Surah al-Fath, Chapter 48

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful

Verses 1 – 10

إِنَّا فَتَحْنَا لَكَ فَتْحًا مُبِينًا {1}

1. Verily have we secured an open victory (or revealed unto you Text, wherein is granted Islam for you

لِيَغْفِرَ لَكَ اللَّهُ مَا تَقَدَّمَ مِنْ ذَنْبِكَ وَمَا تَأَخَّرَ وَيُتِمَّ نِعْمَتَهُ عَلَيْكَ وَيَهْدِيَكَ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا {2}

2. so God may forgive our true followers their sins, past and future, on your intercession), and fulfil completion of His bounties on you and grant them mercy, whereby they get guidance to truth through you.

وَيَنْصُرَكَ اللَّهُ نَصْرًا عَزِيزًا {3}

3. And endow upon you a might success.

هُوَ الَّذِي أَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ فِي قُلُوبِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ لِيَزْدَادُوا إِيمَانًا مَعَ إِيمَانِهِمْ ۗ وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا {4}

4. It is He Who endowed consolation in the hearts of the faithful1 so they may confirm their existing faith and for God is the army of the heavens and the earth and God is All-knowing and Wise

لِيُدْخِلَ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَالْمُؤْمِنَاتِ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ خَالِدِينَ فِيهَا وَيُكَفِّرَ عَنْهُمْ سَيِّئَاتِهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ ذَٰلِكَ عِنْدَ اللَّهِ فَوْزًا عَظِيمًا {5}

5. so He may admit faithful men and women in paradise (for eternal residence) below which flow streams (by accepting their penance) and overlooking their sins thereby, and this is near God, a might achievement.

وَيُعَذِّبَ الْمُنَافِقِينَ وَالْمُنَافِقَاتِ وَالْمُشْرِكِينَ وَالْمُشْرِكَاتِ الظَّانِّينَ بِاللَّهِ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ ۚ عَلَيْهِمْ دَائِرَةُ السَّوْءِ ۖ وَغَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ وَلَعَنَهُمْ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ جَهَنَّمَ ۖ وَسَاءَتْ مَصِيرًا {6}

6. And punish the hypocrite men and women and associating men and women, who had entertained ill of God. Be on them an awful calamity and Divine wrath and curse, and He has prepared hell for them which is an awful abode.

وَلِلَّهِ جُنُودُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا {7}

7. And for God is the army of the heavens and earth and God is Might and Wise.

إِنَّا أَرْسَلْنَاكَ شَاهِدًا وَمُبَشِّرًا وَنَذِيرًا {8}

8. Verily have We sent you as a witness, bearer of tidings and a warner

لِتُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ وَتُعَزِّرُوهُ وَتُوَقِّرُوهُ وَتُسَبِّحُوهُ بُكْرَةً وَأَصِيلًا {9}

9. so you may embrace faith in Him and His Prophet (oh you listeners), and We re-enforce the Prophet (in establishing faith of Islam through Ali), and respect God (by complying with His Commands in all affairs) and glorifying Him, morning and evening.

نَّ الَّذِينَ يُبَايِعُونَكَ إِنَّمَا يُبَايِعُونَ اللَّهَ يَدُ اللَّهِ فَوْقَ أَيْدِيهِمْ ۚ فَمَنْ نَكَثَ فَإِنَّمَا يَنْكُثُ عَلَىٰ نَفْسِهِ ۖ وَمَنْ أَوْفَىٰ بِمَا عَاهَدَ عَلَيْهُ اللَّهَ فَسَيُؤْتِيهِ أَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {10}

10. Verily those who contract fealty to you they do so with God (for you are His representative on Earth) and God’s Hand is over their hands, and he who breaches (oath of fealty), it shall affect him alone, and he who shall fulfil its which he has contracted with God, shortly shall God reward him highty.


From the above one can judge the position of God’s representative on Earth nominated by Him. To contravene such an authority by thought, word, or deed (with which Khalifa II is charged) is a treason and condemnable to perpetual perdition unless absolved by penance. Those who fight against God and the Prophet (Divine Light) shall be treated as per Couplet 33 Surah Five (The Table).

Verses 11 – 17

سَيَقُولُ لَكَ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ شَغَلَتْنَا أَمْوَالُنَا وَأَهْلُونَا فَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَنَا ۚ يَقُولُونَ بِأَلْسِنَتِهِمْ مَا لَيْسَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ ۚ قُلْ فَمَنْ يَمْلِكُ لَكُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ شَيْئًا إِنْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ ضَرًّا أَوْ أَرَادَ بِكُمْ نَفْعًا ۚ بَلْ كَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرًا {11}

11. Shortly the lags (Bedouins) who put forth a lame excuse to accompany the Prophet (on pilgrimage) may plead their absence for preservation of property and children, and you should pray forgiveness for them. They say by mouth which is not in their hearts. Say, “If God intends to ruin you or benefit you, who can stop Him?” Rather, God is acquainted with your acts.

