For Hajj al-Tammatu, the First obligatory act is donning of ihram.
After completing Umrah rites every pilgrim has to don ihram for Hajj-e·Tamattu. The only difference between Pilgrimage ihram and Umra ihram is intention and place, rest is same.
Ihram can be donned anywhere in Makkah, but highly recommended place is Masjid-e -Haram. Offer two units of prayers near Maqam al-Ibrahim or Hajr al-Ismaeel and then don ihram.
The name Arafat has been derived from word 'araf, which means acquaintance, recognition or knowing. There are many different reasons for the use of this name.
1. Prophet Adam (as) and Lady Eve (as) met each other after a long wait at this plain.
2. Prophet Abraham (as) dreamed about offering sacrifice of Prophet Ismaeel (as) at this plain.
3. Imam Jaffer al-Sadiq (as) said: Angel Gabriel (as) brought Prophet Adam (as) to this plain and told Him, "After the sun set confess your sins." So as Prophet Adam (as) became acquainted with His sins here that is why it is called Arafat.
These are the few commonly held beliefs for why this place has been given this name. Now we will discuss the philosophy behind the selection of this particular plain.
This plain is very close to nature. No high rise building or material wealth or comforts are found here. Therefore it presents the picture of what we will have to face on the Day of Judgment when we are gathered in front of Allah (swt) for question and answer.
Prophet Mohammad (S) said, "Day of 'Arafah is a very difficult day for Satan."
When God's servants leave all the material life behind and become fully focused on their creator, then why will not this day become a difficult one for Satan.
The second obligation in Hajj-ut-Tamatu is the stay at Arafat. The objective of performing this act of worship has to be the intention of attainment of closeness to Allah (swt). The requirement is the presence in Arafat, regardless of whether the pilgrim is riding, walking, sitting or moving.
Stay at Arafat should, as a matter of precaution, be from the beginning of zawaal (Time when the sun set begins) on the ninth of Zil Hijjah till sunset.
The stay there for this period is obligatory and whoever fails to do so; by choice, commit a sin. However, it is not one of the fundamentals of Pilgrimage, i.e. if one fails to be there for a portion of the required time, one's Hajj is not invalidated.
There are two types of stays:
1. Wuquf al-Ikhtiari (Optional stay): Stay during the day time.
2. Wuquf al-lztirari (Compulsory stay): A short stay on the Eid night.
If for some valid reason or lack of knowledge one does not perform Wuquf al-Ikhtiari then she must do Wuquf al-Iztirari and her Pilgrimage will be valid.
Allah (swt) says in the Holy Qur'an:
فَإِذَا أَفَضْتُمْ مِنْ عَرَفَاتٍ فَاذْكُرُوا اللَّهَ عِنْدَ الْمَشْعَرِ الْحَرَامِ
[Shakir 2:198] “So when you hasten on from "Arafat", then remember Allah near the Holy Monument.
How to remember Allah (swt)?
The open plains and desert of Mash'ar, complete silence of night and sky full of shining stars, makes one remember ones creator. There was a tent city in the plain of Arafat, the artificial lights were shining, but here it is just open space with dark of night on all sides.
Yes as one rite of Pilgrimage follows another, it becomes simpler. The pilgrim starts feeling closer to nature closer to his Creator. Meaningful thoughts and inner light make him aware of the meanings of his creation. The meaning of Mash'ar is awareness or perception.
We can say that Arafat was one grade and Mash'ar is a higher grade. That grade we attended in the day time and now we are in the night class. Both classes are held in plains. In the first class there was roof to sit under, food to eat and lights to brighten the surroundings. But the second class is held in a plain where there is no food to eat no lights to guide one. There is a danger of getting lost. Pebbles have to be collected. The pilgrim is already very tired. Yesterday in the plain of Arafat hands were holding supplication book, now hands are full of pebbles which will be used for attacking the enemy.
Oh! The pilgrim of the House of Allah (swt) if you have been lacking in deeds, do not stay behind in supplication.
If back home the world, friends and foes, neighbors and co workers, teachers and class mates distracted you here there is no one to do so. The Greatest Host has brought you to this land where the earth is full of tears of all Holy Men of history. The atmosphere here is witness to the grieving and crying of passionate followers of Allah (swt). Be appreciative of this Holy place and wake up from your slumber.
The third obligation in Hajj-ut-Tamatu is stay at Muzdalifah which is also known as Mash'aril-Haram.
When a pilgrim leaves Arafat, some part of the night of 10th Dhil Hajjah she must spend in Muzdalifah. She should, as a matter of precaution, stay till sunrise with the intention of closeness to Allah (swt).
Ladies can stay for a short period and before sunrise depart for Mina.
If someone cannot perform optional stay then compulsory stay is enough.
Wuquf al-Ikhtiari (Optional stay): It starts from 10th Dhil Hajjah night and ends at sunrise.
Wuqf al-Iztiari (Compulsory stay): On the Eid day between sunrise to sunset a short stay.