Merits of Adam and Hawwa’ (Eve), Reasons behind naming them so, the beginning of creation

It is related through authentic chains that Imam Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja‘far as-Sadiq said, “Adam was named ‘Adam’ because he was ‘Adeemul Arz’, that is he was created from the face of the earth (from dust). And Hawwa’ is named so because she was created from a being (Hayya), that is Adam.” According to another opinion “Adeemul Arz” is the fourth (layer of) earth.

In another report it is mentioned that ‘Abdullah bin Salaam asked the Messenger of Allah why Adam is named thus. The Prophet replied it was because Adam has been created from the dust of the Earth. ‘Abdullah asked whether Adam was created from dust of one particular location or from a mixture of dust collected from various places. The Prophet said, “The dust resembles him most because it is white, red, green, pink and blue. It has sweet, sour tastes, agreeable and disagreeable temperaments, hard and soft qualities of mind. This has caused the people to be soft and hard, red, black, yellow, pink based on different types of soil.”

‘Abdullah asked him whether Hawwa’ was created from Adam or Adam created from Hawwa’. The Prophet replied that Hawwa’ was created from Adam and if Adam had been created from Hawwa’, the woman would have had the prerogative to divorce.

‘Abdullah asked whether Hawwa’ was created from a specific part of Adam’s body or from this whole body. The Prophet replied, “From a specific portion and if she had been created from his whole body the commands of retaliation would have been equal for both.”

‘Abdullah asked whether she was created from the external part of Adam’s body or from an internal portion. The Prophet replied, “From the internal. If she were created from an external part, she would have been allowed, like men, to go out without Hijab (veil). Therefore it is necessary that men should have their women covered in Hijab.”

‘Abdullah asked if she was created from the right side or the left side. The Prophet replied, “If she had been created from the right side, men and women would have received equal shares of inheritance. Because as she was created from the left side the woman has one share and men have two shares. And the testimony of two women is equal to that of one man.”

‘Abdullah asked, “From which part of Adam’s body was she created?” The Prophet replied, “She was created from the clay that was left over after making of the rib of Adam.”

According to a reliable chain, Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq had said that woman is known as Mar’ah (Arabic word meaning woman) because she had been created from ‘Mar’ (Arabic word for man), this is based on the fact that Hawwa’ is created from Adam.

In another reliable tradition Imam says that women are known as ‘Nisa’ (Arabic word for women) because Adam was not interested (having ‘uns’) in anything before he got the company of Hawwa’.

Authentic narrations from Imam ‘Ali state that the Almighty created Adam from the soil of all the surface of the earth. Thus, as there are different types of soil, like salty, sweet, fertile and infertile, the progeny of Adam also consists of people who are good and evil.

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has been quoted through trustworthy chains of narrators that he said, “When the Almighty sent Archangel Gabriel to bring a handful of dust from the earth for the creation of Adam the earth said, “I seek refuge of Allah from you taking away my soil.” Archangel Gabriel returned and said to Allah that the earth sought His refuge. The Almighty sent Israfil and authorized him similarly. The earth again prayed for Allah’s refuge. Israfil also returned due to the entreaty of the earth. Now, Mika’il was ordered to collect the soil. He too came back as the earth pleaded for Allah’s refuge. Finally the Angel of death was deputed with the command to collect some mud from the Earth. It requested for Divine refuge from this Angel too. The Angel of death said he too sought refuge of Allah from returning empty-handed. Thus, he collected a handful of dust from every part of the earth.

From correct chains of narrators, the Holy Prophet is quoted to have remarked, “When Angels passed by the body of Adam who had been created from clay and was lying in heavens, they used to say, ‘You have been created for an important affair.’ When the accursed Satan passed by, he kicked the body of Adam and said, ‘You are made for a great affair.’

From reliable chains of traditionalists, ‘Abd al-‘Alim wrote a letter to Imam Muhammad al-Taqi and asked him why the urine and stool of man had such a foul smell. Imam replied that it was so, because when the Almighty created Adam his body was clean and he lay in that position for forty years. The Angels passed by remarking, ‘You have been created for a great affair.’ The Satan enHtered his mouth and passed through him emerging from the other side (anus). As a result, whatever is inside the belly of son of Adam is smelly and unclean.

Another tradition from the Messenger of Allah states that the Almighty created Adam on a Friday.

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that when the soul was ordered to enter the body of Adam it found it detestable. The Almighty said that it should enter with dislike (forced in) and leave it in dislike (forced out).

Authentic chains mention that Abu-Basir asked the same Imam the reason for Allah creating Adam without a father and mother, and of creating ‘Isa without a father whereas He created the rest of humans from both parents. Imam replied it was so that people may become aware of the Omnipotence of Allah that He is capable of creating without a male and of creating without a male and female. They should realize that Allah is the Creator of every being and has power over everything.

In another reliable tradition, Imam says that when the Almighty created Adam and ordered the soul to enter his body, the soul had not completely permeated into the body and according to another tradition it had reached only unto the knees, when Adam tried to stand up but he could not, and fell back; thus, the Almighty said, “Man is created with a hasty temperament.”

Salman the Persian is quoted in authentic books to have remarked that the first organs of man to be created were the eyes. Adam saw the creation of the rest of his body. Before the creation of legs was complete, he tried to stand up but could not succeed. That is why the Almighty said, “Man is created a hasty being.” When the soul entered his complete body he grasped a bunch of grapes and began to eat them.

According to an authentic tradition of Imam as-Sadiq, there are three fathers; the first is Adam the progenitor of the believers, second is Jaan the progenitor of Jinn and third is Satan the progenitor of infidels. The progeny of Satan is not created through pregnancy. It multiplies through eggs and chicks are hatched. All of them are males. They have no females.

Imam al-Baqir says that the Almighty decided to create a being, by His power. This was 7000 years after the Jinn and men had inhabited the earth. When Allah intended to create Adam, He opened the layers of the heavens and addressed the Angels: “Look at the inhabitants of the earth and behold the Jinn and men.” The Angels witnessed the vile acts and saw the unjust bloodshed in the earth as also the widespread corruption. Then they understood the great matter. They were infuriated at the inhabitants of the earth and they lost their temper. They addressed Allah: “O our Lord! You are superior, powerful, forceful, punisher and possess a great honor whereas these creatures of yours are weak, lowly and subjected to Your power. They survive only because You provide them with sustenance but they are oblivious of Your kindness. They disobey Your commands and sin blatantly, yet You are not infuriated at them and do not take revenge. We feel it is a great affair and perceive the audacity of these creatures.” When the Almighty heard this, He said that He was going to appoint a vicegerent on the earth. “He shall be My proof on My Creatures.”

The Angels said, “We consider You to be purified from every defect. Would You create such a group on the Earth that it will cause bloodshed and corruption as the progeny of Jinn initiated bloodshed and corruption, and envied each other and bore enmity with one another? Appoint one of us as Your Caliph (representative). We shall neither cause bloodshed and corruption nor practice jealousy and rivalry. We would rather praise and glorify You. We shall consider you absolutely Pure (of any deficiency).” The Almighty said,

“I know what you know not.” (2:30)

“I wish to create a being and from his progeny create Prophets, Messenger, righteous servants and guiding Imams and appoint them as My representatives on the inhabitants of the Earth so that they may prohibit the people from My disobedience, warn them of My chastisement, invite them towards My worship and lead them on the way liked by Me. I shall appoint them as My proof on My creatures and remove the Jinn from the earth, and purify the Earth from their filth. I shall remove the filthy Jinn away from My new creation and from My greatness, and make them inhabit the atmosphere surrounding the Earth. My new creation will not be in their company. I shall put a curtain between the jinn and Men so that humans cannot see the jinn and cannot interact and associate with them. Then whomsoever from the progeny of humans disobeys Me, I shall put him in the vicinity of transgressors, that is in Hell and I shall not care from them.”

“As you wish,” said the Angels,

“We have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.” (2:32)

As a result of this misdemeanor of theirs, the Angels were removed by Allah to a distance of 500 years’ travel. The Angels took refuge at the Divine Throne and pleaded for forgiveness pointing out with their fingers. The Almighty saw their humility and sincerity and bestowed His Mercy upon them. He appointed them at al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur (the much-frequented Fane) and ordered them to leave the Holy Throne and keep on circling the al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. That would earn His satisfaction.

So the Angels began to circle al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. It is a house where 70000 Angels enter everyday, and none ever returns. The Almighty has created al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur as a site of repenting for the inhabitants of the heavens and appointed the Ka‘bah for the inhabitants of the Earth, that they may seek forgiveness here.

Then, Almighty Allah said, “I shall produce a being from dry mud that produces a sound and a mixture of clay and sand. (That is, from foul smelling and dirty clay that has changed its appearance). So when I complete it and blow My soul in it you all shall fall down in prostration.”

This was the preface to the creation of Adam that the Almighty used to complete His argument upon the Angels.

Imam al-Baqir says, “Our Lord kneaded the clay with sweet water and said, ‘I shall create from this until the Resurrection Day, Prophets, Messengers, righteous servants and guided Imams who shall invite the people towards Paradise and the people who follow these personalities. I do not care if anyone questions this action of Mine.’” Then He took some sour water and kneaded the clay with it saying, ‘I shall create from you, until the Resurrection Day, the oppressors, aggressors, people of ‘ad and the brethren of Satan. They shall invite the people towards Hell and I shall also create from this clay the followers of these people. I don’t care if anyone raises an objection against this action of Mine and all of them shall be questioned. I shall subject them to Badaa (change of destiny).

Allah can change them into the people of the right (for heaven) or transform them into the people of the left (dwellers of Hell). Thus, He mixed the two kinds of clay and threw it before the Divine Throne. The clay broke into a few pieces. Then he ordered the four Angels of different winds (North, South, East and West) to blow their respective breezes on those pieces of clay. They blew at the pieces, pulverized them, and shaped them with the four elements: Madness due to the effect of north wind, phlegm due to east, bile due to west and blood as a result of the Southern wind. Thus, the body of Adam was complete.

One part of it is madness that creates an attraction for the female sex and instigates hope and vying for their love. Phlegm is responsible for desire to eat, drink, to act charitably, intelligence and hospitality. Bile causes anger, stupidity, evil, oppression, injustice and haste. The four element of blood creates sexuality, instigation to perform illegal acts and sexual desires. Imam says, ‘We found it mentioned in the same way in the book of Amir al-Mu’minin.

Thus, Adam was created and remained in his original form for forty years. When the accursed Satan passed by, he remarked, “You have been created for something great,” and used to say, “If Allah commands us to prostrate before him, I shall indeed disobey.”

Then Allah blew the soul into Adam’s body. When it reached his brain, he sneezed. “Alhamdo lillaah!” exclaimed Adam.

“Yarh’amokallaah!” responded the Almighty.

‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas narrates from the Holy Prophet that after creating Adam Allah made him stand near Him. Adam sneezed. The Almighty sent a direct revelation to him and he praised Allah.

The Almighty said, “O Adam! You have praised Me! By My Might and Greatness if I did not intend to create two persons at the time, I would not have created you.”

“O my Lord!” said Adam, “By the exalted status of those personalities, please inform who those two are.”

“O Adam! Look upon the Divine Throne.” When Adam looked he saw two lines inscribed on the Holy Throne. The first line said, “Muhammad is the Prophet of Mercy and ‘Ali is the key to Paradise.” The second line was: “I swear by My Holiness, I shall have mercy on those who love them and punish those who hate them and are inimical to them.

According to a reliable tradition of Ja‘far as-Sadiq some people gathered in a house and initiated a discussion. Some claimed that the father of men, Adam was the best of the creatures. Some said it were the proximate Angels. Others maintained the bearers of the Divine Throne to be the most exalted beings. Just then he entered and the people said, “One who will solve this problem for us has arrived.” He saluted and took a seat and asked what the discussion was about. They told him. He said, “Be patient! I shall return to you shortly.” So saying he went to his father Adam and narrated the facts. Adam said, “O my son! When I stood near the Lord of the Worlds, I saw the following inscription on the Holy Throne:

Bismillaahir Rah’maanir rah’eem Muh’ammadinw wa aalo Muh’ammadin Khairun min barrillaah.

