Table of Contents

Surah Luqman, Chapter 31

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful

Verses 1 – 11

الم {1}

1. Alif, lam, meem.

تِلْكَ آيَاتُ الْكِتَابِ الْحَكِيمِ {2}

2. These are couplets of the Text from (God) the Wise.

هُدًى وَرَحْمَةً لِلْمُحْسِنِينَ {3}

3. As a source of guidance and mercy to the obliging1.

الَّذِينَ يُقِيمُونَ الصَّلَاةَ وَيُؤْتُونَ الزَّكَاةَ وَهُمْ بِالْآخِرَةِ هُمْ يُوقِنُونَ {4}

4. Who are steady at prayers and payment of tithe and are certain of Eternity.

أُولَٰئِكَ عَلَىٰ هُدًى مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ ۖ وَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ {5}

5. They are on guidance from the Providence and they are to attain salvation.

وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَشْتَرِي لَهْوَ الْحَدِيثِ لِيُضِلَّ عَنْ سَبِيلِ اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَيَتَّخِذَهَا هُزُوًا ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ لَهُمْ عَذَابٌ مُهِينٌ {6}

6. Ad of men are those who misguide others without having knowledge2 and hold God’s Commands under ridicule. (They are those) for them is disgraceful punishment.

وَإِذَا تُتْلَىٰ عَلَيْهِ آيَاتُنَا وَلَّىٰ مُسْتَكْبِرًا كَأَنْ لَمْ يَسْمَعْهَا كَأَنَّ فِي أُذُنَيْهِ وَقْرًا ۖ فَبَشِّرْهُ بِعَذَابٍ أَلِيمٍ {7}

7. When Our couplets are read out to them they turn away out of pride as if their ears give them tidings of intense punishment.

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ لَهُمْ جَنَّاتُ النَّعِيمِ {8}

8. Verily those who have embraced faith and acted virtuously shall be in a bountiful Paradise.

خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا ۖ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقًّا ۚ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ {9}

9. Wherein shall they remain on a true promise from God Who is Mighty and Wise.

خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ بِغَيْرِ عَمَدٍ تَرَوْنَهَا ۖ وَأَلْقَىٰ فِي الْأَرْضِ رَوَاسِيَ أَنْ تَمِيدَ بِكُمْ وَبَثَّ فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ دَابَّةٍ ۚ وَأَنْزَلْنَا مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَنْبَتْنَا فِيهَا مِنْ كُلِّ زَوْجٍ كَرِيمٍ {10}

10. He created the heavens and the earth without apparent support and fixed mountains on earth to prevent it from tilting and spread all over it all kinds of (co-ordinate) creepers and sent rain from the clouds whereby grow splendid (plentiful) vegetations of all kinds.

هَٰذَا خَلْقُ اللَّهِ فَأَرُونِي مَاذَا خَلَقَ الَّذِينَ مِنْ دُونِهِ ۚ بَلِ الظَّالِمُونَ فِي ضَلَالٍ مُبِينٍ {11}

11. This is God’s creation. Show me what any other god has created besides Him (i.e. Me) like this. Rather, the disobedient are in open misguidance.

Moral

Self-explanatory, as deprecating musical entertainments towards causing ungratefulness by disregarding Divine bounties.

Verses 12 – 19

وَلَقَدْ آتَيْنَا لُقْمَانَ الْحِكْمَةَ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِلَّهِ ۚ وَمَنْ يَشْكُرْ فَإِنَّمَا يَشْكُرُ لِنَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ حَمِيدٌ {12}

12. Verily We gave Luqman wisdom to be grateful to God. He who is grateful reaps its benefit for self, and he who is ungrateful suffers likewise. Verily God is Independent and Praiseworthy (for His universal bounty).

وَإِذْ قَالَ لُقْمَانُ لِابْنِهِ وَهُوَ يَعِظُهُ يَا بُنَيَّ لَا تُشْرِكْ بِاللَّهِ ۖ إِنَّ الشِّرْكَ لَظُلْمٌ عَظِيمٌ {13}

13. Recollect when Luqman told his son while advising him, “Oh my son, do not associate any with God. Verily it is the mightiest sin.”

