Table of Contents

Surah al-Hashr, Chapter 59

بِسْمِ اللَّهِ الرَّحْمَٰنِ الرَّحِيمِ

In the Name of God the Compassionate, the Merciful

Verses 1 – 10

سَبَّحَ لِلَّهِ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَمَا فِي الْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ {1}

1. Everything which is in Heaven and on earth glorifies God and He is Mighty and Wise.

هُوَ الَّذِي أَخْرَجَ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ لِأَوَّلِ الْحَشْرِ ۚ مَا ظَنَنْتُمْ أَنْ يَخْرُجُوا ۖ وَظَنُّوا أَنَّهُمْ مَانِعَتُهُمْ حُصُونُهُمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ فَأَتَاهُمُ اللَّهُ مِنْ حَيْثُ لَمْ يَحْتَسِبُوا ۖ وَقَذَفَ فِي قُلُوبِهِمُ الرُّعْبَ ۚ يُخْرِبُونَ بُيُوتَهُمْ بِأَيْدِيهِمْ وَأَيْدِي الْمُؤْمِنِينَ فَاعْتَبِرُوا يَا أُولِي الْأَبْصَارِ {2}

2. It is He Who drove out of Medina infidels, amongst men of revealed religion, from their villages.1 Oh you faithful, did you not think you will ever get out of Arabia and they themselves were sure of not being overthrown against Divine forces. But came the Divine disaster from whence they did not dream, thrilling their hearts, which made them, ruin their own castles with their own hands and with those of the faithful outside. Take a lesson oh you wise.

وَلَوْلَا أَنْ كَتَبَ اللَّهُ عَلَيْهِمُ الْجَلَاءَ لَعَذَّبَهُمْ فِي الدُّنْيَا ۖ وَلَهُمْ فِي الْآخِرَةِ عَذَابُ النَّارِ {3}

3. Had it not been a pre-destined punishment for them, they would have been slain in this world and in eternity, would be hurled in hell.

ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ شَاقُّوا اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۖ وَمَنْ يُشَاقِّ اللَّهَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {4}

4. This is due to their facing God and His Prophet and He who does so has for him an intense punishment, of course.

مَا قَطَعْتُمْ مِنْ لِينَةٍ أَوْ تَرَكْتُمُوهَا قَائِمَةً عَلَىٰ أُصُولِهَا فَبِإِذْنِ اللَّهِ وَلِيُخْزِيَ الْفَاسِقِينَ {5}

5. What, from trees you were cutting and leaving the rest, was being executed under Divine commands as a punishment to the disobedient.

وَمَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْهُمْ فَمَا أَوْجَفْتُمْ عَلَيْهِ مِنْ خَيْلٍ وَلَا رِكَابٍ وَلَٰكِنَّ اللَّهَ يُسَلِّطُ رُسُلَهُ عَلَىٰ مَنْ يَشَاءُ ۚ وَاللَّهُ عَلَىٰ كُلِّ شَيْءٍ قَدِيرٌ {6}

6. What God has given of booty without fight to His Prophet, where you have no run your horses or gone on foot, but god gave success to His Prophet over whomsoever He chooses and God is Omnipotent.

مَا أَفَاءَ اللَّهُ عَلَىٰ رَسُولِهِ مِنْ أَهْلِ الْقُرَىٰ فَلِلَّهِ وَلِلرَّسُولِ وَلِذِي الْقُرْبَىٰ وَالْيَتَامَىٰ وَالْمَسَاكِينِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيلِ كَيْ لَا يَكُونَ دُولَةً بَيْنَ الْأَغْنِيَاءِ مِنْكُمْ ۚ وَمَا آتَاكُمُ الرَّسُولُ فَخُذُوهُ وَمَا نَهَاكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوا ۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۖ إِنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ {7}

7. Whatever God has given to His Prophet from village owners is for God, the Prophet, his relatives, orphans, poor, and wayfarers, so the same may not circulate among the rich of you, hence take what is give by the Prophet and desist from what he forbids, and fear God. Verily God is Mighty at punishment.2

لِلْفُقَرَاءِ الْمُهَاجِرِينَ الَّذِينَ أُخْرِجُوا مِنْ دِيَارِهِمْ وَأَمْوَالِهِمْ يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا وَيَنْصُرُونَ اللَّهَ وَرَسُولَهُ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الصَّادِقُونَ {8}

8. It is for the poor of those who fled from Mecca being driven out from their towns and deprived of their property to gain Divine grace and will and to help God and His Prophet. These are the only true faithful.

وَالَّذِينَ تَبَوَّءُوا الدَّارَ وَالْإِيمَانَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ يُحِبُّونَ مَنْ هَاجَرَ إِلَيْهِمْ وَلَا يَجِدُونَ فِي صُدُورِهِمْ حَاجَةً مِمَّا أُوتُوا وَيُؤْثِرُونَ عَلَىٰ أَنْفُسِهِمْ وَلَوْ كَانَ بِهِمْ خَصَاصَةٌ ۚ وَمَنْ يُوقَ شُحَّ نَفْسِهِ فَأُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْمُفْلِحُونَ {9}

9. And those who adopted their homes in Medina and embraced faith, before them and were pleased to receive refugees under their protection and bore no malice in their hearts for what they parted of theirs with them, and gave preference to others over self, although they were in need of it. Such of them, who denied self are to attain salvation.

