.

إِنَّمَا كَانَ قَوْلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذَا دُعُوا إِلَى اللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ لِيَحْكُمَ بَيْنَهُمْ أَنْ يَقُولُوا سَمِعْنَا وَأَطَعْنَا ۚ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ {51}

51. There is no other reply by the faithful except when they are called upon by God and the Prophet to decide on a dispute between them to say,17 “We have heard and are ready to comply with.” These are the people who attain salvation.

وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ وَيَخْشَ اللَّهَ وَيَتَّقْهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ {52}

52. Those who will obey God and His Prophet (as a Divine Light) and fear God and shun disobedience by adopting piety, are to attain salvation.18

وَأَقْسَمُوا بِاللَّهِ جَهْدَ أَيْمَانِهِمْ لَئِنْ أَمَرْتَهُمْ لَيَخْرُجُنَّ ۖ قُلْ لَا تُقْسِمُوا ۖ طَاعَةٌ مَعْرُوفَةٌ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ {53}

53. They began to swear by God to the best of their ability and say, “If you order us to come out (for crusade) certainly shall we come out.” Say, “Do not swear (non-sensically), sincere, obedience is better than apparent swearing.” Verily God is acquainted with you actions.

قُلْ أَطِيعُوا اللَّهَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ ۖ فَإِنْ تَوَلَّوْا فَإِنَّمَا عَلَيْهِ مَا حُمِّلَ وَعَلَيْكُمْ مَا حُمِّلْتُمْ ۖ وَإِنْ تُطِيعُوهُ تَهْتَدُوا ۚ وَمَا عَلَى الرَّسُولِ إِلَّا الْبَلَاغُ الْمُبِينُ {54}

54. Say, “Obey God and the Prophet (and after his authorized Divine Lights), and if you disobey, responsibility thereof lies on your head and of transmission of Divine Commands on me. If you follow the Prophet, you are then guided, and there is nothing for the Prophet but to transmit God’s message clearly.19

وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا مِنْكُمْ وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَيَسْتَخْلِفَنَّهُمْ فِي الْأَرْضِ كَمَا اسْتَخْلَفَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ وَلَيُمَكِّنَنَّ لَهُمْ دِينَهُمُ الَّذِي ارْتَضَىٰ لَهُمْ وَلَيُبَدِّلَنَّهُمْ مِنْ بَعْدِ خَوْفِهِمْ أَمْنًا ۚ يَعْبُدُونَنِي لَا يُشْرِكُونَ بِي شَيْئًا ۚ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ بَعْدَ ذَٰلِكَ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ {55}

55. God has promised the faithful amongst you who shall act righteously, shall be made rulers on Earth., Just as He has done previously, and shall confirm their faith (Islam or Theocracy) which He has approved for them, and shall exchange their fear20 with safety. So they shall worship Me. If any, in spite of this, refuses, he is disobedient.21

وَأَقِيمُوا الصَّلَاةَ وَآتُوا الزَّكَاةَ وَأَطِيعُوا الرَّسُولَ لَعَلَّكُمْ تُرْحَمُونَ {56}

56. Be steadfast at prayers ad payment of tithe, carrying out the Prophet’s commands so you may be mercified (i.e. attain salvation).

لَا تَحْسَبَنَّ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مُعْجِزِينَ فِي الْأَرْضِ ۚ وَمَأْوَاهُمُ النَّارُ ۖ وَلَبِئْسَ الْمَصِيرُ {57}

57. Infidels should not count upon disabling God on Earth. Their destination is hell, and awful is the abode.

Moral

Self-sufficient with bodily notes.

Verses 58 – 61

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لِيَسْتَأْذِنْكُمُ الَّذِينَ مَلَكَتْ أَيْمَانُكُمْ وَالَّذِينَ لَمْ يَبْلُغُوا الْحُلُمَ مِنْكُمْ ثَلَاثَ مَرَّاتٍ ۚ مِنْ قَبْلِ صَلَاةِ الْفَجْرِ وَحِينَ تَضَعُونَ ثِيَابَكُمْ مِنَ الظَّهِيرَةِ وَمِنْ بَعْدِ صَلَاةِ الْعِشَاءِ ۚ ثَلَاثُ عَوْرَاتٍ لَكُمْ ۚ لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ وَلَا عَلَيْهِمْ جُنَاحٌ بَعْدَهُنَّ ۚ طَوَّافُونَ عَلَيْكُمْ بَعْضُكُمْ عَلَىٰ بَعْضٍ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {58}

58. Oh you faithful! It is necessary for your male slave and those amongst you who have not attained maturity to take permission three times a day. Once, before morning prayers, secondly, when you change dress for sleeping and afternoon prayers, and thirdly, after night prayers. These three times are for (your) privacy. Thereafter, there is no need for them to take permission for moving up and down, nor for you to come out (fully dressed), as you will frequently (during the day). Thus, does God clearly point out these commands and He is Knowing and Wise.

وَإِذَا بَلَغَ الْأَطْفَالُ مِنْكُمُ الْحُلُمَ فَلْيَسْتَأْذِنُوا كَمَا اسْتَأْذَنَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ ۗ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {59}

59. And when children amongst you attain maturity they should (also) always take permission, as those who preceded them did take permission. Thus, does God clearly point out the commands.

وَالْقَوَاعِدُ مِنَ النِّسَاءِ اللَّاتِي لَا يَرْجُونَ نِكَاحًا فَلَيْسَ عَلَيْهِنَّ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ يَضَعْنَ ثِيَابَهُنَّ غَيْرَ مُتَبَرِّجَاتٍ بِزِينَةٍ ۖ وَأَنْ يَسْتَعْفِفْنَ خَيْرٌ لَهُنَّ ۗ وَاللَّهُ سَمِيعٌ عَلِيمٌ {60}

60. And for those old women who do not think of marrying again, there is no objection to their removing the veil, when they are not doing toileting. But, if they observe chastity, it is all the better for them. God is All-hearing and Knowing.