(Translation: In the name of Allah the Beneficent, the Merciful. Muhammad and the progeny of Muhammad are the best of Allah’s creatures.)

Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali is quoted in a reliable tradition that Hawwa’ was created from a small rib of Adam while he was sleeping. The rib was replaced with flesh in the body of Adam.

According to authentic reports from Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq: “Allah created Adam from dust and water. That’s why the efforts of men are centered on the acquisition and construction of buildings (That are composed of dust and water). Similarly Hawwa’ was created from the rib of Adam; therefore, women are less daring than men. So protect them in your houses.”

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq remarks in an authentic tradition, “Hawwa’ was named thus because she was created through ‘wahy’ (revelation). As the Almighty says,

“Created you from a single being and created its mate of the same (kind).” (4:1)

In authentic traditions, people asked Ja‘far as-Sadiq regarding the creation of Hawwa’. They said, “Some people say that Allah created Hawwa’ from the left rib of Adam?” Imam said, “Allah is Purer and Higher than what these people allege. One who utters such a thing believes that Allah is not Omnipotent. They provide opportunities for those who taunt and raise objections. Why do they make such statements? Allah shall decide between us and them.”

Then he said, “The Almighty created Adam and commanded the Angels to pay obedience to him. Then He induced sleep on Adam. When Adam was asleep, the Almighty created a new being and placed her between the feet of Adam so that women remain obedient to men. Hawwa’ moved and woke Adam. Hawwa’ was ordered to separate from Adam. Adam’s sight fell on Hawwa’ and he beheld a beautiful face. He saw that she resembled him, but was a female.

He began to converse with her and asked who she was. Hawwa’ spoke in his tongue and said that she was a creature of Allah as he could see.” Adam addressed the Almighty and asked, “Who is this beautiful creation that attracts me? Seeing whom I lost my fear?”

“She is my slave-girl, Hawwa’,” said the Lord. “Do you want her to live with you, remain attached to you, converse with you and do what you bide her?”

“Yes, my Lord!” replied Adam, “As long as I live, I shall continue to thank you.”

“Then you pray for her and request me so.”

At that moment Allah created in Adam the desire of seeking the nearness of woman and He had already taught Adam the tenets of faith. Adam said, “My Lord! You have permitted me to take her, but what can I give in return so that You are pleased?”

“Impart to her religious knowledge and I shall be satisfied with you.”

“I shall do as You desire,” agreed Adam, “I accept!” said Allah, “I hereby marry her to you. Take her.”

Adam called Hawwa’ towards him but the Almighty told Adam to get up himself and go towards Hawwa’. So Adam arose and moved towards Hawwa’. If this had not been so women would have required to come as suitors to men. This was the account of Hawwa’.

Through authentic chains we know that Abdul Miqdam asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir how the Almighty created Hawwa’. Imam asked what other people say about it. He was told they think Allah created her from a rib of Adam. Imam said that they were liars. “Was Allah incapable of creating her other than from Adam’s rib?” The narrator said, “May I be your ransom, then how did Allah create her?”

“My father has quoted my forefathers and they in turn report that the Messenger of Allah said, “The Almighty took a handful of dust and by His power created Adam and from the leftover of the same dust He created Hawwa’.”

Both Shi‘ah as well as Sunni scholars have recorded the tradition from Wahab bin Munabbah which says that Allah created Hawwa’ from the leftovers of the clay in the same form and while Adam was made to go to sleep and dream, he was shown Hawwa’. It was the first dream that occurred to people on the earth. When Adam awoke he saw Hawwa’ near his head. The Almighty revealed, “O Adam Who is sitting near you?” “She is the same one I saw in my dream,” replied Adam.

It is related through authentic channels that a Jew came to Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali and asked him why Adam was named Adam and Hawwa’ as Hawwa’?

Imam replied, “Adam is named thus because he is ‘Adeemul Arz’, that is, he was created from the face of the earth. The Almighty ordered Archangel Gabriel to collect white, red, black and brown mud, as also hard and soft earth. He also commanded him to bring four kinds of waters; sweet, salty, sour and dirty in order to knead the different kinds of mud. The sweet water was used for his throat, salty water for the eyes, sour water for the ears and dirty water for the nose. Hawwa’ is called Hawwa’ because she is created from haywan (animal/living being)!”

On the basis of authentic and well-known traditions Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali says describing the creation of Adam, “Hard and rigid, soft and slippery, sweet and salty mud was gathered. They were kneaded with water and it became a homogenous mixture. From this mixture Allah constructed a face, hands, legs, organs, tissues and joints. They were dried until they became solid and strong. They sounded like cymbals and were left to lie in that condition until the time Almighty had appointed for blowing the spirit. At the appointed hour the Almighty blew into it His exalted spirit. It resulted in the creation of a human being capable of flexing his muscles and moving his joints. He can use his limbs and organs in a number of ways, he puts them into his service and moves them in different ways. The Human being was capable of knowing his creator and had the sense of discrimination between right and wrong. He has the sense of taste and sense of smell. He can distinguish colors and kinds. In short, man was a conglomeration of different kinds of essences and temperaments. He became a collection of different contradictory qualities. Like heat and cold, dryness and moisture, sorrow and happiness.”

Sayyid Ibn Tawus says he has seen in the scrolls of Idris that he praised the creation of Adam in the following words:

“The Almighty introduced the earth by creating from it a species consisting of those who obey and those who disobey. The earth shuddered by itself due to the Might of Allah. It implored Allah not to create a being that would disobey Him and become eligible for Hell. Archangel Gabriel came to Earth to take the dust for Adam’s creation. The Earth protested in the name of Allah’s Might and requested him not to pick up any dust. It sought refuge from Allah by extreme courtesy. Archangel Gabriel refrained from collecting the dust and Allah commanded him to return. Then Allah ordered Mika’il. When the Earth repeated its protests, Israfil was dispatched, but he also met the same sort of resistance.

Finally Israel was issued the order. When he reached the Earth it shivered and expressed its humble request. Israel said, “My Lord has commanded me and I shall obey His commands, whether you are happy or aggrieved.” Thus he took a handful of dust, flew to the heavens and stood at his appointed place. The Almighty revealed to him that just as he had collected dust from the surface of the Earth despite its protests, he would be appointed to capture all the souls from creatures of the dust until the Resurrection Day. When the morning of the second Sunday dawned, it was the eighth day of creation. An angel was ordered to knead and mix the mud for Adam’s creation. He continued to leaven it for 40 years until it became sticky. Then for forty years it was made into Lajn.

For the next forty years he dried it like a pot created from a potter’s wheel. When 120 years had passed, Allah announced to the angels that He would create a man from this clay.

The Almighty said, “So when I have shaped him and blow My spirit into Him, all of you fall down before him in prostration.”

The Angels agreed. Allah created Adam in the form that was already decreed and recorded in the Protected Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfuz). Then He created the body of Adam and left it to lie for forty years on the way that the Angels frequented while going to the heavens.

When the jinn who were the inhabitants of Earth perpetrated untold corruption Iblis complained to Allah and prayed that he be raised to the ranks of Angels. His request was granted and he joined the rank of Angels in heaven. When the transgression of jinn crossed the limit, Allah ordered Iblis to go to the earth with other Angels and drive out the jinn.

Then Allah blew the spirit into the body of Adam and commanded the Angels to prostrate. All of them fell in prostration except Satan who was from the jinn.

Adam sneezed and Allah sent a revelation to say ‘Alhamdolillaah.’

When he said ‘Alhamdolillaah, Allah said, ‘Yarh’amokallah’.

Allah said, “I have created you so that you believe in My Oneness, worship Me, have faith in Me, do not deny Me and do not associate anyone with Me.”

Authentic reports say one person asked Imam al-Ridha,

“O son of the Messenger of Allah, people claim that the Holy Prophet said Allah has created Adam in His Own form?”

Imam replied, “May Allah destroy them! They have omitted the first part of hadith. One day the Messenger of Allah passed by two men who were calling each other names. Each one them was saying, “May Allah disfigure your face and the faces of all your relatives.” The Messenger of Allah said, “O servant of Allah do not say such things to your brother. Verily Allah has created Adam in His image.” A similar type of hadith has been recorded from ‘Ali also.

It is related through authentic chain of narrators from Imam as-Sadiq that when Allah wished to create Adam He sent Archangel Gabriel in the first part of a Friday who took a handful of dust. His fist moved from the first heaven to the seventh taking some dust each of them. In the left hand he took samples of dust from the first layer of the Earth to the last.

The Almighty said addressing the dust in his right hand, “From you I shall create the Prophets, messengers, vicegerents, the truthful ones, believers and the righteous people. And those whom I shall raise in status.”

Then He said to the dust in Archangel Gabriel’s left hand, “From you I shall create the tyrants, polytheists, disbelievers and the deviated people. And those whose evil and corruption is known to Me. Then Archangel Gabriel mixed the dust of both his fists. This is the interpretation of the ayah.

“Surely Allah causes the grain and the stone to germinate,” (6:95)

Imam says ‘Hab’ is the clay of the believers in which Allah has appointed His love and ‘Nawaa’ is the clay of disbelievers, which is away from every type of goodness. This is the meaning of Allah’s words:

“He brings forth the living from the dead and He is the bringer forth of the dead from the living.” (6:95)

The living from the dead are those believers who are born from the Tinah (essence) of disbelievers and the dead that emerge from the living is the disbeliever who is born from the ‘Tinah’ of a believer.

According to trustworthy chains Imam Muhammad al-Baqir said, “Before the Almighty created the creatures He told them to become sweet water so that He can create from it the Paradise and His worshippers. And He told it to become bitter than water that he may create from it Hell and people who disobey Him. Then He commanded and the two liquids mixed with each other. This is the reason that believers are born from disbelievers and disbelievers are born from believers. Then He took some dust from the Earth and after mixing it He dusted it with His mighty hands. resulted in the creation of tiny ant like organisms. To the ones that were on the right side, Allah said, “You can proceed towards Paradise safely.” And to those on the left, He said, “Go towards Hell, I don’t care.”

The same Imam says in a good traditional report that the Almighty took a handful of Adam’s clay, mixed it with sweet water and left it for forty days. Then he mixed it with sour water and left it for another forty days. When it became like leavened bread, Archangel Gabriel kneaded it thoroughly and ant-like organisms fell on the left and the right side. Then Allah ordered a fire to be made, and directed all of these creatures to enter the fire. When the organisms from the right side entered, it became cool and safe for them. The ones on the left were terrified and abstained from entering the fire. On that very day the obedience of the creatures was tested. Then Allah ordered all of them to revert to their clay form. Finally Adam was created from this clay.

In another good tradition the Holy Prophet is quoted to have said that when the Almighty extracted the progeny of Adam from his loins to take their covenant regarding His absolute authority and the belief in all the Prophets, the first Prophet about whom He took the covenant was Muhammad Ibn ‘Abdullah. Then the Almighty Allah revealed to Adam to cast a glance at his progeny. He saw that they were minute particles filling up the whole sky.

“How numerous is my progeny!” exclaimed Adam. “My Lord! You have created them for a great affair. Why did you take a covenant from them?”

“So that they may worship Me; And do not attribute partners to Me. That they may believe in the Prophets and follow them,” replied the Lord.

Adam said, “But some of these particles are greater in size. Some of them more luminous. While others are dim or completely dark. What is the reason for this?”

“They are created like this so that I may examine them in every way,” replied Allah.

“Can I ask some more questions?” asked Adam.

“Yes, you may.”

Adam said, “If You had created them equal, of one mood, one creation, one color, one age and bestowed the same amount of sustenance. Some of them would not have oppressed others. There wouldn’t have been jealousy, enmity and any kind of controversy among them.”

Allah the Almighty addressed Adam, “You have opened your mouth against the spirit which is most exalted in my eyes. And you have said something about it due to your lack of knowledge. I am the All-knowing Creator. I have created the variety. My Wisdom and My command runs over them. And each of them is subservient to what I have destined. There is no change in My creation. I have created human beings and jinn only that they worship Me. I have created Paradise for those who worship and obey Me and follow My Prophets. But I care less if they don’t. I created Hell for the infidels. Those who would disobey Me and deny My Prophets. I do not care for these also.