وَوَصَّيْنَا الْإِنْسَانَ بِوَالِدَيْهِ حَمَلَتْهُ أُمُّهُ وَهْنًا عَلَىٰ وَهْنٍ وَفِصَالُهُ فِي عَامَيْنِ أَنِ اشْكُرْ لِي وَلِوَالِدَيْكَ إِلَيَّ الْمَصِيرُ {14}

14. And We commanded man regarding the parents whose (mother carried him during conception) under continual pain, nursing him for two years, to be grateful to Me and to his parents, as to Me, is your reversion.

وَإِنْ جَاهَدَاكَ عَلَىٰ أَنْ تُشْرِكَ بِي مَا لَيْسَ لَكَ بِهِ عِلْمٌ فَلَا تُطِعْهُمَا ۖ وَصَاحِبْهُمَا فِي الدُّنْيَا مَعْرُوفًا ۖ وَاتَّبِعْ سَبِيلَ مَنْ أَنَابَ إِلَيَّ ۚ ثُمَّ إِلَيَّ مَرْجِعُكُمْ فَأُنَبِّئُكُمْ بِمَا كُنْتُمْ تَعْمَلُونَ {15}

15. And if they compel you to associate any with Me, having no knowledge do not carry out their orders, but behave virtuously with them and follow him (Divine Light) who is directed to Me, since to Me is your reversion, when I shall advise you of you action.

يَا بُنَيَّ إِنَّهَا إِنْ تَكُ مِثْقَالَ حَبَّةٍ مِنْ خَرْدَلٍ فَتَكُنْ فِي صَخْرَةٍ أَوْ فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ أَوْ فِي الْأَرْضِ يَأْتِ بِهَا اللَّهُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَطِيفٌ خَبِيرٌ {16}

16. “Oh my soul, if a sin be the least little bit (in its degree) like a grain of a mustard seed, hidden underneath a rock or in the heavens or earth, it shall be brought before God, Who is verily minutely acquainted with everything.”

يَا بُنَيَّ أَقِمِ الصَّلَاةَ وَأْمُرْ بِالْمَعْرُوفِ وَانْهَ عَنِ الْمُنْكَرِ وَاصْبِرْ عَلَىٰ مَا أَصَابَكَ ۖ إِنَّ ذَٰلِكَ مِنْ عَزْمِ الْأُمُورِ {17}

17. “Oh my son be constant at prayers, advising virtues and barring men from vices, and be patient under misfortune (caused by advising virtues and barring vices), verily this one of the soundest resolutions.

وَلَا تُصَعِّرْ خَدَّكَ لِلنَّاسِ وَلَا تَمْشِ فِي الْأَرْضِ مَرَحًا ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ لَا يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ {18}

18. “Do not be puffed up and do not strut on Earth. Verily God does not like the proud miser.

وَاقْصِدْ فِي مَشْيِكَ وَاغْضُضْ مِنْ صَوْتِكَ ۚ إِنَّ أَنْكَرَ الْأَصْوَاتِ لَصَوْتُ الْحَمِيرِ {19}

19. “Adopt the mean course in walking, and be moderate in your voice. Verily the voice of an ass is most unpleasant.”

Moral

There is no such penalty for error and folly as to see one’s children suffer. There is no such reward for a well spent life as to see one’s children religiously trained and well started in life with fixed character and noble breeding. Study their spiritual, mental, and moral attitude: dignify labour in their eyes and propose a fitting avocation for them.

Verses 20 – 30

أَلَمْ تَرَوْا أَنَّ اللَّهَ سَخَّرَ لَكُمْ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ وَأَسْبَغَ عَلَيْكُمْ نِعَمَهُ ظَاهِرَةً وَبَاطِنَةً ۗ وَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يُجَادِلُ فِي اللَّهِ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ وَلَا هُدًى وَلَا كِتَابٍ مُنِيرٍ {20}

20. Have you not seen, God has made serviceable to you whatever is the heavens and earth? And God has completed His bounties, open and hidden, and of men are some litigating about God without knowledge, guidance, and of an authoritative initiative (know he is on a ruinous path) those following non-Divine Lights.