بَلْ ظَنَنْتُمْ أَنْ لَنْ يَنْقَلِبَ الرَّسُولُ وَالْمُؤْمِنُونَ إِلَىٰ أَهْلِيهِمْ أَبَدًا وَزُيِّنَ ذَٰلِكَ فِي قُلُوبِكُمْ وَظَنَنْتُمْ ظَنَّ السَّوْءِ وَكُنْتُمْ قَوْمًا بُورًا {12}

12. Rather you expected the Prophet and the faithful will never return save (from pilgrimage), and this was exposed to you as certain within your hearts and you entertained all rumours regarding the Prophet’s ruinouos cause and you are a bad sect.

وَمَنْ لَمْ يُؤْمِنْ بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ فَإِنَّا أَعْتَدْنَا لِلْكَافِرِينَ سَعِيرًا {13}

13. And for the infidel who does not believe in God and His Prophets, verily have We fixed hell.2

وَلِلَّهِ مُلْكُ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۚ يَغْفِرُ لِمَنْ يَشَاءُ وَيُعَذِّبُ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ غَفُورًا رَحِيمًا {14}

14. And for God is the kingdom of the heavens and earth. He forgives whom He chooses and punishes whom He likes and is God forgiving and Merciful.

سَيَقُولُ الْمُخَلَّفُونَ إِذَا انْطَلَقْتُمْ إِلَىٰ مَغَانِمَ لِتَأْخُذُوهَا ذَرُونَا نَتَّبِعْكُمْ ۖ يُرِيدُونَ أَنْ يُبَدِّلُوا كَلَامَ اللَّهِ ۚ قُلْ لَنْ تَتَّبِعُونَا كَذَٰلِكُمْ قَالَ اللَّهُ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ فَسَيَقُولُونَ بَلْ تَحْسُدُونَنَا ۚ بَلْ كَانُوا لَا يَفْقَهُونَ إِلَّا قَلِيلًا {15}

15. Shortly, the lags shall say, when you go to Khaiber to seize booty, permit us to follow you. They intend to change Divine Commands thereby3 where the treaty of Hudebia was affected. Say, you shall never follow us there. Similarly, pleaded to God previously men likeminded when they will argue the orders have been given for us to follow, and the faithful feel jealous of them. Rather they do not understand except a few.

قُلْ لِلْمُخَلَّفِينَ مِنَ الْأَعْرَابِ سَتُدْعَوْنَ إِلَىٰ قَوْمٍ أُولِي بَأْسٍ شَدِيدٍ تُقَاتِلُونَهُمْ أَوْ يُسْلِمُونَ ۖ فَإِنْ تُطِيعُوا يُؤْتِكُمُ اللَّهُ أَجْرًا حَسَنًا ۖ وَإِنْ تَتَوَلَّوْا كَمَا تَوَلَّيْتُمْ مِنْ قَبْلُ يُعَذِّبْكُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا {16}

16. Tell the lags they will be shortly invited to face a formidable tribe of Hawazin, in the battle of Hunain to fight or make peace. If they comply, God shall reward them well and if the turn away as they acted in the past he will punish them intensely.

لَيْسَ عَلَى الْأَعْمَىٰ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْأَعْرَجِ حَرَجٌ وَلَا عَلَى الْمَرِيضِ حَرَجٌ ۗ وَمَنْ يُطِعِ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ يُدْخِلْهُ جَنَّاتٍ تَجْرِي مِنْ تَحْتِهَا الْأَنْهَارُ ۖ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ يُعَذِّبْهُ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا {17}

17. It is not objectionable to the blind, the lame and the sick to keep away from the battlefield, he who shall obey God and His Prophet (as a Divine Light). This is a general Divine Command, shall be admitted in Paradise below which flow streams, and ho who turned away shall be severely dealt with.4


In sixth Hijri the Prophet dreamt, he with some companions goes to pilgrimage. Accordingly he started with700 for Umra taking 70 camels for sacrifice. When he reached Zul Halifa, where the pilgrims changed dress for Ahram, spies informed the Meccans of the Prophet’s marching against Mecca, so Khalild with 200 was sent ahead. When the Prophet reached Hudebia his camel refused to proceed. Therefore, the Prophet sent Osman (K. III) to Mecca to clarify the situation created by spies, but he was imprisoned and rumoured to have been killed, upon which Baithur Razwan was affected beneath a tree whereby none was to fly, until Mecca was conquered. Meanwhile, truce was affected, viz (1) not to make war for ten years, (2) he should return without pilgrimage, (3) next year Mecca will be evacuated for three days for him to pilgrimage, (4) during this interval, if any infidel embraced Islam, he should be returned to Mecca and not vice versa.