I created you and your progeny not because I had any need for them. I created them in order to test them as to which of them are of the best in character. It is for this reason I created the world and Hereafter, life and death, obedience and disobedience, Paradise and Hell. This is what I intended with predestination and free will and in the light of My knowledge that encompasses all of them.

I created them with different hues and colors, different faces, physical features, ages, difference in the quality of their sustenance, and differences in the extent of their obedience and disobedience. Among them are evil and the righteous, blind and seeing, short and tall, beautiful and ugly, intelligent and foolish, rich and poor, obedient and disobedient, sick and healthy. Some of them will be involved in different kinds of discomforts while most of them shall never have any problems. So that when the healthy ones look at the sick they praise Me for being spared. The sick may see the healthy people and pray to Me for cure. Also, that they may remain patient and earn divine rewards for the same, and be raised in degrees.

In the same way the rich man would see a destitute and thank Me for the affluence that I have bestowed upon him. On the other hand the less privileged one would see the affluent and supplicate Me. The Believer shall see the infidels and Praise Me that I have guided him and created him for examination in good times and bad, through the trails and tribulations that I shall subject them to, through the bounties that I shall bestow upon them, and through the things that I have prohibited for them. I am Allah the King of Power, it is for Me to cause the things that I have decreed. It is also for Me to cause change in whatever I have destined. I can advance the occurrence of one thing and I can postpone another. I am One that can do anything He desires. No one can dare question My actions. But I shall question my creatures regarding their actions.”1

According to authentic chain of narrators Imam al-Ridha has been reported to have said, “The finger ring of Adam had the inscription, La ilaaha illallaah Muhammadur-Rasulollaah. He had brought it from the Paradise.”

The Almighty informs the Angels of Adam’s Creation and orders them to prostrate before him

“And when your Lord said to the angels, I am going to place in the earth a khalif, they said: What! wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, and we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy holiness? He said: Surely I know what you do not know.” (2:30)

According to Tafsir of Imam Al-Hasan al-‘Askari, exegesis of the above verse is that man was created at a time when the Angels had purged the Earth from Shaitans, jinn and their progeny, and were themselves inhabiting the earth. They were engrossed in Allah’s worship without any disturbance when Allah said,

“Indeed I shall appoint a vicegerent upon the earth.”

That is, “In your place I shall appoint a legatee and vicegerent on the earth; and I shall raise you to the heavens.” This was very disturbing for the Angels. Because their worship acts were less likely to be rejected near the heavens.

“They said: What! wilt Thou place in it such as shall make mischief in it and shed blood, and we celebrate Thy praise and extol Thy holiness?” (2:30)

The Angels said, “O our Lord! Would You inhabit the earth with creatures who shall spread corruption and bloodshed like the jinn? Whom we had to purge from the earth? Whereas we glorify Your Praise and consider You free from all impurities? We also purify Your earth from those who disobey You.”

“He said: Surely I know what you do not know.”

Allah said,

“I have knowledge of the creation that I shall bring after you in the earth. Whereas you don’t know anything. I also know that there is a denier (Kafir) among you, (Satan). You don’t know anything about that too. (2:30)

And He taught Adam all the names, then presented them to the angels; then He said:

Tell me the names of those if you are right. (2:31)

Imam says, “The Almighty taught Adam the names of Prophets, Prophet Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, and Hasan and Husayn. He also taught him the names of the purified Imams and the names of some exalted personalities of the Shi‘ahs. Also the names of their enemies and other well-known transgressors.”

Then Allah presented the ethereal bodies of Muhammad, ‘Ali and the Imams to the Angels. He ordered them to identify them if they spoke the truth. Though the Angels glorified Allah to the fullest and worshipped Him with utmost sincerity, they were not having any knowledge of what type of creatures would inhabit the earth after them and what defects and merits they shall have. Just as they were ignorant of the personalities shown to them by Allah.

They said, Glory be to Thee! We have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise. (2:32)

So Almighty Allah ordered Adam to recite the names of Prophets and Imams. Adam did as bidden and named all of them. The Almighty told the Angels to believe in them and to consider them superior than their own selves.” (2:33)

Iblis had already decided in his heart that if they were ordered to prostrate before Adam he would refuse. He also knew that if given power over Adam, he could destroy him. The Angels were thinking that they should remain superior to whoever is created after them.

Therefore, Allah told them that they were not superior but Muhammad and his progeny was much more superior to them. And they were the ones whose names Adam had mentioned.2

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq says, when Allah informed that He was about to appoint a Caliph on the earth, the Angels were distraught. They implored Him to take one of them as His Caliph on the earth. But Allah did not heed their advice. The Angels thought that they were being subjected to some Divine punishment. So they took refuge toward the Holy Throne and began to encircle it. The Almighty ordered them to circumambulate around the al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur whose roof is of Crimson Ruby and pillars of Emeralds. Every day 70000 Angels enter this house and shall not enter it (again) until the appointed day and hour. The appointed hour is the blowing of the trumpet and the Satan would die between the two trumpets.

In another reliable tradition people asked Ja‘far as-Sadiq the origin of the circumambulation Holy Ka‘bah. Imam said, “When Allah decided to create Adam He told the Angels that He wished to appoint a Caliph on the Earth. The Angels said, “Would you appoint such a creature as shall spread corruption and bloodshed?” When they put this question there came a barrier between them and the Divine Luminescence. A curtain that did not exist before. They realized that Allah is infuriated at their blatant objection. They held consultations among themselves to find the best way of expiation. It was decided that nothing could be better than seeking shelter at the Divine Throne.

Thus they look refuge in the Holy Throne until the time Almighty accepted their repentance and removed the curtains between them and His splendor. Allah wanted the people to worship Him in the same manner, so he created the Holy Ka‘bah on the Earth and made incumbent on the people circle it. He created the al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur on the heavens. Every day 70000 Angels enter it. They do not return. They shall continue to enter it until the Resurrection Day.

In another reliable tradition Imam al-Ridha is reported to have said, “When Angels did not accept the Divine vicegerency of Adam even though Allah had said so they realized that they had committed a mistake, and regretted it. They took refuge in the Holy Throne and repented for their misdemeanor. Allah wished that they continued to worship Him in the same way. So He created a Zaraah, a house in the line of the Holy Throne on the 4th heaven. He also made a house on 1st heaven, it is called Ma’mur. He made the Holy Ka‘bah on the Earth in the line of al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. He commanded Adam to go around this house.

After this Allah accepted the repentance of Angels and the custom of circumambulating the Ka‘bah came into existence.”

According to a reliable report from Imam Zayn al-‘abidin. He says, “I asked my father why seven circumambulations of Ka‘bah have been prescribed for us? He replied, ‘Because when the Almighty said that He was about to appoint a Caliph on the earth, the Angels did not accept it. They asked Allah if He wanted to appoint such people as would spread corruption and bloodshed? The Almighty said He was aware of what they were not. Allah had never concealed His splendor from the Angels before this but after this objection He concealed it from the Angels for a thousand years. The Angels sought refuge in the Holy Throne. Then Allah the Almighty had mercy on them and accepted their repentance. He created for them the al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur on the 4th heaven. Allah appointed it as the point of reference and safety for the inhabitants of the heavens. He made the Holy Ka‘bah exactly below the al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. And appointed it the point of reference and place of reward and a safe sanctuary for the people of the earth. It was for this reason that seven rounds of Ka‘bah were made obligatory on people. For each thousand years of Angels’ circumambulation, Allah made one round incumbent on men.’”3

In reliable traditional reports Ja‘far as-Sadiq is believed to have said, “The Angels expected corruption from human beings because they had already witnessed a group that had spread corruption and bloodshed on the Earth.”

Ja‘far as-Sadiq says in an authentic tradition when people inquired from him the Tafsir of the Verse. “And He taught Adam all their names.” And asked him regarding the names taught to Adam:

“The names of lands, mountains, seas valleys.” Then Imam pointed to the mat he was sitting on and said “This mat was also mentioned in it.”

In another reliable tradition Imam says, “Allah taught Adam the names of valley passes, grasses, trees and mountains.”

According to reliable and good chains of narrators Imam Muhammad al-Baqir was asked the interpretation of the ayah,

So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down making obeisance to him. (15:29)

Imam said that it was a soul that Allah created. Then He exalted it in status and associated it with Himself. He gave it superiority over all other souls. Then He ordered that this spirit be blown into Adam.

In another authentic hadith people asked Imam how the spirit was blown into Adam

Imam says that the spirit is moves like breeze. That is the reason that it is known as ‘Ruh’ derived from ‘Reeh’ (breeze). It is a kind of breeze. Allah referred to it as His spirit because he bestowed it superiority over other spirits. Just as He prefers Ka‘bah to all houses and refers to it as ‘My House’ and mentions one of His Prophets as ‘My Khalil’. All these creatures and things are Created and brought into existence by Him and trained by Him.

One tradition from Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that the ‘Ruh’ mentioned in this ayah refers to ‘Power’.

In another reliable chain when people asked Imam the Tafsir of the concerned ayah he said, “The Almighty created a being and created a soul. He ordered an Angel to blow this soul into that body. This does not belittle Allah’s Might.

Sajdah for Adam as described in the Holy Qur’an

Allah says in the Holy Qur’an,

“They said, Glory be to Thee! We have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.” (2:32)

In another place he says,

And certainly We created you, then We fashioned you, then We said to the angels: Make obeisance to Adam. So they did obeisance except Iblis; he was not of those who did obeisance.

He said, What hindered you so that you did not make obeisance when I commanded you? He said, I am better than he: Thou hast created me of fire, while him Thou didst create of dust.

He said, Then get forth from this (state), for it does not befit you to behave proudly therein. Go forth, therefore, surely you are of the abject ones.

He said, Respite me until the day when they are raised up.

He said, Surely you are of the respited ones.

He said, As Thou hast caused me to remain disappointed I will certainly lie in wait for them in Thy straight path.

Then I will certainly come to them from before them and from behind them, and from their right and from their left; and Thou shalt not find most of them thankful.

He said, Get out of this (state), despised, driven away; whoever of them will follow you, I will certainly fill hell with you all. (7:11-18)

In the third instance He says,

And certainly We created man of clay that gives forth sound, of black mud fashioned in shape. And the jinn We created before, of intensely hot fire. And when your Lord said to the angels: Surely I am going to create a mortal of the essence of black mud fashioned in shape. So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, fall down making obeisance to him. So the angels made obeisance, all of them together, But Iblis (did it not); he refused to be with those who made obeisance. He said: O Iblis! what excuse have you that you are not with those who make obeisance? He said: I am not such that I should make obeisance to a mortal whom Thou hast created of the essence of black mud fashioned in shape. He said: Then get out of it, for surely you are driven away: And surely on you is curse until the day of judgment. He said: My Lord! then respite me until the time when they are raised. He said: So surely you are of the respited ones until the period of the time made known. He said: My Lord! because Thou hast made life evil to me, I will certainly make (evil) fair-seeming to them on earth, and I will certainly cause them all to deviate except Thy servants from among them, the devoted ones. He said: This is a right way with Me: Surely. as regards My servants, you have no authority over them except those who follow you of the deviators. (15:26-42)

On the fourth occasion Allah says,

And when We said to the angels: Make obeisance to Adam; they made obeisance, but Iblis (did it not). He said, Shall I make obeisance to him whom Thou hast created of dust?

He said, Tell me, is this he whom Thou hast honored above me? If Thou shouldst respite me to the day of resurrection, I will most certainly cause his progeny to perish except a few.

He said, Be gone! for whoever of them will follow you, then surely hell is your recompense, a full recompense:

And beguile whomsoever of them you can with your voice, and collect against them your forces riding and on foot, and share with them in wealth and children, and hold out promises to them; and the Satan makes not promises to them but to deceive:

Surely (as for) My servants, you have no authority over them; and your Lord is sufficient as a Protector. (17:61-65)

Fifthly the Almighty, says,

And when We said to the angels: Make obeisance to Adam; they made obeisance but Iblis (did it not). He was of the jinn, so he transgressed the commandment of his Lord. What! would you then take him and his offspring for friends rather than Me, and they are your enemies? Evil is (this) change for the unjust. (18:50)


When your Lord said to the angels; Surely I am going to create a mortal from dust:

So when I have made him complete and breathed into him of My spirit, then fall down making obeisance to him.