وَإِذَا قِيلَ لَهُمُ اتَّبِعُوا مَا أَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ قَالُوا بَلْ نَتَّبِعُ مَا وَجَدْنَا عَلَيْهِ آبَاءَنَا ۚ أَوَلَوْ كَانَ الشَّيْطَانُ يَدْعُوهُمْ إِلَىٰ عَذَابِ السَّعِيرِ {21}

21. And when they are asked to comply with Divine revelation, they say, “We shall follow the way our forefathers were treading.3 Will they do so even were the devil to invite them to the punishment of hell?

وَمَنْ يُسْلِمْ وَجْهَهُ إِلَى اللَّهِ وَهُوَ مُحْسِنٌ فَقَدِ اسْتَمْسَكَ بِالْعُرْوَةِ الْوُثْقَىٰ ۗ وَإِلَى اللَّهِ عَاقِبَةُ الْأُمُورِ {22}

22. Rather, he who directs himself to God and is faithful (to His true Representatives) verily has he held an inflexible rope (between him and God) and all the affairs are to end in Him.

وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَلَا يَحْزُنْكَ كُفْرُهُ ۚ إِلَيْنَا مَرْجِعُهُمْ فَنُنَبِّئُهُمْ بِمَا عَمِلُوا ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ بِذَاتِ الصُّدُورِ {23}

23. Be not sorry for their disbelief in Us. They shall revert unto Us when We shall inform them of their actions. Verily God is acquainted with the secrets of the heart.

نُمَتِّعُهُمْ قَلِيلًا ثُمَّ نَضْطَرُّهُمْ إِلَىٰ عَذَابٍ غَلِيظٍ {24}

24. We shall profit them with a little of the world4 and drag them ruthlessly to intense punishment of hell.5

وَلَئِنْ سَأَلْتَهُمْ مَنْ خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضَ لَيَقُولُنَّ اللَّهُ ۚ قُلِ الْحَمْدُ لِلَّهِ ۚ بَلْ أَكْثَرُهُمْ لَا يَعْلَمُونَ {25}

25. And if you ask them who created the heavens and earth, they shall certainly vouch “God.” Say, “Thank God,” but most do not understand.6

لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ {26}

26. For God is the sovereignty of the heavens and earth. Verily He is Self-sufficient and Praiseworthy (for His universal bounties).

وَلَوْ أَنَّمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ مِنْ شَجَرَةٍ أَقْلَامٌ وَالْبَحْرُ يَمُدُّهُ مِنْ بَعْدِهِ سَبْعَةُ أَبْحُرٍ مَا نَفِدَتْ كَلِمَاتُ اللَّهِ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَزِيزٌ حَكِيمٌ {27}

27. If all the trees on Earth were to be turned into pens and all the seas be converted into in, and be enhance seven times, they would not suffice to complete the record His attributes.7 Verily God is Mighty and Wise.

مَا خَلْقُكُمْ وَلَا بَعْثُكُمْ إِلَّا كَنَفْسٍ وَاحِدَةٍ ۗ إِنَّ اللَّهَ سَمِيعٌ بَصِيرٌ {28}

28. (The question of) your creation and rising alive again is a matter of twinkling of an eye. Verily God is Hearing and Seeing.

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ اللَّهَ يُولِجُ اللَّيْلَ فِي النَّهَارِ وَيُولِجُ النَّهَارَ فِي اللَّيْلِ وَسَخَّرَ الشَّمْسَ وَالْقَمَرَ كُلٌّ يَجْرِي إِلَىٰ أَجَلٍ مُسَمًّى وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ {29}

29. Do you not see God transforms night into day and vice versa and has set the sun and the moon into motion, all under dynamic condition, for a fixed period and verily God is acquainted with your actions.