وَالَّذِينَ جَاءُوا مِنْ بَعْدِهِمْ يَقُولُونَ رَبَّنَا اغْفِرْ لَنَا وَلِإِخْوَانِنَا الَّذِينَ سَبَقُونَا بِالْإِيمَانِ وَلَا تَجْعَلْ فِي قُلُوبِنَا غِلًّا لِلَّذِينَ آمَنُوا رَبَّنَا إِنَّكَ رَءُوفٌ رَحِيمٌ {10}

10. Those who succeeded them have been praying to God to forgive their sins and those of their brethren who preceded them in faith, without leaving any grudge in their hearts for the faithful. Verily You are Forgiving and Merciful.

Moral

Bani Amir and Bani Nazir, two Jewish clans lived under the Prophet’s protection in the district of Medina. In order to avenge Omar ibn Zamiri, who had killed two members of Bani Amir’s clans, preceded the Prophet, with his selected companions, demanding help from Bani Nazir. Instead, they plotted to kill the prophet, who was advised through Gabriel by God the Almighty. The Prophet deputed Mohammad Muslima to kill Kab ibn Ashraf, the rebel chief of Bani Nazir.

This being done, he demanded their evacuation from Medina, in default of which to face the battle, owing to their intrigue to kill the Prophet. They left their homes leaving their property, as crown lands to the prophets, who distributed it amongst his deserving relatives and to which the rich refugees and Ansars were not entitle. (Today, not a single Jew seems settled in Arabia).

Religious Moral

Self-denial is a virtue characteristic of the Ahl al-Bait, who used to get direct provision from Divinity as above. In vain, do they talk of happiness, when, never did they subdue an impulse, in obedience to a principle. The secret of success is to know how to deny yourself, which is an excellent guard to virtue, for it is safer and wiser to abate some of our lawful enjoyment, than to gratify our permissible desires to the utmost. It is not only a characteristic of religion, but to human life. The lowest (physical pleasures) must always be denied when you have risen to a higher spiritual sphere. Religiously, it is a holy union with God, Whose self-sufficiency and proximity should make you godly.

Verses 11 – 17

أَلَمْ تَرَ إِلَى الَّذِينَ نَافَقُوا يَقُولُونَ لِإِخْوَانِهِمُ الَّذِينَ كَفَرُوا مِنْ أَهْلِ الْكِتَابِ لَئِنْ أُخْرِجْتُمْ لَنَخْرُجَنَّ مَعَكُمْ وَلَا نُطِيعُ فِيكُمْ أَحَدًا أَبَدًا وَإِنْ قُوتِلْتُمْ لَنَنْصُرَنَّكُمْ وَاللَّهُ يَشْهَدُ إِنَّهُمْ لَكَاذِبُونَ {11}

11. Have you not seen those hypocrites3 telling their brethren infidels, “If you come out4 we shall also come out to your assistance and shall not obey any against you and if you fight certainly shall we assist you.” God attests they are liars.

لَئِنْ أُخْرِجُوا لَا يَخْرُجُونَ مَعَهُمْ وَلَئِنْ قُوتِلُوا لَا يَنْصُرُونَهُمْ وَلَئِنْ نَصَرُوهُمْ لَيُوَلُّنَّ الْأَدْبَارَ ثُمَّ لَا يُنْصَرُونَ {12}

12. If they come out they will not assist them. If they did, they would turn back and run away and will not be helped any longer.

لَأَنْتُمْ أَشَدُّ رَهْبَةً فِي صُدُورِهِمْ مِنَ اللَّهِ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَفْقَهُونَ {13}

13. Verily you have been a mightier source of threat into the hearts of these hypocrites than God. This is because they do not understand.

لَا يُقَاتِلُونَكُمْ جَمِيعًا إِلَّا فِي قُرًى مُحَصَّنَةٍ أَوْ مِنْ وَرَاءِ جُدُرٍ ۚ بَأْسُهُمْ بَيْنَهُمْ شَدِيدٌ ۚ تَحْسَبُهُمْ جَمِيعًا وَقُلُوبُهُمْ شَتَّىٰ ۚ ذَٰلِكَ بِأَنَّهُمْ قَوْمٌ لَا يَعْقِلُونَ {14}

14. They will not fight with you altogether, except when they are strongly fortified in a fort or from behind the walls. They have severe internal strife (among themselves). You think they are united but their hearts are cleft apart. This is because the sect has no sense.