And the angels did obeisance, all of them,

But not Iblis: he was proud and he was one of the unbelievers.

He said: O Iblis! what prevented you that you should do obeisance to him whom I created with My two hands? Are you proud or are you of the exalted ones?

He said: I am better than he; Thou hast created me of fire, and him Thou didst create of dust.

He said: Then get out of it, for surely you are driven away:

And surely My curse is on you to the day of judgment.

He said: My Lord! then respite me to the day that they are raised.

He said: Surely you are of the respited ones,

Till the period of the time made known.

He said: Then by Thy Might I will surely make them live an evil life, all,

Except Thy servants from among them, the purified ones.

He said: The truth then is and the truth do I speak:

That I will most certainly fill hell with you and with those among them who follow you, all. (38:71-75)

The above is the literal translation of Ayats. Now we shall present the traditions of the Infallibles to explain the Qur’anic verses.

It is mentioned in the Tafsir of Imam Al-Hasan al-’Askari that some hypocrites asked the Holy Prophet, who is superior, ‘Ali or the proximate Angels?” The Messenger of Allah said,

“The Angels of Allah achieved a high position due to the acceptance of the Wilayah of Muhammad and ‘Ali. Indeed, those who love ‘Ali and keep their heart pure from deceit, hatred, animosity and other sins, are better and purer than the (proximate) angels. Allah ordered the Angels to prostrate before Adam because they were under the impression that Adam’s progeny will be inferior to them. Hence, Allah wanted to prove them wrong in thinking thus. So He created Adam and taught him all the names. Then He put them to the Angels and they failed to recognize the ones whose names had seen taught to Adam. Allah then ordered Adam to inform the Angels about the names so that the superiority of Adam’s knowledge (and of his progeny consisting of the Holy Prophet and the exalted servants) over that of the Angels’ is proved.

After this Almighty Allah brought out from Paradise the progeny of Prophet and the righteous among his followers and introduced them to the Angels. Those who would bear the responsibilities imposed upon them by Allah. Who would have to keep aloof from the cohorts of Satan. Who shall fight Jihad with the sensual desires and struggle to provide for their families. In order to earn halal Sustenance they would pay no heed to worldly people. They’ll face the intensity of perils. They’ll live in fear of thieves, robbers and tyrant rulers that lay in wait for them on the paths that they have to traverse for obtaining sustenance for their family. They shall put their self into danger. They shall find release from all these problems only after death. They shall fight with the Shaitans and deflect them with the help of method taught by Allah, through the suppression of carnal desires, sensuality, pomp and power, food, dress, pride and arrogance etc. They shall bear patiently the severity of the accursed Satan and his cohorts. They shall not be misled by the Satanic instigations and the evil thoughts created in their hearts by the Satan.

It would be necessary for them to be patient on the taunts and criticism of Allah’s enemies, on the evil designs of the oppressors, on the utterances of evil people. They shall have to be patient in difficulties faced during requisition of their sustenance. They shall be patient in confronting their enemies and have to bear the atrocities due to the fact that they have to obtain from those of rival faiths.

Allah said, ‘O My Angels! You are free from all such responsibilities and desires. Sexual desires do not trouble you. Hunger and thirst does not instigate you to sin. You have no fear of enemies of religion and world. Satans do not try to mislead you, either in Heaven or Hell. Because I have protected you through infallibility. O Angels! Those who obey Me (in spite of their carnal desires and instigation of Satan) and protect their faith in spite of difficulties and problems, are qualified to bear some responsibilities in the path of My hujjah. You (angels) are not qualified for that. They shall achieve nearness to Me due to the difficulties they bear, that you cannot.

Imam says that Allah explained to the Angels the superiority of the Ummah of Muhammad the Shi‘ahs of ‘Ali and the righteous among their successors. Allah mentioned the trials and tribulations that they shall go through the love of their Lord. The Angels could not attain this position. The Almighty distinguished the righteous people of Adam’s progeny over the Angels and they were ordered to prostrate before Adam.

Actually the Angels who are created from Divine luminescence and are the best of creations did not prostrate to Adam. Adam was merely the Kiblah (direction for prayers). The Angels prostrated to Almighty Allah. When Allah commanded, all of them turned to Adam to prostrate before him due to his exalted position and respect. Because it is not permitted to prostrate before anybody and anything with such devotion and humility as one would bow to Allah.

Imam says, “If it had been permitted to prostrate before anyone in addition to Allah I would have ordered my ignorant and less knowledgeable Shi‘ahs to prostrate before the scholars who had put in great efforts to master the knowledge of the Prophet and his successors. The scholars who were sincerely devoted to Amir al-Mu’minin, the best of creatures after Muhammad The scholars who had borne difficulties in order to unravel religious laws bore afflictions due to their Shi‘ahs faith. And they did not waver in their belief in our Wilayah.”

In the same Tafsir Imam remarked that when Imam al-Husayn was surrounded by the forces of Yazid he told his followers that he was releasing them from his allegiance. They could take shelter with their relatives, tribesmen and friends. Imam al-Husayn told the male members of his family that he was permitting them to leave him because they were few in comparison their rivals. Enemies exceeded their companions and their military strength was much greater. “I am their sole target,” explained husayn, “They have nothing against anyone else. Leave me to the enemies, the Almighty shall certainly help me. Allah shall not deprive me of His Mercy. As had been His practice with my predecessors from the Prophets and their legatees.”

Upon hearing this many people left Imam’s army but his close relatives refused to budge. They said, “We shall never betray you. We shall bear the same difficulties that you have to face. We shall face the same tragedies as you would. Our position before the Almighty lies in the fact that we remain in you service.”

Chief of the Martyrs (Sayyid-ush-Shohda) said, “If you have left your fate to the One on Whom I have, then know that Allah does not exalt the Station of any creature fill he has been subjected to trials and tribulations. Although Allah has bestowed me with all the merits as bestowed on my ancestors, but in spite of this it is necessary to bear the difficulties. You shall share the rewards that I gain. Know that the world is like those sweet and sour things that one sees in dream. The awakening is in the Hereafter. Successful are those who succeeds in the Hereafter. Wretched is one who remains deprived in the Hereafter. O my Shi‘ahs! My friends and supporters! Shall I inform you first of the affair that it becomes easy for you to bear the imminent hardships?”

“Yes, O Son of the Messenger of Allah ” replied all of them.

Imam al-Husayn said, “Indeed the Almighty Allah created Adam and taught him all the names and presented him to the Angels. And placed the five beings of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn in the loins of Adam. Although their divine lights had already existed in the heavens and were veiled in the vicinity of the Holy Throne. Allah ordered the Angels to prostrate to Adam as a mark of respect. Because he had the virtue of being the carrier of the purified lights of those whose brilliance had enveloped the horizons. All the Angels prostrated except Iblis. He refused to respect of our lights that had been placed in Adam’s body. Although the Angels relented to our exalted states Iblis refused due to arrogance and pride (of a disbeliever).”

‘Ali Ibnul husayn says, “My respected father has related through his respected father from the Messenger of Allah that he said, ‘O Servants of Allah! (O People!) When the Almighty Allah transferred our lights from the Holy Throne to the backbone to Adam, he (Adam) saw a bright incandescent light emanating from his back. He asked, “O Allah! What are these lights?” Allah said, ‘These are some personalities whom I have transferred from the best place in the Holy Throne to your backbone. It is due to the greatness of these personalities that I ordered the angels to prostrate before you. For you are the carrier of there personalities.’ Adam said, ‘O my Lord! It would have been better if you had made these personalities apparent for me.’ Allah told him to look at the Divine Throne. When Adam looked towards the Holy Throne our lights emerged from his backbone and began to shine brightly. There the faces of our ethereal bodies were hidden. Just as a person can clearly see his face in the mirror Adam saw the lights on the Holy Throne. He asked what was the appearance or shape of our bodies (faces).”

Allah said, “These are the best of creatures and they have been created by Me. This is Muhammad and I am Praiseworthy (hamid) and Praised (Mahmud). Because whatever I do for my creatures deserves praise. I have named him as a derivative of one of My names. This is ‘Ali and I am A’laa and A’zeem (High and Great). This name (‘Ali) is also a form of one of My names. This is Fatimah and I am Fatir (originator) of the Earth and the Heavens. This Fatimah shall separate My enemies from My Mercy on the Resurrection Day and she shall remove the defects from my devotees. That is why I named her with conjugation of My Quality. This is Hasan and Husayn and I am Mohsin (One who does Ahsaan-goodness). I have given them names related to this little of Mine because they are my exalted creation and the most honored. I shall accept My worship only through their channel and through them would I bestow salvation to My creatures. Through them shall I punish and reward. O Adam! Approach Me through their mediation. If a detestable action is committed by you, seek forgiveness through their intercession. Because I have vowed not to reject anyone who petitions Me through them. I shall not spurn anyone who prays for forgiveness through their intercession.” When Adam committed Tark al-Awla, he prayed for Divine forgiveness through them and was forgiven.

According to an authentic source Imam Musa Ibn Ja‘far said, “A Jew came to Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali and requested him to show a miracle like the Prophets of the past had shown. He asked, “Was it due to the lofty position of Muhammad that Almighty Allah ordered the angels to prostrate before Adam?”

‘Ali said, “That’s right. But their prostrations were not those of worship. The Angels did not worship Adam. Their prostration was an acknowledgement of respect for Adam due to his extraordinary virtues.”

It was Divine Mercy for Adam that was bestowed through Muhammad who was superior to him. Indeed, the Almighty Allah sent benedictions upon them in His heavenly Majesty and all the Angels followed suit. The believers were also commanded to recite Salawaat for them. Thus his status was higher than that of Adam himself.

Authentic chains quote Imam al-Ridha from his ancestors from Amir al-Mu’minin ‘Ali that the Holy Prophet said, “The Almighty Allah has exalted His Prophets and Messengers over the Angels, and He is has exalted me over the other Prophets and Messengers. And after me you ‘Ali and the Imams from your progeny have been exalted over the other people. Then he said, “The Almighty Allah created Adam and entrusted us to his backbone. Then Allah commanded the Angels to bow down as a mark of respect. But their prostration denoted Allah’s worship and obedience and an acknowledgement of Adam’s exalted position. It was a Sajdah of obedience because we were in his (Adam’s) loins. Thus how could we not be superior to the Angels? While they all prostrated to Adam.4

In an authentic tradition a person asked Ja‘far as-Sadiq whether it was allowed to do Sajdah to someone other than Allah.

“Certainly not!” replied Imam “Then how Allah the Almighty Commanded the Angels to prostrate before Adam?”

Imam said, “One who prostrates in compliance with Divine Commands, prostrates for Allah.”

The enquired then asked about Iblis. Imam explained, “Iblis was a creature whom the Almighty had created that he may worship Him and confess to His Oneness. Although Allah knew what Iblis actually was and what was to be his final end. Iblis worshipped Allah in the ranks of the Angels. Till the time he was tested by Adam’s Sajdah. He refused to do Sajdah due to jealousy and evil that overpowered him. Allah cursed him and drove him out of the ranks of Angels. Allah made him an outcast and sent him to the earth. Iblis became an avowed enemy of Adam and his progeny. He has no authority upon the children of Adam except that he makes evil suggestions to them and deviate them from Allah’s path. In spite of such a disobedience he is a believer in Allah’s sovereignty.”

Another reliable report mentions that Abu-Basir asked Ja‘far as-Sadiq “Did the Angels perform Adam’s Sajdah by putting their foreheads on the ground?”

“Yes”, replied Imam “This was a distinction granted to Adam.”

Imam ‘Ali an-Naqi says in another reliable tradition that the Sajdah of Angels was not for Adam. It was a sign of their compliance to the Divine Commands. It was a proof (hujjah) from them to Adam

A correct chain of narrators from Ja‘far as-Sadiq mentions that he said, “When Allah the Almighty commanded Satan to bow down before Adam he said ‘If you excuse me from Adam’s Sajdah I shall worship you with such fervor as no one has ever worshipped before.’