This aroused suspicion in the mind of Omar (Khalifa II) as to the genuiness of his prophecy (this is his mental treason). A further term was imposed that no bar should be imposed for the sake of business on either party (prejudice proceeding out of price and vanity defying truth leads to hell).

This couplet has preceded couplet 10, which followed it. This is an error in compilation as was previously noted in Surah Tribes (33:51) to have been 29.

Verses 18 – 26

لَقَدْ رَضِيَ اللَّهُ عَنِ الْمُؤْمِنِينَ إِذْ يُبَايِعُونَكَ تَحْتَ الشَّجَرَةِ فَعَلِمَ مَا فِي قُلُوبِهِمْ فَأَنْزَلَ السَّكِينَةَ عَلَيْهِمْ وَأَثَابَهُمْ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا {18}

18. Verily was God pleased with the faithful (only) with those who covenanted with you beneath the tree, (and not all who participated) knowing what lay within their hearts. So he put in consolation into them, granting a victory at their hands.5

وَمَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً يَأْخُذُونَهَا ۗ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَزِيزًا حَكِيمًا {19}

19. And plenty of booty fell to their hands and God is Mighty and Wise.

وَعَدَكُمُ اللَّهُ مَغَانِمَ كَثِيرَةً تَأْخُذُونَهَا فَعَجَّلَ لَكُمْ هَٰذِهِ وَكَفَّ أَيْدِيَ النَّاسِ عَنْكُمْ وَلِتَكُونَ آيَةً لِلْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَيَهْدِيَكُمْ صِرَاطًا مُسْتَقِيمًا {20}

20. God has promised plenty of booty which will fall to your hands and he hastens his booty for you and prevented the hands (of Bani Asad and Bani Gothan who had locked themselves up in the castle, and did not face you on the battlefield) so it may be a sign to the faithful (of the Prophet being a genuine Messenger) and keep you on the right path.

وَأُخْرَىٰ لَمْ تَقْدِرُوا عَلَيْهَا قَدْ أَحَاطَ اللَّهُ بِهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرًا {21}

21. And further, other booties over which you have no control, but over which God has control and God is Omnipotent.

وَلَوْ قَاتَلَكُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا لَوَلَّوُا الْأَدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يَجِدُونَ وَلِيًّا وَلَا نَصِيرًا {22}

22. Had the infidels fought with you, they would have turned their backs, when they would have no support or assistance

سُنَّةَ اللَّهِ الَّتِي قَدْ خَلَتْ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۖ وَلَنْ تَجِدَ لِسُنَّةِ اللَّهِ تَبْدِيلًا {23}

23. (except wholesale slaughter) which has been Divine practice of yours and wherein you will find no change.

وَهُوَ الَّذِي كَفَّ أَيْدِيَهُمْ عَنْكُمْ وَأَيْدِيَكُمْ عَنْهُمْ بِبَطْنِ مَكَّةَ مِنْ بَعْدِ أَنْ أَظْفَرَكُمْ عَلَيْهِمْ ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرًا {24}

24. It is He Who barred their hands being raised against you and yours against them within municipal limits of Mecca (at Hudebia), after the fact you had the control of infidels under you and God is acquainted with your acts.

هُمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَصَدُّوكُمْ عَنِ الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَالْهَدْيَ مَعْكُوفًا أَنْ يَبْلُغَ مَحِلَّهُ ۚ وَلَوْلَا رِجَالٌ مُؤْمِنُونَ وَنِسَاءٌ مُؤْمِنَاتٌ لَمْ تَعْلَمُوهُمْ أَنْ تَطَئُوهُمْ فَتُصِيبَكُمْ مِنْهُمْ مَعَرَّةٌ بِغَيْرِ عِلْمٍ ۖ لِيُدْخِلَ اللَّهُ فِي رَحْمَتِهِ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ لَوْ تَزَيَّلُوا لَعَذَّبْنَا الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْهُمْ عَذَابًا أَلِيمًا {25}