لَيْسَ عَلَى الْأَعْمَىٰ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْأَعْرَجِ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِكُمْ أَنْ تَأْكُلُوا مِنْ بُيُوتِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ آبَائِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ أُمَّهَاتِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ إِخْوَانِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ أَخَوَاتِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ أَعْمَامِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ عَمَّاتِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ أَخْوَالِكُمْ أَوْ بُيُوتِ خَالَاتِكُمْ أَوْ مَا مَلَكْتُمْ مَفَاتِحَهُ أَوْ صَدِيقِكُمْ ۚ لَيْسَ عَلَيْكُمْ جُنَاحٌ أَنْ تَأْكُلُوا جَمِيعًا أَوْ أَشْتَاتًا ۚ فَإِذَا دَخَلْتُمْ بُيُوتًا فَسَلِّمُوا عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِكُمْ تَحِيَّةً مِنْ عِنْدِ اللَّهِ مُبَارَكَةً طَيِّبَةً ۚ كَذَٰلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللَّهُ لَكُمُ الْآيَاتِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَعْقِلُونَ {61}

61. There is no objection to the blind, the lame, the sick22 nor on you to your taking food at home, or at your grandfather’s not at your grandmother’s or brothers’ or sisters’ or uncles’ or aunts’, paternal and maternal, or where you look after their houses and neither is there objection to take together or separately, and when you enter (your own house) salute to yourself. This is safety from God to you and a source of prosperity and a blessing, and thus does God explicitly point out so you may understand.

Moral

1. This is a fine instance of how practical training on morality is imparted to youngsters and discipline to servants who had not an early training.

2. This is another instance in which self-denial is acquired and pride set aside.

Verses 62 – 64

إِنَّمَا الْمُؤْمِنُونَ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَإِذَا كَانُوا مَعَهُ عَلَىٰ أَمْرٍ جَامِعٍ لَمْ يَذْهَبُوا حَتَّىٰ يَسْتَأْذِنُوهُ ۚ إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يَسْتَأْذِنُونَكَ أُولَٰئِكَ الَّذِينَ يُؤْمِنُونَ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۚ فَإِذَا اسْتَأْذَنُوكَ لِبَعْضِ شَأْنِهِمْ فَأْذَنْ لِمَنْ شِئْتَ مِنْهُمْ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُمُ اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {62}

62. Only those who are faithful believe in God and His Prophet and when they are decided on any affair (crusade), they do not leave him without his permission and when they take your permission, they believe in God and His prophets, and when they take permission, give them when you like, pray forgiveness before God. Verily He is Forgiving and Merciful.

لَا تَجْعَلُوا دُعَاءَ الرَّسُولِ بَيْنَكُمْ كَدُعَاءِ بَعْضِكُمْ بَعْضًا ۚ قَدْ يَعْلَمُ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ يَتَسَلَّلُونَ مِنْكُمْ لِوَاذًا ۚ فَلْيَحْذَرِ الَّذِينَ يُخَالِفُونَ عَنْ أَمْرِهِ أَنْ تُصِيبَهُمْ فِتْنَةٌ أَوْ يُصِيبَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ {63}

63. Do not call out to the Prophet as you do among yourselves (one another). God knows them who slyly disappear from you. They should fear defying His commands lest they involve themselves in difficulty or Divine wrath, attend them.

أَلَا إِنَّ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ قَدْ يَعْلَمُ مَا أَنْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ وَيَوْمَ يُرْجَعُونَ إِلَيْهِ فَيُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا عَمِلُوا ۗ وَاللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ {64}

64. Beware! For God is owner of the Heavens and Earth, and He knows what you are bent on, and the day you revert unto Him, He shall acquaint you with your doings. God is Omnipotent.

Moral

God has restricted the group of the faithful to strictly adhere to God and His Prophet’s commands, and not to part with Him until decision has taken place, on any affair, i.e. say crusade, unless permission is granted to them, which should be done within his discretion, praying forgiveness from God for them.

God has warned the Prophet’s companions not to call him by his name as they one another, but have high regard for him.

  • 1. Without producing evidence.
  • 2. For example, public baths and hotels.
  • 3. Translated from tafsir in Burhan.
  • 4. The Prophet.
  • 5. Imam Ali.
  • 6. Imam Hassan.
  • 7. Imam Zain al-Abideen.
  • 8. Fifth Imam.
  • 9. Sixth Imam.
  • 10. Seventh Imam.
  • 11. Eighth Imam, Divine Light.
  • 12. Ninth Divine Light.
  • 13. Tenth Imam.
  • 14. 11th Imam.
  • 15. 12th Imam.
  • 16. In person of above Divine Lights.
  • 17. This does not lay any condition as to obedience of the Prophet’s commands, whether in a healthy or sick condition. His commands, if carried out, lead you to salvation, and if you reject them, your fate is like Satan’s, refusing to do homage to Adam, he was expelled (25b) is promised Resurrection of the Divine Lights, as noted in the body.
  • 18. This couplet is enough to act upon to attain salvation where joint obedience to God and the Prophet is the condition for salvation, and shunning disobedience to Divinity and its Light is stressed.
  • 19. This points to the Prophet being immaculate and so also the Imams, the other Divine Lights whose following is treading Divine Way.
  • 20. Which lead to their flight.
  • 21. This is clearly a promise Divine, pointing to the resurrection of Divine Lights.
  • 22. e.g. suffering from contagious diseases.