The Almighty said, “I want to be worshipped in a way I prefer.

Ja‘far as-Sadiq says in another reliable tradition that when the Almighty ordered the Angels to perform Adam’s Sajdah, all of them obeyed but Iblis refused due to the jealousy that afflicted his heart. Allah was enraged and He asked him what prevented him.

Iblis said, “I am better than Adam because you created me from fire and him from clay.” Imam said, “The first one to draw analogy (Qiyas) was Satan. He was proud. That was the first sin. He said, ‘O Lord! Exempt me from Adam’s Sajdah, and I will perform your worship in a way that not even a proximate angel or a Messenger Prophet has done.” Allah said, ‘I am not in need of your worship acts. I want my servants to worship Me in the way I prefer and not as they like.’ Get out of the heaven, you are the rejected one. You are cursed until the Resurrection Day. Iblis said, “O Allah You are not unjust, so who do You deprive me of the rewards that I deserve for my worship?” Allah said, “Ask whatever you wish.” The first thing that Iblis asked was to be able to live until the Resurrection Day. Allah allowed him.

Then he asked for the power to subdue the sons of Adam. Allah agreed. He said, “Authorize me over the people and grant me the ability to penetrate them like blood that circulates in the body.” Allah agreed. He said, “If they have one child, I will urge them for more. A child for them and two for me. I can see them but they cannot see me. I will put them in trouble in every way, at every time.” Allah said, “I have given you all these powers.” He said, “O, Sustainer! This is enough for me. I swear by Your glory. I will make them to follow the wrong path and perform bad deeds except your true believers. I will put them in all kinds of difficulties from left, right, from front and behind. And they will be the ungrateful to You.”

According to another tradition he will put them in trouble from front means he will make the people doubtful about the day of judgment. He says, “There is no heaven, no hell. Everything is present here, whether good or bad. From behind means that he makes the people busy in worldly life and prevents them from good deeds like, looking after their children, worshipping Allah etc. He confuses them in worldly matters. Trouble from the right side denotes the pain a disbeliever gives to the believers and from the left means he makes the people busy in enjoyment etc.

According to reliable sources Imam has stated that Allah strengthened Iblis and granted him all his desires. Prophet Adam asked, “O! Allah, You gave him power over my children and allowed him to control their mind and heart and penetrate every cell of their bodies. But what will you grant to my sons?” Allah said, “A single good deed will be counted as ten and one sin will be count as one sin only.” Prophet Adam said, “Grant something more than this.” Allah said, “I will accept their repentance until their last breath.” Prophet Adam said, “Grant something more.” Allah said, “I will forgive their sins and will overlook their evil deeds.” Prophet Adam said, “This is enough for me.” The narrator asked Imam, “May I be sacrificed for you, explain to me why Allah has granted Iblis the authority on the people’s heart and mind?” Imam said, “He recited a two Rak‘ah prayer in standing position and performed it in four thousand years.”

According to another reliable source Prophet Adam prayed to Allah, “You have authorized Iblis on my children and on me. He has the power to control the mind and heart and is also in blood. What do you say about me? What is your order?” Allah said, “If anyone intends to do evil, his sin will not count and if he intends to do virtuous deed but does not do it, then only his reward will be counted.” Prophet Adam said, “Grant us more.” Allah said, “If anyone of you does wrong and repent for it, I will forgive the sin.” Prophet Adam said, “Increase Your favor.” Allah said that He would accept their repentance until the last breath.” Prophet Adam said that was enough for him.

There are different views regarding whether Iblis was from the Angels or not? According to some views, he was not from Angels but belonged to the Jinn community. Some scholars say that he was from the Angels but actually he lived with the Angels and performed Allah’s worship with them. Jamil asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq whether Iblis was from the community of Angels or jinn? Imam said, “Angels were thinking that he was from them but when he was asked to make obeisance to Prophet Adam, he refused.”

Regarding this matter, Jamil, the narrator, asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq if Iblis was an angel or a caretaker of some heavenly affair? Imam said, “He was not an angel but the angels thought he was one of them. He was not connected to any heavenly affair and neither commanded any special position. The Jamil went to Tiyar and told him what Imam has said. He said, “How this is possible. If Iblis were not from the Angels when Allah ordered the Angels to bow down, the command was not applicable for him. He cannot be said to have disobeyed when the order was not meant for him in the first place.” Tiyar himself came to Imam and asked, “When Allah mentions the group of believers, does it also include some hypocrites?”

Imam replied, “Hypocrites are deviated people and all those who make an outward show of faith. All are included in this.”

Abu-Sa‘id asked the Holy Prophet Muhammad about Iblis. Prophet Muhammad said, Allah says in Qur’an:

“He said, O Iblis! What prevented from paying obeisance to one that I created? Are you proud or one of the exalted ones?” (38:75)

The narrator asked the Holy Prophet who were superior than Angels. Prophet Muhammad replied: They are ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. And two, thousand years before Prophet Adam they were at Allah’s empyrean glorifying Allah. Hearing them, the angels also repeated. When Allah, the Almighty created Adam and asked His angels to bow to Adam it was not an obeisance to Adam alone. All the angels prostrated except Satan. Allah said, “Are you proud or are you of the exalted ones?” That means the five names of five exalted persons were written on the curtain of empyrean.

According to another tradition from the Holy Prophet has stated when Iblis refused to make obeisance to Adam he was expelled from the heavens. Then Allah asked Adam to go to the angels and salute them. Allah taught Adam to say Salaamo A’lakum wa Rah’matullahe wa barakaatoh. Adam went to them and saluted. The angels saluted him in return. When Adam returned to his place, Allah said, “This salutation is recommended for you and your community until the day of judgment.”

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has stated that Satan was the first one to think that he was better than Adam and said that Allah had created him from fire and Adam from dust. If he had compared his fire with the matter from which the spirit of Adam was created he would have certainly found it hotter.

Another tradition of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq states that the first one to fall a prey to vanity was Satan when he said:

“I am better than he; Thou hast created me of fire, and him Thou didst create of dust.”

If he had compared Adam ’s brilliance with that of his own fire he would have found that Adam’s brilliance was more than that of his own fire.5

According to a reliable tradition from Imam ‘Ali the first prayer was performed on the land behind al-Kufah. Today it is known as Najaf-ul-Ashraf and by the order of the Almighty, Angels made obeisance on the same land. From a reliable tradition of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq the first profanity was when Allah created Adam and Satan became a unbeliever and refused to obey the command of Allah. The first jealousy was manifested between Habil and Qabil. The first instance of greed was when Adam tasted the forbidden tree even though he had access to all other fruits of Paradise. This greed caused him to be expelled from Paradise.

According to the same Imam, Satan asked Allah to respite him until the appointed hour and Allah agreed. That is the day when Prophet Muhammad will crush him below the stone of Jerusalem.

According to another tradition that Imam asked Ishaq bin Jarir that what his companions’ opinion regarding the claim of Iblis that Allah created him from fire and Adam from dust? He said, “May I be sacrificed for you. It is as Allah declared in Qur’an.” Imam said, “Iblis lied. O Ishaq, Allah created him from dust and not from fire. Allah says that He created fire from a green tree and created Iblis from that fire. But the origin of that tree is dust. Allah has created the world from dust.”

In another tradition it is mentioned that in Satan the component of fire was more than that of dust.

Sayyid Ibn Tawus has quoted from the book of Idris that when Satan asked Allah for respite until day of judgment, Allah said, “No, you will be spared, until the appointed hour. It is the time when I have decreed purge the earth of polytheism, disbelief and sin and evil. For this I will select some whom I would have tested for firmness of belief; and piety, sincerity, belief, abstemiousness. They eagerly await the day of judgment. They have a true belief regarding the Resurrection Day. They are my devotees and friends. I have created for them a great Prophet and they shall be his helpers. I have kept the day of their appearance a secret. Surely, that day will came and on that day you and your followers will perish. Now, get out from here until the appointed time.”

Then Allah told Adam to open his eyes and see the Angels standing before him. “They have made obeisance to you. Salute them with the words “As salaamo a’laikum wa rahmatullahe wa barakaatoh.” Adam came to them and saluted. Angels returned his salutations, Wa a’laika yaa aadamo wa rahmatullahe was barakaatoh.

Allah said, “O, Adam! This is a salutation for you and your children until the Resurrection Day.” Then Allah brought out his offspring from the backbone and took the covenant of His oneness. Prophet Adam saw a group from his progeny, bright and brilliant and hee asked who they were. Allah said, “They are the apostles from your offspring.” Adam asked their number and Allah responded, “They are One hundred and twenty four thousand. Among them are three hundred and fifteen Prophets.” Adam asked, “Who is the last of them and who looks more luminous than others?”

Allah said, “He is Muhammad My Messenger, My trustworthy, My beloved and My friend, My chosen one and most exalted of My creatures. He is My favorite and one who has recognized more than anyone else. He is the best with regard to forbearance, knowledge, faith, belief, righteousness, worship, humility, piety and obedience. I have taken an oath from the bearers of the throne and those who are below that they believe in him and recognize his Prophethood. O, Adam! You also believe in him, so that your status and respect increases.”

Prophet Adam said, “I believe in Allah and His Prophet.” Allah said, “O, Adam I have exalted your respect and appointed you as the first Prophet. And your son Muhammad is the seal of the Prophets and Messengers. He is the one for whom I created and the heavens and the Earth, and he will be the first to arrive on the day of judgment. The angels shall clothe him in heavenly garments and bring him astride a horse. He would be the first person to intercede and his intercession will be accepted. He will be first person for whom the doors of Heaven will be opened and he will enter first. O, Adam! Your patronymic is from him. You are Abu Muhammad, the Father of human beings.” Adam said, “Praise be to Allah. I am very grateful to Him, that He created such a personality from my offspring who would be the first to enter Paradise. And I am not jealous of him.”

Imam Al-Hasan al-’Askari has stated that when Iblis disobeyed Allah, He cursed him and exalted the Angels who made obeisance to Adam. Allah ordered them to take Adam and his wife Hawwa’ to the Garden. Allah mentions in Qur’an:

“And We said, O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree or you will be of the unjust?” (2:35)

Allah ordered Prophet Adam and Hawwa’ not to approach the tree because it was the tree of knowledge of Prophet Muhammad and the family of Muhammad. Because they are specially selected for this tree. No one is allowed to eat from this tree except them.

And ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn distributed their food to poor, orphans and prisoners and themselves fasted for three days at a stretch and ate with the Prophet. Whatever was made available to him was sent from this very tree. Allah sent the Qur’anic Verses (Hal Ata) by revelation and sent for them food from heaven. After having this food, they never felt hunger and thirst. That tree was more eminent than other trees because different kinds of trees produce different kinds of fruits but this tree was producing every kind of fruits and grains like wheat, grapes, figs, jujube and many other things.

That is the reason that scholars hold different views about this tree. Some say, it was a wheat tree. According to some it was a grapevine. Some think it was a jujube tree. Allah said, “Do not go near that tree because it you may vie the status of Muhammad and his progeny.” That is beause Allah has chosen them as His favorites. If anyone were to eat from that tree by permission of Allah, he would be given the knowledge of divine revelation. If anyone eats by his own will, he would be disappointed and hopeless and would have disobeyed Allah. Allah says clearly regarding this tree:

“And do not approach this tree or you will be of the unjust?” (2:35)

That is, if you disobey in this matter you would fall into degradation.

But the Satan made them both fall from it, (2.36)

Satan began to make evil suggestion to them and said,

“Your Lord has not forbidden you this tree except that you may not both become two angels or that you may (not) become of the immortals.” (7:20)

“And he swore to them both: Most surely I am a sincere adviser to you.” (2:21)

The Satan entered the Garden by hiding in the serpent’s mouth. Adam thought the serpent was speaking to him. Initially Adam rejected his suggestion and said, “O serpent! This is Satan’s suggestion. How can Allah deceive us? Why do you swear of Allah? You say that Allah deceives us yet you say that you are a sincere adviser to us? You know very well that Allah is Kind and Merciful. Allah has forbidden me not to approach the tree without His permission, so how can I do so?” The Satan was disappointed and again he entered the garden with the help of a serpent. Hiding in its mouth he met Hawwa’ the wife of Adam and spoke to her. She thought the serpent was speaking. Satan said, “O Hawwa’! Allah had forbidden you to approach the tree but now He has made it legitimate for you because you have obeyed His orders faithfully. The angels are appointed to guard this tree and protect it from the beasts, it will not prevent you if you approach it. Then you can rest assured that it has become legitimate for you. If you taste the fruit before Adam you will subdue him and rule over him.”