25. They are those infidels who prevented you from the holy sanctuary and conducting sacrifice, when it was held over for future to reach its destination. Had it not been for the fact there live in the town of Mecca faithful men and women, in mask whom you did not know and whom you would have killed unknowingly, when you would have been laughed at by associators, so He admits within His mercy whom He likes, and had it not been for the faithful progeny to be born of them, they would have been subjected to severe chastisement (by being slain).6

إِذْ جَعَلَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الْحَمِيَّةَ حَمِيَّةَ الْجَاهِلِيَّةِ فَأَنْزَلَ اللَّهُ سَكِينَتَهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ وَعَلَى الْمُؤْمِنِينَ وَأَلْزَمَهُمْ كَلِمَةَ التَّقْوَىٰ وَكَانُوا أَحَقَّ بِهَا وَأَهْلَهَا ۚ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا {26}

26. When the infidels, who had foolish vanity in them7 when God inspired consolation in the Prophet and the faithful by enforcing p iety in them which was an obligatory function for them (being most appreciative) and God is Omniscient with everyone.


1. It should be carefully perused God has expressed His will towards the faithful only and not all those who by their haughty behaviour were excluded. (The inner secrets of their hearts being known to God.)

2. Secret of Bait-ur-Rizwan had been revealed by a clever decision in the truce affected in saving the lives of faithful men and women and who had concealed their faith for having tolive with the majority of infidels in Mecca. This is Divine Wisdom. The Prophet simply complied with Divine Commands.

3. Such acts are noticed when Ali, in the Battle of Siffin, prevented Malik-e-Ashtar to finish off the battle, and similarly Imam Hussain at Karbala held back the general onslaught of the enemy. This also explains postponement of the emergence of the 12th Divine Light until all the faithful are born. The Divine secrets are only made known to Divine Lights by Divine Messages. They act righteously throughout their life, unlike political pedagogue claiming to serve the nation, dedicating themselves and praying mob leading to ruin their ultimate cause (12-9-55). They rely on the wisdom of the mob.

Verses 27 – 29

لَقَدْ صَدَقَ اللَّهُ رَسُولَهُ الرُّؤْيَا بِالْحَقِّ ۖ لَتَدْخُلُنَّ الْمَسْجِدَ الْحَرَامَ إِنْ شَاءَ اللَّهُ آمِنِينَ مُحَلِّقِينَ رُءُوسَكُمْ وَمُقَصِّرِينَ لَا تَخَافُونَ ۖ فَعَلِمَ مَا لَمْ تَعْلَمُوا فَجَعَلَ مِنْ دُونِ ذَٰلِكَ فَتْحًا قَرِيبًا {27}

27. Verily God has verified the Prophet in his dream being true which you would enter the holy sanctuary, God willing, safely after shaving your heads and removing your nails, without any fear. He knows what you do not know, so before the conquest of mecca, he arranged a victory of Khaiber.

هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ ۚ وَكَفَىٰ بِاللَّهِ شَهِيدًا {28}

28. It is he who sent His Prophet with guidance and true religion to overpower other faiths (although they may have been revealed by God but had deteriorated with lapse of time) and God is enough as a witness (to your being a genuine prophet).

مُحَمَّدٌ رَسُولُ اللَّهِ ۚ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ ۖ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا ۖ سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِمْ مِنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ ۚ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنْجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ ۗ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُمْ مَغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا {29}

29. Mohammad is God’s Prophet; those with him are strict towards the infidels, and considerate amongst themselves. Forbearing, prostrating and seeking Divine grace and will, excessive prostration has left marks on their foreheads. These very qualities are to be traced in the Torah and Bible, like a cultivated field having sprouted its needles ad strengthened itself to thickness, and then stood on its own foundation, pleasing its cultivators and enraged infidels, and God has promised the faithful who have acted virtuously forgiveness and great reward.


Rapidity with which Islam spread all over has always been a subject of great discussion amongst historians, which was also presaged by the Prophet on the battlefield of the Trench. Large heartedness, politeness with piety was mighty moral armaments, with which Islam marched against infidels to enforce conversion to Islam.

  • 1. Who did not object to the Prophet’s contracting a treaty at Hudebia.
  • 2. This applies euqlly to all Divine Lights who bear the same connection as Aaron and Moses.
  • 3. Whereas the order for Khaiber refers only to those who accompanied the Propet to Mecca on pilgrimage.
  • 4. Therefore those who turned away from Ali and Imam Hussain, everyone of his age from respective Divine Lights is liable under Couplet 17.
  • 5. I.e. Khaiber which was won by Ali when Shaikhs retreated to save their lives with the army.
  • 6. This was the secret of Suleh Hudebia.
  • 7. Not to tolerate breach of covenant, executed in the Name of God the Unique, under the tree.