Abdul Hamid of Egypt and Allamah Abdullah Subaiti write that Abu Dharr stayed in Medina after the death of Umar. He saw that Uthman was favourably inclined towards Bani Umayyah whose influence had grown deep into the Islamic State which had assumed the magnificence of a kingdom. People indulged in pomp and show, and led highly luxurious lives. They had become fond of the worldly gains. He saw that most of the companions were totally changed. Zubayr, Talha and Abdul Rahman bin, Auf (having reconciled with the government) had purchased lands and houses. Sa'd bin Abi Waqqas had agates fixed in his palace, had raised it very high, broadened the courtyard and made turrets on it. Therefore, Abu Dharr stood up and came out openly. He was not to be deterred by any commander or caliph. He started inviting people to austerity and attacking Uthman in his speeches.
One day he came to know that Uthman had given the fifth part of the tribute from Africa to Marwan bin Hakam, 300,000 dirhams to Harith bin al 'As, 100,000 dirhams to Zayd bin Thabit, immeasurable wealth from the booties of Africa to his foster brother, Abdullah bin Ali Sarah and the land of Fadak to Marwan which had been snatched from Fatimah, the daughter of the Holy Prophet. He started to recite this verse in the masjid.
“Announce a painful torture to those who amass gold and silver and do not spend them in the way of Allah". (Surah Taubah, 9: 34)
Marwan came to know that Abu Dharr attacked him and Uthman, he complained to Uthman, who ordered his slave to call Abu Dharr to him. Abu Dharr went to him. At sight of him Uthman said: “Abu Dharr ! Desist from what I am hearing, otherwise you will not find anybody more inimical to you than I". Abu Dharr said, "O Commander! What have you heard about me?" Uthman said, "I have come to know that you instigate people against me". Abu Dharr asked, "How is it?" Uthman said, "You recite the verse, “Announce a painful torture………” in the masjid. Abu Dharr said, "O Commander! Do you stop me from reciting the Book of Allah and from disclosing the short-comings of those who have abandoned the commands of Allah! By Allah, I cannot offend Allah for the sake of Uthman. The displeasure of Uthman is better for me than the displeasure of Allah".
Hearing this Uthman frowned at Abu Dharr but could not decide how to refute the charge. Therefore, he did not say anything and kept quiet for some time. Abu Dharr rose and went away from there, with a firm determination to criticise those who worked against the commands of Allah more than ever.
Abu Dharr attacked Uthman more frequently. So he got very angry and waited for an opportunity to exile Abu Dharr. One day he got the chance and availed himself of it.
According to Ibn Wazih the author of ‘Tarikh Ya'qubi’ people informed Uthman that Abu Dharr Ghifari taunted him in the masjid and had delivered a speech at the gate of the masjid thus:
"O people! He who knows me knows me, but let him, who does not recognize me know that I am Abu Dharr Ghifari. My name is Jundab bin Junadah Rabazi. Allah elevated Adam, Nuh, the progeny of Ibrahim and the children of Imran, out of the people of the world. The Prophet Muhammad is the heir to Adam's knowledge and to all virtues which had distinguished the Prophets, and Ali ibn Abi Talib is the successor of the Prophet and heir to his knowledge".
"O bewildered people! If after your Prophet you had preferred one whom Allah has preferred, and had put him last whom Allah has placed last, and had confined the governance and inheritance among the Ahlul Bayt, you would have got countless blessings from above your heads and from under your feet, and no friend of Allah would have been poor and destitute, and no part of the Divine obligations would have been lost, and no two persons would have disputed about the Divine command simply because they would have found the information about that commandment in the Divine Book and the tradition of the Prophet, according to the Ahlul Bayt of their Prophet. But since you have wilfully done what you should not have done, you must suffer the punishment for your wrong doing, and it will not be long before those who have wronged will know to whom they will return”.
It is also recorded in the same book of history that Uthman was also informed that he had made changes in the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet and the traditions of Abu Bakr and Umar on the foundation of which the edifice of his Caliphate was raised, and that Abu Dharr placed that complaint before the public.
On hearing these things Uthman sent Abu Dharr to Mu'awiyah, Governor of Syria. According to Tarikh Abul Fida, this thing happened in 30 AH.
Scholars say that as Abu Dharr continuously criticized Uthman's actions which violated the religious laws, Uthman imposed severe restrictions on him. It was his directive that nobody should talk to Abu Dharr, or go near him or sit with him. Public meetings were held again and again to proclaim this order.
According to the version of Allamah Majlisi and Allamah Subaiti, Ahnaf bin Qays often used to come to the masjid and sit there. One day he prayed to Allah "O Lord! Replace my unsociability with love and my loneliness with company and grant me such a worthy companion as has no peer".
After finishing this prayer he saw a man sitting and worshipping in a corner of the masjid. He rose from his seat, approached him and sat down by his side. Then he said to him, "Who are you gentleman and what is your name?" He answered, "Jundab bin Junadah". On hearing this he said, "Allah is great, Allah is great".
Abu Dharr said, why did you recite Takbir. He answered, "When I entered the masjid today I prayed to Allah to grant me the best companion. He fulfilled my wish very soon and granted me the honour of meeting with you".
Abu Dharr said, "I awe it to Allah, more than you, to glorify Him because I was adjudged to be a suitable companion. O Man! Listen to me. The Holy Prophet has told me that you and I will be on a very high place and will remain there till all are free from reckoning". Abu Dharr further added: "O slave of Allah! Get away from me or you will face some trouble". He asked, "How is that, friend?” Abu Dharr replied, “Uthman bin Affan has forbidden people to sit with me and has ordered that whosoever meets me, talks to me and sits with me, will be punished". (Hayat ul-Qulub, by Allamah Majlisi vol. 2. and Abu Dharr al-Ghifari, by Allamah Subaiti).
In short, Uthman became disgusted with Abu Dharr's truthfulness. He carried on his work despite the restrictions and Uthman got regular information about it. At last, being tired of Abu Dharr he decided to send him to Syria.