Hawwa’ looked towards the tree. The angels tried to prevent her, but Allah revealed to them, “A person who has been given the knowledge but disobeys My orders is repelled from here. Let them do whatever they like. I have told them if they obey My orders I will be pleased and if they disobey, they would deserve My punishment.” So the angels did not come forward to prevent them. Hawwa’ thought that Allah has ordered His angels not to prevent them from eating from the tree and made the tree legitimate for them, and that this serpent has been a true advisor.

Hawwa’ ate the fruit and did not feel any change in herself. She narrated everything to Adam who was also deceived and he too tasted the forbidden tree. As soon as he ate from it he was driven out of the Garden. Allah says in Qur’an:

“But the Satan made them both fall from it, and caused them to depart from that (state) in which they were; and We said, Get forth some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.” (2:36)

Then He says:

“Then Adam received (some) words (Archangel Gabriel taught Adam to ask forgiveness of Allah for the sake of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn) from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; He is oft returning (to mercy), the Merciful.” (2:37)

“We said, Go forth from this (state) all.” (2:38)

Imam explains that Allah ordered Adam, Hawwa’, Satan and the serpent to go away together and not one by one. The serpent was better than other animals and the Satan came down on the earth by the side of heaven as it was unlawful for him to enter the heaven.

Finally Allah says,

“So surely there will come to you a guidance from Me, then whoever follows My guidance, no fear shall come upon them, nor shall they grieve.” (2:38)

Imam Al-Hasan al-’Askari has stated that when Allah accepted Adam’s repentance, Prophet Adam requested the Almighty that He accept his repentance and grant him the same position as before. Indeed their evil inclinations became manifest to them. Then Allah said, “O Adam! You didn’t remember My Order, seek My help by the sake of Muhammad and his family.” Prophet Adam said that he had forgotten. Allah said, “Implore Me by the names of Muhammad ‘Ali Fatimah Hasan and Husayn, and I will accept your prayer.” Prophet Adam said, “O Allah, the Sustainer! For the sake of your five noble followers accept my prayer and forgive my mistake. I am your first Prophet and your angels made obeisance to me and you appointed the angels for my service.” Allah said, “O Adam! I ordered the angels to make obeisance to you because you were the vessel of their lights. If you had implored Me through their names I would have kept you safe from disobedience and warned you of the deception of Iblis. But whatever I had anticipated has occurred. Now, pray to Me so that I accept your request.

Prophet Adam prayed to Allah with the names of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and asked Him for forgiveness. Allah was pleased with him and said that his repentance was accepted. Imam has stated that Allah taught him the five auspicious names. Then Allah told Prophet Adam and Hawwa’, the serpent and the Satan, “There are provisions for you on the earth and you will be happy on the earth until you die.” Allah has created the fruits, flowers and vegetables for them, to make them happy and do good deeds for the hereafter. Sometimes Allah puts His believers in trial by subjecting them to difficulties and disease. Allah bestows all the bounties as rewards and it is not possible to get all the benefits without toiling for them. The bounties of the hereafter are much better than worldly life. Allah tests us by pain and difficulties so that we would be aware of the punishment of the Resurrection Day when there shall be no relief.6

The Almighty Allah says,

“And We said, O Adam! dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plenteous (food) where ever you wish and do not approach this tree, then you will be of the unjust.” (2:35)

However Satan put them in doubt. He wanted them to become conscious of their sexuality. He said, “Allah has forbidden for you this tree so that you may not become angels and stay in the heaven forever.” And he swore to them that he was a sincere advisor. In this way Satan deceived them and Adam could not refuse him. Satan convinced them to taste the forbidden tree. When they tasted their heavenly garments vanished and they became nude. They tried to cover their nudity with leaves. Allah said, “Did I not forbid you that tree? Did I not warn you that Satan is your avowed enemy? Adam said, “Our Lord! We had been unjust on ourselves. If You do not have Mercy upon us and do not forgive us, we shall be of the losers.” The Almighty told him to leave the Paradise and dwell on the Earth:

Get forth some of you being the enemies of others, and there is for you in the earth an abode and a provision for a time.” (2:37)

Allah said that they will have to stay on the Earth until they die and will be raised from here on the day of judgment.

At another occasion Allah said, (7:27)

“O, Son of Adam! Do not follow the wrong path. Your parents were expelled from heaven and were deprived of their heavenly garments, that their private parts became apparent. We took promise from Adam but he did not keep it. When We asked the angels to make obeisance to Adam; they obeyed. But Satan disobeyed. We told Adam that Satan is your open enemy and would cause you to be expelled from Paradise and as a result you will have to face troubles and difficulties. The Garden is the best place for you. You will be free from thirst and hunger, and you will not be naked. You shall remain in shade.”

But the Satan misguided him and said, ‘Shall I show you the way to the eternal tree? One who tastes the fruit of this tree, becomes immortal, he never dies. His kingdom and kingship never decline.’ Thus they tasted the fruit from that tree and at once became nude. They began to cover themselves with leaves. They disobeyed Allah’s order and followed the wrong path. Allah forgave them and accepted their repentance and asked them to leave the Garden. He said, “Go to the earth and some of you shall be enemies of others. If any apostle comes to you, believe him. He will guide you against evil. If anyone will believe in Me, he will be free from the wrath. If not, he will be deserving the chastisement.”

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has stated that the people asked Imam regarding the verse

O you who believe! Obey Allah and His Apostle and do not turn back from Him while you hear. (8:20)

Imam said, “The private parts of Adam and Hawwa’ were covered, that is, they were not apparent outwardly, but when they tasted the fruit, they became visible.” The tree forbidden by Allah, were the ears of wheat and according to another report, it was a grapevine.

People asked Imam al-Baqir regarding the verse of Qur’an:

“and do not approach this tree,” (2:35)

Imam replied that Allah meant to say that they should not partake the fruit of that tree.

Imam ‘Ali al-Naqi has stated that the tree forbidden to Adam was the tree of jealousy. Allah took the oath from Adam and Hawwa’ that they will not be jealous of those who were more exalted to them and to all the creatures. But Allah did not find Adam firm in this.

People asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir regarding the verse from Qur’an:

And certainly We gave a commandment to Adam before, but he forgot; and We did not find in him any determination. (20:115)

And that according to some people Adam forgot the commands of Allah? Imam said, “ How could Adam have forgotten when Satan himself said that Allah has told them not to touch the tree for they might become angels or immortals? Actually Adam followed Satan’s evil suggestion and disregarded the command of Allah. Here forgetfulness denotes disregard.”

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has related from Prophet Muhammad that Prophet Musa prayed to Allah to meet Prophet Adam. When they met he said, “Are you the same whom Allah has created by His own hands? And when you became alive, Allah asked the angels to make obeisance to you and decorated the heaven for you and spoke to you. He forbade you to eat from the tree but you were not patient and thus expelled you from the heaven. You could not control yourself because of the Satan’s evil suggestion and obeyed him and for this reason we are on the earth?”

Prophet Adam replied, “O Son! Be kind with your father and try to understand about the tree. Satan was my enemy. He came to me and deceived me and swore by Allah that he was my sincere advisor and that he was one of my true friends and a well-wisher. He said that he was very unhappy for me. When I asked him the reason he said it was due to his attachment to me that he felt very sorry that I would be expelled to the earth, which I did not like. I asked what I should do. Satan said that, he would show me the eternal tree and said if anyone ate from it, he will be immortal and his kingdom will never be destroyed. If I and Hawwa’ ate from it, we both would remain in heaven with him. He swore that he was my well-wisher. I never knew one could take a false oath and considered his oath true.” Then he said, “Tell me, Has Allah, the exalted, sent to you something (Torah)? Did you find a mention of my creation and mistake revealed this book? Musa said, “Yes, the holy book Torah had been written a long time ago.” The Holy Prophet said thrice: The argument of Adam was exhausted on Musa.

According to an acceptable tradition of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq: Adam asked Musa, “O Musa! How many years before my creation did you see my sin mentioned in the Torah?” “Thirty years” replied Musa. “It is enough,” said Adam. Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that Adam overcame Musa’s argument.7

According to a reliable tradition people asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq how long did Adam and Hawwa’ remain in the heaven and when were they expelled? Imam said, “It was Friday at sunset, Adam came to life and Allah created his wife Hawwa’ from his last rib. Then Allah ordered His angels to make obeisance to Adam They all did. By Allah, Prophet Adam did not stay in heaven for more than six hours. And they both were expelled at sunset. They passed their night out of heaven until morning. Their heavenly clothes vanished and they became nude. They felt ashamed and prayed to Allah with tearful eyes and asked for forgiveness and said, “We are guilty. We confess our fault.” Allah ordered them to go down from the heavens as guilty people cannot stay there with Him in the heavens.” When Prophet Adam tasted the fruit from the tree he remembered Allah’s prohibition and became very sad but when he tried to move away from it, the tree caught his head and pulled him near by the permission of Allah and asked why he had touched it? Imam has narrated that the private parts of the body were concealed but when they ate from the tree they became apparent.

In another tradition Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq states that the spirits were created two thousand years before the bodies. Allah created the exalted souls of Prophet Muhammad ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn and after them the souls of all Imams. Then Allah sent all these souls on the skies the lands and the mountains. All of them became ashamed by their brightness. Allah told the heavens, earth and the mountains, “They are My true friends and confidants and they are the leaders of all. I have not created anyone like them. Paradise is for those who believe in them, and the fire of hell is for those who disbelieve in my communications and those who claim to be like them. I shall send a severe wrath upon them and they will be sent to the bottom of the hell. Those who accept their leadership and friendship, will be given a place in the Garden and will get what they desire. I will make them stay with the righteous ones. Their friendship is a security for life. Who shall volunteer to accept their Wilayah as trust? The mountains, the skies and the land feared Allah and declined to take the charge.

Almighty Allah told Adam and Hawwa’ to dwell in the Garden and eat whatever and wherever they desire but not the wheat plant, otherwise they would be of the unjust. Adam and Hawwa’ beheld the dignity of Prophet Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn and other Imams. They saw their great status in the heaven. They asked Allah when He had bestowed them with such dignity. Allah said, “Raise your head towards my empyrean (the Holy Throne) and see.” They raised their heads and saw the names of Muhammad ‘Ali, Fatimah, hasan, husayn and other Imams on the Holy Throne.

Adam asked, “O Allah! Why are these names so respectable to you?” Allah said, “I have created you and the universe because of them. They are My honest and faithful treasurers. Do not be jealous at them and do not vie their great status otherwise you will be one the disbelievers and unjust.” Adam asked Allah to show their condition in hell. Allah ordered hell to show him the different kinds of chastisements and said that their abode is in the depths of hell. If they try to come out the guards push them back. When their skin is burnt, a new skin is created for them, that they can taste the chastisement again. “O Adam and Hawwa’! Do not be jealous of them otherwise you will be out from My vicinity and will be sent to the earth; and there you will suffer a lot.” Satan put them in doubt and they went to the tree.

Thus Allah expelled them. They ate some grains from that tree and their heavenly clothes and jewels separated from their bodies leaving them naked. They covered their private parts with leaves. Allah revealed to him that He had forbidden them to eat from that tree and had said that Satan was their open enemy. So they lamented,

“Our Lord! We have been unjust to ourselves, and if Thou forgive us not, and have (not) mercy on us, we shall certainly be of the losers.” (7:23)

Allah ordered them to go away from His Presence. Those who disobey His orders cannot stay in the heavens so Allah sent them to the earth. When the Merciful Allah wanted to forgive him, He sent Archangel Gabriel to them. He came and said, “Certainly, you are the losers by disobeying the order. Now recite the names that are written on the Holy Throne for forgiveness and pray to Allah to accept your repentance.” Adam prayed to Allah, “For the sake of Muhammad ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn accept my prayer and have mercy on me.” Allah forgave him as He is Kind and Merciful. After that Adam memorized the names of the Holy Five and also informed the people of his community.

