Table of Contents

Surah al-Mumtahana, Chapter 60

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful

Verses 1 – 6

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَّخِذُوا عَدُوِّي وَعَدُوَّكُمْ أَوْلِيَاءَ تُلْقُونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَقَدْ كَفَرُوا بِمَا جَاءَكُمْ مِنَ الْحَقِّ يُخْرِجُونَ الرَّسُولَ وَإِيَّاكُمْ ۙ أَنْ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ رَبِّكُمْ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ خَرَجْتُمْ جِهَادًا فِي سَبِيلِي وَابْتِغَاءَ مَرْضَاتِي ۚ تُسِرُّونَ إِلَيْهِمْ بِالْمَوَدَّةِ وَأَنَا أَعْلَمُ بِمَا أَخْفَيْتُمْ وَمَا أَعْلَنْتُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَفْعَلْهُ مِنْكُمْ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ سَوَاءَ السَّبِيلِ {1}

1. Oh you faithful do not be friends with My enemy and your enemy.1 You are inclined to them (as evidenced you correspondence) by way of affinity, whereas they have denied what has come to you from God (Divine text, Divine Light, and Islam). They have expelled the Prophet and you (from Mecca) for your having embraced faith in God, your Providence, and if you have emigrated for crusade in My way, and to seek My Will. You hide your affection for them and I know what you hide and expose and if any amongst you so acts, verily he is misguided.

إِنْ يَثْقَفُوكُمْ يَكُونُوا لَكُمْ أَعْدَاءً وَيَبْسُطُوا إِلَيْكُمْ أَيْدِيَهُمْ وَأَلْسِنَتَهُمْ بِالسُّوءِ وَوَدُّوا لَوْ تَكْفُرُونَ {2}

2. If the infidels get a hold of you, they will be your enemies, extending their hands and tongue to injure you. They desire you to revert to infidelity.

لَنْ تَنْفَعَكُمْ أَرْحَامُكُمْ وَلَا أَوْلَادُكُمْ ۚ يَوْمَ الْقِيَامَةِ يَفْصِلُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ بَصِيرٌ {3}

3. Your relations and children will not benefit you on Dooms Day, when you shall separate (they being condemned to hell due to infidelity and God views what you do).

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَكُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْكُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللَّهِ كَفَرْنَا بِكُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَكُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَاءُ أَبَدًا حَتَّىٰ تُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَحْدَهُ إِلَّا قَوْلَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ لِأَبِيهِ لَأَسْتَغْفِرَنَّ لَكَ وَمَا أَمْلِكُ لَكَ مِنَ اللَّهِ مِنْ شَيْءٍ ۖ رَبَّنَا عَلَيْكَ تَوَكَّلْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ أَنَبْنَا وَإِلَيْكَ الْمَصِيرُ {4}

4. Verily for you is an emulating example in Abraham and those (prophets) with him, when they told their sects verily are we away from you and from those whom you worship, barring God. We disbelieve your faith and animosity between Us and you forever, until and (on account which) has sprung up an enmity you believe in Unique God, leaving aside the word of promise held out by Abraham to his (so-called) father which he would pray forgiveness for him (on his having promised to admit faith and which is not for you to follow) and barring that I have no other means before God for you. Oh our Providence, we have relied on You and to you do we revert.

رَبَّنَا لَا تَجْعَلْنَا فِتْنَةً لِلَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا وَاغْفِرْ لَنَا رَبَّنَا ۖ إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ {5}

5. Oh Our Providence, do not subordinate us to infidels (in matter of earning livelihood and seeking safety in life). Oh our Providence, forgive us. Verily You are Mighty and wise.

لَقَدْ كَانَ لَكُمْ فِيهِمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ لِمَنْ كَانَ يَرْجُو اللَّهَ وَالْيَوْمَ الْآخِرَ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ هُوَ الْغَنِيُّ الْحَمِيدُ {6}

6. Verily in Abraham is a fine instance for emulation, for those of you who are desirous of seeking Divine proximity and Eternity, and who turns away. Verily is God Independent and Praiseworthy.

Moral

Before Abraham’s time the faithful used to be poor. After his prayer, some were enriched to be on the level with the infidels. Ever avoid befriending infidels, as ruining your noble features, for certainly man is akin to beast physically if he neglects his soul being pure, akin to God.

Verses 7 – 13

عَسَى اللَّهُ أَنْ يَجْعَلَ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَ الَّذِينَ عَادَيْتُمْ مِنْهُمْ مَوَدَّةً ۚ وَاللَّهُ قَدِيرٌ ۚ وَاللَّهُ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {7}

7. Verily shall God, in the near future, affect between you and your enemies affection. God is Mighty and God is Forgiving and Merciful.

لَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ لَمْ يُقَاتِلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَلَمْ يُخْرِجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ أَنْ تَبَرُّوهُمْ وَتُقْسِطُوا إِلَيْهِمْ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ يُحِبُّ الْمُقْسِطِينَ {8}

8. God does not forbid you to oblige those secular beings who do not dispute with you in religion and do not banish you and not to do justice to them, verily God loves the just.