كَمَثَلِ الَّذِينَ مِنْ قَبْلِهِمْ قَرِيبًا ۖ ذَاقُوا وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِمْ وَلَهُمْ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ {15}

15. Like a preceding people, they tasted the results of their infidelity and for them there is intense punishment.

كَمَثَلِ الشَّيْطَانِ إِذْ قَالَ لِلْإِنْسَانِ اكْفُرْ فَلَمَّا كَفَرَ قَالَ إِنِّي بَرِيءٌ مِنْكَ إِنِّي أَخَافُ اللَّهَ رَبَّ الْعَالَمِينَ {16}

16. Like a devil when he beguiled man to disbelief, and when he did so, he said, “I am away from your act. I am afraid of God, the Creator of the worlds.”

فَكَانَ عَاقِبَتَهُمَا أَنَّهُمَا فِي النَّارِ خَالِدَيْنِ فِيهَا ۚ وَذَٰلِكَ جَزَاءُ الظَّالِمِينَ {17}

17. With a result, their fate shall be hell, in eternity, wherein shall they ever remain. This is the reward of infidelity.

Moral

Infidelity is the root of all sins, for did man heartily believe the promises to obedience (i.e. paradise) and threats otherwise (i.e. hell), they could hardly have been so unreasonable as to forfeit the one and incur the other. Faith in God hallows union between parents and children, and that between subjects and ruler. Infidelity relaxes every bond and nullifies every blessing.

Verses 18 – 24

يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَلْتَنْظُرْ نَفْسٌ مَا قَدَّمَتْ لِغَدٍ ۖ وَاتَّقُوا اللَّهَ ۚ إِنَّ اللَّهَ خَبِيرٌ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ {18}

18. Oh you faithful fear God, and see what you are sending ahead for tomorrow (Day of Judgment). Fear God and God is, of course, acquainted with what you are doing.

وَلَا تَكُونُوا كَالَّذِينَ نَسُوا اللَّهَ فَأَنْسَاهُمْ أَنْفُسَهُمْ ۚ أُولَٰئِكَ هُمُ الْفَاسِقُونَ {19}

19. Do not be like one who forgot God5 else He will forget you.6 They are disobedient.

لَا يَسْتَوِي أَصْحَابُ النَّارِ وَأَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ ۚ أَصْحَابُ الْجَنَّةِ هُمُ الْفَائِزُونَ {20}

20. Men of hell are not alike those of paradise. Men of Paradise shall be successful.

لَوْ أَنْزَلْنَا هَٰذَا الْقُرْآنَ عَلَىٰ جَبَلٍ لَرَأَيْتَهُ خَاشِعًا مُتَصَدِّعًا مِنْ خَشْيَةِ اللَّهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ الْأَمْثَالُ نَضْرِبُهَا لِلنَّاسِ لَعَلَّهُمْ يَتَفَكَّرُونَ {21}

21. Had We revealed the Text on mountains, on seeing it, they would have shuddered and you would have seen them, bursting out of Divine Awe.

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ ۖ عَالِمُ الْغَيْبِ وَالشَّهَادَةِ ۖ هُوَ الرَّحْمَٰنُ الرَّحِيمُ {22}

22. It is He, God besides Whom, there is none another, Knower of the hidden and open, the Compassionate, the Merciful.

هُوَ اللَّهُ الَّذِي لَا إِلَٰهَ إِلَّا هُوَ الْمَلِكُ الْقُدُّوسُ السَّلَامُ الْمُؤْمِنُ الْمُهَيْمِنُ الْعَزِيزُ الْجَبَّارُ الْمُتَكَبِّرُ ۚ سُبْحَانَ اللَّهِ عَمَّا يُشْرِكُونَ {23}

23. It is He, God besides whom there is no other, the Glorious Monarch, Guarding and Sheltering, Mighty and Commanding, Proud and Pure, of what you are associating Him with.

هُوَ اللَّهُ الْخَالِقُ الْبَارِئُ الْمُصَوِّرُ ۖ لَهُ الْأَسْمَاءُ الْحُسْنَىٰ ۚ يُسَبِّحُ لَهُ مَا فِي السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالْأَرْضِ ۖ وَهُوَ الْعَزِيزُ الْحَكِيمُ {24}

24. It is He, God the Creator, Architect, and for Him are all the glorious attributes, and glorifying Him all which are in Heaven and Earth and He is Mighty and Wise.

Moral

Fear guides more to duty than gratitude. For one who is virtuous, from love of virtue, or obligation, he thinks he lies under the obligation of Giver of all. There are thousands who are good only from their apprehension of punishment. Virtuous fear is mother of far-sightedness leading to hope, by relying on God, and vicious fear is product of doubt and distress, leaving to distress and destruction. Obedience proceeds from love, and likewise disobedience from enmity.

  • 1. A sect of Bani Nazir living in Medina to a place in Damascus which shall later be a site for a general assembly.
  • 2. The Prophet banished Bani Nazir and Bani Kika. He let Khaibarians to remain and work on contract. He slew Bani Kariza turning their wives and sons into slaves under Divine commands.
  • 3. Abdullah ibn Ubi, Abu Laila and Refaha, sending messages to Bani Nazir, noted in foregoing paragraph and breaching their promises later.
  • 4. To fight against Mohammad.
  • 5. Omitted to discharge Divine obligations enjoined on them.
  • 6. That is punish you for your having neglected Divine commands.