Allah says in Qur’an,

“Surely We offered the trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they refused to be unfaithful to it and feared from it, and man has turned unfaithful to it; surely he is unjust, ignorant.” (33:72)

According to a reliable tradition, people asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq why the inheritance of a male is twice that of a female? Imam replied, “Adam and Hawwa’ picked up eighteen grains. Adam ate twelve and Hawwa’ ate six grains. Therefore the inheritance of a male is twice that of female.”

In another hadith, Imam ‘Ali has stated that there were three grains. Adam ate two and Hawwa’ ate one. However the first tradition is more reliable. It is possible that it may be a bunch of grapes and from the bunch, Adam and Hawwa’ ate three grapes.

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir says, “If Adam had not committed that mistake the believers would have been free from mistakes too. If Allah had not accepted his repentance, He would not have accepted the repentance of other people.”

According to reliable sources Abul-Salt al-Harawi asked Imam al-Ridha about the tree that Adam and Hawwa’ had tasted, because there were different views about it. According to another tradition, it was a wheat pod and one more tradition indicates it was a malicious tree. Imam said, “Both traditions are true.” “How can it be?” asked Abu’l-Salt. Imam said, “The tree bore all kinds of fruits. It was a wheat pod. It was an auspicious tree not an ordinary one. When Allah, the Almighty exalted Adam and asked His angels to make obeisance, they obeyed. Then Adam entered Paradise. He thought that Allah has not created anyone like him? But Allah knew his thoughts, as He is Knowing and Hearing.

Allah revealed to him, ‘O Adam! Raise your head and look at My empyrean.’ Adam raised his head and beheld some names on it. Adam asked, ‘Who are they?’ Allah said, ‘They are from your offspring and are much better than others. I have not created the heavens, the earth, and the hell, but only out of love for these five Honorable beings, I have created you and all creatures for them. Do not be jealous of them otherwise you will be deprived of My bounties.’ But due to Satan’s instigation Adam desired for his high status and ate the fruit that was forbidden by Allah. Satan overcame Hawwa’ and she desired to taste the fruit and Adam also ate. So they were expelled from Paradise and sent to the earth.”8

Reliable sources mention that people asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq if the Paradise of Adam was a part of this earth or a Paradise of the Hereafter? Imam said, “It was from the gardens of the earth where the Sun and Moon rise and set and the Paradise of the Hereafter is that from which no one returns.”9

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir has related from the Holy Prophet that Adam and Hawwa’ did not stay in heaven for more than two hours and they were expelled on the same day.

According to reliable sources Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said that Satan became worried and agitated four times: When Allah cursed him, when he was expelled from the heavens, when Prophet Muhammad was commissioned by Allah and when the Holy Qur’an was revealed. He cried out loudly on all these occasions. But he became very happy when Adam tasted the fruit from that special tree and was driven out from heaven.

‘Ali ibn Ibrahim has quoted that Prophet Adam came to the earth but he was not trained properly. It was impossible for him to understand what is good and what is bad for him. He didn’t know the proper way of living and having marital relationships. When Allah told him to stay in the Garden, he passed by the tree innocently. Then Satan came and deceived him. They tasted the fruit from the auspicious tree. Their clothes separated from their body and they concealed the body with leaves etc...10

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq has quoted that when Prophet Adam landed on the Earth. Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, “Allah has created you by His own hands, he put His soul in your body and ordered the angels to make obeisance to you and bestowed you with all the bounties from heaven and He forbade you to go to the tree but you disobeyed His orders.” Prophet Adam said, “Whatever you say is true but the Satan swore that he was my sincere advisor and I was not knowing that anyone could take a false oath. He came to me and said, ‘If you eat from that tree, you will become immortal like the Angels and stay in the heaven forever.’ He swore that he was my true friend.” When they ate from the tree their heavenly clothes were removed and they covered their bodies with foliage.

Imam Al-Hasan al-Mujtaba has stated that some Jews came to the Messenger of Allah and inquired many things. One of their questions was why Muslims are obliged to pray five times a day? The Messenger of Allah said, “Because when Adam ate from the forbidden tree it was the time of Asr. Allah sent him to the earth and made the prayers of Asr compulsory for Adam’s children until the Resurrection Day. And Allah ordered the Muslim community to keep up this prayer. Thus it is my favorite prayer. I have been ordered to establish it. When the repentance of Adam was accepted it was Maghrib. At that time Adam recited three Rak’ahs (units). One for his mistake, one for that of Hawwa’’s and the third for the acceptance his apology. Allah made these Rak’ahs compulsory for my people. There was a gap of 300 years (of Earth) from the time Adam tasted the fruit and when Allah forgave him. A day of the Hereafter is equal to one thousand years of the Earth.”11

The Jews asked, “Why does Wudhu’ involve the particular four parts of the body that are clean most of the time?” Prophet said, “When Satan deceived Adam he went to the tree and became disgraced. He ate with his hands and his heavenly dress separated from his body. He put his hands on his head and wept. When Allah accepted his repentance He asked him to wash the face because he had first looked towards the tree. Then to wash his hands as he picked the fruit by them. Then He ordered him to anoint his head as he had put them on the head and ordered him to anoint on the feet because he used them first for disobeying His command. Thus we perform Wudhu’ in this way.” They asked why Allah made thirty fasts compulsory. Prophet answered, “Because the fruit remained in his stomach for thirty days. Allah made thirty fasts incumbent on Adam and his children. But it is His grace that He allowed them to eat before sunrise. Fasting was obligatory on Adam, therefore it is compulsory for my people too.” Allah says in Qur’an,

O you who believe! Fasting is prescribed for you, as it was prescribed for those before you, so that you may guard (against evil). (2:83)

According to another tradition Al-Ma’mun asked Imam al-Ridha, “Are you not convinced that Prophet of Allah was innocent?” Imam said, “It is true.” Then he asked, “What is the meaning of the Qur’anic verse:

“…and Adam disobeyed his Lord, so his life became evil (to him).” (20:121)

Imam said, “Allah said to Adam ‘O Adam! Dwell you and your wife in the garden and eat from it a plentiful (food) wherever you wish and do not approach this tree for then you will be of the unjust.’

Allah indicated towards the wheat tree. Adam obeyed Allah and did not go near that tree. They enjoyed the fruits of other trees. But the Satan deceived him and said, ‘Allah has forbidden you this tree but not the other trees of the garden. If you eat from this tree, you will become immortal like the angels and will stay here forever.’ He took a false oath that he was a true friend. Adam and his wife had never heard a false oath and they trusted him. This was the first fault of Adam and it was not a blunder. It was a Tark al-Awla that occurred even before he was appointed a Prophet. And Tark al-Awla is condoned before revelation. When Allah exalted him and appointed him a Prophet, he became infallible and did not commit even a minor mistake. Allah says,

‘…and Adam disobeyed his Lord, so his life became evil (to him). Then his Lord chose him, so He turned to him and guided (him).’ (20:121-122)


‘Surely Allah chose Adam and Nuh and the descendants of Ibrahim and the descendants of ‘Imran above the nations.’” (3:33)

An Account of the apology of Adam and Hawwa’ after their arrival on this Earth:

It is narrated from the Holy Prophet that when Adam disobeyed Allah, a caller called out from near the Holy Throne, “O Adam! Get out from My vicinity of Mercy because whoever disobeys Me cannot stay here.” Adam began to cry and even Angels cried. Then Allah sent Archangel Gabriel to Adam who brought him to the Earth. At that moment the whole body of Adam had become black. When Angels saw him in this condition they cried bitterly asked for permission to help Adam until their voices rose to a high pitch. All of them came to the realm of the Almighty and said, “O, the One Who has given life to one of Your creatures and then put a chosen soul in it and ordered the Angels to prostrate to it. And due to just one sin You have changed his fair complexion to a dark one?.”

At that moment a caller called out from Heaven, “O Adam, today you shall fast for your Creator.” It was 13th of the month. Adam kept a fast. One third of the darkness disappeared. On the 14th the same voice ordered him to keep a fast. Adam again fasted and two thirds of the blackness disappeared. On the fifteenth the voice once more prompted Adam to fast. Adam did and the remaining darkness disappeared. He became fair once more. It was because of this that the three days were referred to as the days of settling down. Then a caller called out from the sky, “O Adam! I have appointed these three days for you and your children. If anybody would fast on these three days of the month it would be as if he has fasted for the whole year.

Adam was sitting with his head on the knee and very much dejected and sorrowful. Allah sent Archangel Gabriel to Adam. He asked him why he was so forlorn. He replied, “I will remain sorrowful like this until death takes me.” Archangel Gabriel said, “I am the messenger of Allah. Allah has sent salutations and said, “Hayaak allaaho wa bayyaak allaah!” Adam, “I know the meaning of ‘hayaak allaah’, it is ‘may Allah keep you alive’, but what is the meaning of the phrase ‘bayaak allaah’?” Archangel Gabriel said, “It means, ‘may Allah keep you happy’.”

Hearing this Adam went into a prostration. Then he raised his head, looked towards the sky and prayed, “O Allah! Increase my beauty and elegance!” Next morning a black beard covered his face. Adam felt it and asked Allah what it was. He was told that it was a beard and that Allah has made it a sign of beauty for Adam and his sons.

According to a good chain of narrators Imam as-Sadiq said that when Adam landed on the Earth his body from the head to toe became black. He became very sad. Archangel Gabriel came and asked him the reason for his sadness. He said that blackness had enveloped him. Archangel Gabriel told him to get up and recite prayers as it was the best time for prayers. Adam recited the prayers and the blackness vanished from head to the chest. When it was time for the next prayer Archangel Gabriel told him that it was time for second prayer. Adam prayed the second time and the darkness vanished up to his navel.

Again after some time Archangel Gabriel reminded that it was time for the third prayer. Adam prayed the third time and darkness vanished from the navel to the thighs. Then again Archangel Gabriel said that it was time for the fourth prayer. Adam completed his fourth prayer and the darkness vanished until the legs. Then Archangel Gabriel told Adam to pray the fifth time and all the darkness vanished from his body. Adam praised Allah and thanked Him profusely. Archangel Gabriel said, “O Adam! This is the model prayers for your children. It means that if they pray five times a day all their sins shall be cleansed like the darkness vanished from your body.”

A reliable tradition from Imam as-Sadiq states: During the circumambulation a man approached my father, kept his hand on his shoulder and said, “I want to ask you three questions and I know that no one knows the answers except you.” Imam al-Baqir kept quiet and when he completed the circumambulation he came to hijr Isma‘il and offered a two-Rak‘ah prayer. After concluding the prayers he inquired about the person who had questioned him. He came and sat down facing my father. He asked, “How did the Angels regain Allah’s pleasure after they had objected to His creation of Adam. Imam replied, “The Angels performed the circumambulation of the Holy Throne for seven years and sought divine forgiveness and only then did Allah forgive them.” “You have spoken the truth,” said the man. “Then how did Allah become satisfied with Adam ”

Imam said, “When Adam came down to the Earth, he landed at Hind (India). He prayed to Allah who is the Creator of the House. Allah told him to come to His House, circumambulate seven times and perform all the rituals of the hajj in ‘Arafat and Mina. From India, he came to Makkah and wherever he placed his feet, the places became inhabited and prosperous. And where he did not step the places became remained deserted. Then he performed the circumambulation seven times and completed all the hajj rituals as ordered by Allah. Due to this Allah accepted his repentance and forgave him. Seven rounds of Adam were equivalent to seven years’ circumambulation of the Holy Throne by Angels. At that time Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, “Congratulations! Allah has forgiven you. And I have also performed circumambulation of this Holy House 300 years before you did.” Adam said, “O Allah! Forgive me and my progeny.” Allah said, “I will forgive those who believe in Me and My Prophet.” The man said, “You have said the truth!” and left the assembly. My father said to me, “That was none other than Archangel Gabriel. Your teacher in religion came to teach you.”12

It is narrated through a reliable chain of narrators that Imam as-Sadiq said, “When Adam came down to the Earth. He performed the circumambulation of Ka‘bah for a hundred years. During this period he did not once glance at Hawwa’. Due to the expulsion from the Heaven he was weeping and tears flowed freely from his eyes. Archangel Gabriel came to him and said, “Hayyaak allaaho wa bayyaak allaah!”