إِنَّمَا يَنْهَاكُمُ اللَّهُ عَنِ الَّذِينَ قَاتَلُوكُمْ فِي الدِّينِ وَأَخْرَجُوكُمْ مِنْ دِيَارِكُمْ وَظَاهَرُوا عَلَىٰ إِخْرَاجِكُمْ أَنْ تَوَلَّوْهُمْ ۚ وَمَنْ يَتَوَلَّهُمْ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الظَّالِمُونَ {9}

9. He only forbids you to be friends with those who dispute with you in religion, banish you, and assist in your banishment. He who shall befriend them shall be disobedient.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا إِذَا جَاءَكُمُ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ مُهَاجِرَاتٍ فَامْتَحِنُوهُنَّ ۖ اللَّهُ أَعْلَمُ بِإِيمَانِهِنَّ ۖ فَإِنْ عَلِمْتُمُوهُنَّ مُؤْمِنَاتٍ فَلَا تَرْجِعُوهُنَّ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ ۖ لَا هُنَّ حِلٌّ لَهُمْ وَلَا هُمْ يَحِلُّونَ لَهُنَّ ۖ وَآتُوهُمْ مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ وَلَا جُنَاحَ عَلَيْكُمْ أَنْ تَنْكِحُوهُنَّ إِذَا آتَيْتُمُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ ۚ وَلَا تُمْسِكُوا بِعِصَمِ الْكَوَافِرِ وَاسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقْتُمْ وَلْيَسْأَلُوا مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ حُكْمُ اللَّهِ ۖ يَحْكُمُ بَيْنَكُمْ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلِيمٌ حَكِيمٌ {10}

10. Oh you faithful, if a faithful woman comes to you to seek refuge, verify her faith by a test, although God knows it, and if a faithful does not revert them to the infidels as they are neither lawful to them nor are infidels lawful to them, and pay their dower amount, advanced by their infidel husband to them when there is no objection against you to marry them, and do not take to marry infidel women. Demand you dower amount and they should demand what they have spent. These are God’s commands, which He gives you and He is Knowing and Wise.

وَإِنْ فَاتَكُمْ شَيْءٌ مِنْ أَزْوَاجِكُمْ إِلَى الْكُفَّارِ فَعَاقَبْتُمْ فَآتُوا الَّذِينَ ذَهَبَتْ أَزْوَاجُهُمْ مِثْلَ مَا أَنْفَقُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ الَّذِي أَنْتُمْ بِهِ مُؤْمِنُونَ {11}

11. If any of your wives reverts to an infidel, you (Prophet) have to pay the dower amount spent by her husband (out of the booty which falls to your hands). Pay those Muslim husbands whose wives have deserted them to the extent they have paid and fear God in whom you have faith.2

يَا أَيُّهَا النَّبِيُّ إِذَا جَاءَكَ الْمُؤْمِنَاتُ يُبَايِعْنَكَ عَلَىٰ أَنْ لَا يُشْرِكْنَ بِاللَّهِ شَيْئًا وَلَا يَسْرِقْنَ وَلَا يَزْنِينَ وَلَا يَقْتُلْنَ أَوْلَادَهُنَّ وَلَا يَأْتِينَ بِبُهْتَانٍ يَفْتَرِينَهُ بَيْنَ أَيْدِيهِنَّ وَأَرْجُلِهِنَّ وَلَا يَعْصِينَكَ فِي مَعْرُوفٍ ۙ فَبَايِعْهُنَّ وَاسْتَغْفِرْ لَهُنَّ اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ غَفُورٌ رَحِيمٌ {12}

12. Oh you Prophet, when faithful women come to you to sear fealty unto you on conditions of not associating any with God3 and on condition of not stealing to maintain purity and on condition of not fornicating4 and on condition of not killing children5 and on condition of not libelling what they conceal within their womb and on condition of not sinning while being ordered to do virtues and refrain from vices, accept then their oath of fealty praying forgiveness for them. Verily God is Forgiving and Merciful.

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا لَا تَتَوَلَّوْا قَوْمًا غَضِبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمْ قَدْ يَئِسُوا مِنَ الْآخِرَةِ كَمَا يَئِسَ الْكُفَّارُ مِنْ أَصْحَابِ الْقُبُورِ {13}

13. Oh you faithful do not be friends with a sect (Jews) on whom is Divine wrath and they have been disappointed from Eternal reward as the infidels have been despondent from the dead in the grave as to their living.

Moral

God enforced faith to purify from association, prayers to purify from pride, tithe to enhance provision, fasts to test sincerity, pilgrimage to maintain piety in religion, crusade for success of Islam, virtuous acts to improve mortal drawbacks, prevented evils to present sins, mixing to enhance friends, avenge to prevent murder, limits to maintain sacredness, barred drinking to maintain reason, barred stealing to maintain purity, barred fornication to maintain succession, barred masturbation to continue progeny, ordered true testimony to falsify cheats, forbade lie to maintain elegance of truth, ordered peace to maintain safety, decided leadership to maintain organization, ordered submission to revere leadership.

  • 1. This was the warning given to Adam, who exchanged it with a false promise held out to him, under oath by the devil. As paradise is no place for the proud rogues and those who shelter them or are influenced by them, even before being sent to Earth which was announced, pre-hand, for tiral.
  • 2. Katbu, daughter of Abi Umiah, wife of Omar deserted and married Abu Aufian. the Prophet paid Omar dower amount out of the booty.
  • 3. Thus promising to forsake bestial habits of infidelity which Islam does not court.
  • 4. Islam does not permit illegitimacy to preserve inheritance.
  • 5. Islam guards life.