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْحَقُّ وَأَنَّ مَا يَدْعُونَ مِنْ دُونِهِ الْبَاطِلُ وَأَنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْعَلِيُّ الْكَبِيرُ {30}

30. This is because of His being the real Author (and Prime mover) and certainly those, whom you are in search of, excepting Him, have no real existence in them. Verily God is Mighty and Sublime.

Moral

Only today is yours: if lost, it is lost forever lest you may say, “I wasted time and now does time waste me.” Importance of following the Divine Lights is remarkably stressed here. Any other way is merely ruinous. Also, labour on worldly pleasures shall lead to intense punishment. Powers endowed on Divine Lights are countless.

Verses 31 – 34

أَلَمْ تَرَ أَنَّ الْفُلْكَ تَجْرِي فِي الْبَحْرِ بِنِعْمَتِ اللَّهِ لِيُرِيَكُمْ مِنْ آيَاتِهِ ۚ إِنَّ فِي ذَٰلِكَ لَآيَاتٍ لِكُلِّ صَبَّارٍ شَكُورٍ {31}

31. Have you not noticed the ship floating in the sea as a proof of Divine bounty for you and also as a miracle? 8 Verily in this are signs for the patient9 and are grateful.10

وَإِذَا غَشِيَهُمْ مَوْجٌ كَالظُّلَلِ دَعَوُا اللَّهَ مُخْلِصِينَ لَهُ الدِّينَ فَلَمَّا نَجَّاهُمْ إِلَى الْبَرِّ فَمِنْهُمْ مُقْتَصِدٌ ۚ وَمَا يَجْحَدُ بِآيَاتِنَا إِلَّا كُلُّ خَتَّارٍ كَفُورٍ {32}

32. When the billows cover them up like clouds, they cry and pray unto God, as sincere devotees, and when We safely land them, then some of the are moderate and none litigates Our commands except these dishonest infidels.

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّاسُ اتَّقُوا رَبَّكُمْ وَاخْشَوْا يَوْمًا لَا يَجْزِي وَالِدٌ عَنْ وَلَدِهِ وَلَا مَوْلُودٌ هُوَ جَازٍ عَنْ وَالِدِهِ شَيْئًا ۚ إِنَّ وَعْدَ اللَّهِ حَقٌّ ۖ فَلَا تَغُرَّنَّكُمُ الْحَيَاةُ الدُّنْيَا وَلَا يَغُرَّنَّكُمْ بِاللَّهِ الْغَرُورُ {33}

33. Oh you people, fear your Providence of the (Death) Day when neither the son will intercede on behalf of his farther, nor vice versa, and God’s promise is, of course, certain and lent not worldly life deceive you and let not the devil keep you off your duties under procrastination.

إِنَّ اللَّهَ عِنْدَهُ عِلْمُ السَّاعَةِ وَيُنَزِّلُ الْغَيْثَ وَيَعْلَمُ مَا فِي الْأَرْحَامِ ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ مَاذَا تَكْسِبُ غَدًا ۖ وَمَا تَدْرِي نَفْسٌ بِأَيِّ أَرْضٍ تَمُوتُ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ عَلِيمٌ خَبِيرٌ {34}

34. Verily God alone knows the exact time of the Day of Reckoning, exact time of raining, exact nature of the child, the woman has conceived, exact time of our action tomorrow, and the exact place of your death on Earth. Verily God has the knowledge of these secrets.

Moral

Knowledge of the above five facts is limited to God and these form Divine secretes solely reserved unto Him.

  • 1. who admit sovereignty of God, Prophet, and Divine Light.
  • 2. of illegality of music.
  • 3. Recall the Prophet’s Command at his deathbed calling for pen and paper.
  • 4. Their labour employed as means to worldly pleasures, in due dispense of justice
  • 5. For wasting the life granted to gain Divine proximity.
  • 6. When God created (i.e. sent you to Earth) He is virtually your Master, and you are His slave. You ought to know your duties to Him through the Divine Lights, for you shall revert unto Him and render your account through the very Divine Lights.
  • 7. manifested through His Divine Lights.
  • 8. The force of buoyancy holding the ship under Divine bounty.
  • 9. who under storm pray to Him for safety.
  • 10. for their successful voyage and profit in trade.