When Archangel Gabriel said, “Hayyaak allaaho” Adam understood that Allah had forgiven him, and when Archangel Gabriel said “bayyaak allaah” he became extremely happy and stood at the door of the Ka‘bah which had the covering of cow and camel skins and said, “Allahumma aqelni a’thrati waghfir li dhanbi wa aaedhoni ila addaar allati akhrajtani minha.” Allah said, “I have forgiven your sins and pardoned your deviation and I will put you back in the heaven from where you were expelled.”

The Sunnis have narrated through numerous chains from ‘Abdullah Ibn ‘Abbas that he said, “I asked the Holy Prophet regarding the words that Adam learnt from his Lord, through which his repentance was accepted.” The Holy Prophet said, “He sought forgiveness through the right of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn and was forgiven.” There are quite a few traditions on this subject that we shall discuss them in the third volume of this book.

Through other chains of narrators the Shi‘ah and Sunni scholars narrate from Ibn ‘Abbas that when the Almighty created Adam and put in him His spirit, Adam sneezed all of a sudden. Allah sent to him a revelation and Adam said, “Praise be to Allah.” Allah said, “Yarhamaka rabboka” (May your Lord have mercy upon you.) When the Angels prostrated before him he asked, “O my Lord have You created anything dearer than me?” There was no reply. He asked the same question the second time, but still there was no reply. He repeated the question the third time. This time Allah said, “Indeed there are some creatures. And if they hadn’t been there I wouldn’t have created even you, O Adam!”

Adam requested Allah to show him those exalted personalities. The Almighty ordered the Angels of Hijab (coverings) to remove all the coverings. The coverings were removed and five luminous personalities became visible before the Holy Throne. “Who are these?” asked Adam. Allah said, “O Adam! This is Muhammad, My Prophet, and this is ‘Ali, the Commander of the Faithful, this is Fatimah the daughter of My Prophet, and these two are Hasan and Husayn, the children of ‘Ali and the sons of My Prophet. And O Adam! They are from your progeny.” Adam was pleased to hear it. And when he committed that grave error he repented and sought forgiveness upon the rights of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn. Allah forgave him. This is the meaning of the Qur’anic verse,

Then Adam received (some) words from his Lord, so He turned to him mercifully; (2:37)

When Adam came to the Earth he made a finger ring and engraved upon it: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and ‘Ali is the Commander of the Faithful. The agnomen of Adam was Abu Muhammad.”

According to a authentic tradition Imam as-Sadiq said that Adam requested, “O Allah! I implore You in the name of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah, Hasan and Husayn, accept my repentance.” Allah asked him how he knew Muhammad. Adam said, “When I was created and I raised up my head I saw the following words written on the Holy Throne: Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah and ‘Ali is the Commander of the Faithful.”

According to a reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that, “Adam sought forgiveness in the following words:

Allahumma laa ilaha illa anta subhaanaka wa be hamdeka inni a’melto sooo-an wa zalamto nafsi faghfirli innaka anta atawwaabuurraheem. Laa ilaaha illa anta subhaanaka wa be hamdeka inni a’melto sooo-an wa zalamto nafsi faghfirli innaka anta khairul ghaafereen

According to a reliable tradition when a Mu’min gets up from sleep, he should recite the sentence, which aHazratHazrat Adam (a.s.) lane from Ha Adam learned from Allah! And the Dua is:

Subboohun quddoos rabbul malaaekati warrooh. Sabaqat rahmatoka ghadaboka. Laa ilaaha illa anta inni zalamto nafsi faghfirli war hamni innaka anta atawwaabu arraheemul ghafoor

According to a reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that on the day of covenant, Adam was presented to his (Prophet’s) progeny. Muhammad al-Mustafa. ‘Ali was with him and was passing with him. Fatimah was behind him and Imam Al-Hasan and Husayn were behind her. Allah said, “O Adam! Do not look towards them with jealousy. Otherwise I will take you out from My Vicinity of Mercy.” When Allah put him (Adam) in heaven, Muhammad al-Mustafa, ‘Ali, Fatimah Hasan, Husayn came before him. Adam saw them with jealousy.13 At that moment the love and Wilayah of Ahl al-Bayt was presented to Adam, that he have accepted, but he did not. Heaven showered its leaves.

When Adam repented and accepted the Wilayah of these personalities and prayed by the rights of Muhammad, ‘Ali, Fatimah Hasan and Husayn, Allah forgave him. These were the words that Adam had learnt from his Lord.

According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from ‘Ali the words that Adam uttered, “O Allah I ask You on account of Muhammad and his progeny that you accept my repentance.” “How did you recognize Muhammad?” asked Allah. Adam replied, “I saw their names on Your vast curtain when I was in the Garden.”14

According to a reliable hadith of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq: Five people are famous for their extreme lamentations, Adam, Ya‘qub, Yusuf, Fatimah al-Zahra’ and Imam Zayn al-‘abidin. Adam cried so much due to his expulsion from heaven that two streams of tears flowed on his cheeks.

It is narrated from the Messenger of Allah that Adam came to this earth on a Friday.

According to a reliable tradition from Imam as-Sadiq when Adam was sent to Earth he brought with him 120 trees. 40 of them bore fruits whose external as well as internal parts were edible. And the fruits of 40 others had inedible kernel. Adam brought with him a bag containing seeds of every type.

According to reliable chains of narrators it is narrated that Ibn Abu-Nasr asked Imam al-Ridha why the first fruit, which was sown on the Earth grew to be a tasty one. Imam asked him what his co-religionists thought. He said, “They say that when Adam came to India from heaven he cried in nostalgia. His tears fell on the Earth and formed potholes creating a sweet odor.” Imam said, “It is not so, rather Janabe Hawwa’ fragranced her hair with the leaves of Paradise. When she came down to earth, after the calamity she menstruated and then performed Ghusl. When she unfurled her hair, Allah sent a breeze that dispersed the heavenly leaves in the places where Allah wished.”

According to reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that Safa Mountain is called Safa because Adam descended on it. It was named after a derivation of Adam’s title ‘Mustafa’. As Allah says, “Surely Allah chose Adam and Nuh…” (3:33) And Hawwa’ came down on Marwa mountain and it is named thus because Marwa (woman) descended on it.

According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated that a Syrian asked ‘Ali, “Which is the most famous valley on the Earth?” Imam replied that it was Sarandeep. Adam came down to Earth in this same valley.15

According to reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Bukayr that Imam as-Sadiq asked him, “Do you know what the Black Stone was originally?” “No,” said Bukayr. Imam said, “It was a Great Angel of Allah. When Allah took the covenant from angels, it was the first to believe and accepted Allah; the Black Stone is the same angel. Allah made him His trustee over other creatures and made them perform hajj near it every year.

When Adam committed the mistake and neglected the covenant that was taken from him and his children, for Muhammad and his Legatee, he landed on the Earth, puzzled and perplexed. When his repentance was accepted, Allah sent this same angel in the form of a pure white shinning pearl to Adam from heaven when he was in India. Adam saw the Angel and was enchanted by him but he thought it was a pearl. Allah made it speak. It said, ‘O Adam! Do you know me?’ He said, ‘No.’ It said, ‘You do know me but Satan has overpowered you made your heart forget Allah.’ Saying this he regained the form that Adam seen in heaven. Then he asked Adam of his covenant with Allah. Adam moved towards him, then suddenly remembered the covenant and began to weep. As a mark of respect to the covenant and renewing of oath, he kissed the Angel.

Allah again made it into a white glowing pearl. Due to its importance, Adam carried it on his shoulders. When he used to get tired, Archangel Gabriel used to carried it, until they reached Makkah. Adam always showed a great regard for it and renewed his oath day and night. When Allah sent Archangel Gabriel to construct the Ka‘bah, he came down between the Rukn, Hajar and door and appeared Adam when he was renewing his covenant. Therefore, the covenant was entrusted to the Angel at this very place. He fixed the Hajar to this pillar. Archangel Gabriel took Adam from Ka‘bah to Mt. Safa and Hawwa’ to Mt. Marwa. Adam praised and glorified Allah.

Therefore it is recommended for all to face the Hajar from Mt. Safa and recite Allahu Akbar.”

From a reliable tradition it is narrated from Holy Prophet that Adam was lowered to Safa from heaven and Hawwa’ on Marwa. In the heaven Hawwa’ had made up her hair. When she came to the Earth she said, “How can I hope for beauty and embellishments on this Earth when I am under the wrath of Allah?” She unfurled her hair and the fragrance that she had used in the heaven spread in the surroundings. The breeze spread the fragrance all over and it reached India instantly once.

In another tradition he said, “When Hawwa’ loosened her hair Allah sent a breeze that carried the fragrance from East to West.”

According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from ‘Ali that people asked Holy Prophet how Allah create the dog? He said, “From the saliva of Satan.” When he was asked to explain the process he said, “When Allah sent Adam and Hawwa’ to Earth they were lying down and shivering like chickens. Iblis, the accursed, ran to the animals that inhabited the Earth before Adam and said, “A couple of chickens have fallen from sky; they are so big that no one has ever seen such huge chickens before. Come and devour them.” The beasts were with Satan while he continuously ushered them, “It is only a short distance and we are about to reach them.” Due to this soft conversation, his saliva dripped to the ground. Allah created a pair dogs from it, a male and a female. The dog came to Adam and the bitch went to Hawwa’ and stood there. They did not allow the beasts to come near them. From that day, wild animals became avowed enemies of dogs.

According to a reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that in heaven the duration of Adam’s stay in the Garden was seven minutes of this world until they ate from the prohibited tree. Allah sent them down to earth on the same day. Adam said, “O Allah! Did You destine for me the sin and whatever I will do in the future before You created me? Or did the villainy overpower me?” Allah said, “O Adam! I created you, taught you and placed you and your wife in heaven. But due to My bounty and Power, which I have honored you, you have become capable to disobey Me. Although you weren’t hidden from My Eyes and My Knowledge had anticipated your action.” Adam said, “O Allah! Your proof is complete on me.” Allah said, “I created you, gave you a beautiful form, ordered angels to prostrate to you and raised your name on the heavens and exalted you. Then I placed you in My Garden. I did all this due to My satisfaction and to test you through the bounties. Because all the bounties that I have bestowed on you were without your efforts.”

Adam said, “O My Lord, Goodness is from Your side and evil from mine.” Allah said, “O Adam! I am the Generous One. I created goodness before evil and also created Mercy before My wrath. Created fame before disgrace. Before creating punishment, I appointed My proofs as a necessity (who warned people against divine wrath). O Adam! Did not I prohibit you from this tree and did not I say that Satan is the enemy of you and your wife? And did I not make you two aware of Satan before you entered heaven? Did not I say that if you eat from that tree you will do injustice to yourself and will be My sinful servant? O Adam! An unjust one or a sinner cannot reside near Me in heaven.” Adam said, “O my Creator, Your Proof is complete for us. We did injustice to our souls and we have disobeyed You. If You won’t forgive us nor have Mercy on us we will be from among the losers.”

When they confessed their sins and accepted the completion of proof upon themselves Allah, the Beneficent and the Mercy of the Merciful engulfed them and He accepted their repentance. Allah said, “O Adam! “Go down to earth with your wife. If you rectify your actions, I will condone you. If you work for Me, I will bestow you power and strength. And if you strive for My satisfaction, I will compensate. If you fear Me, I will make you fearless from My wrath.” Adam and Hawwa’ heard this and wept. They said, “O Allah! Help us to rectify ourselves and perform acts that cause Your satisfaction.” Allah said, “Whenever you commit a mistake repent for it immediately, so that I accept your repentance. And I am the Acceptor of Repentance and (I am) the Beneficent.” Adam said, “O Allah! By Your Mercy send us down to Your favorite land.” Allah asked Archangel Gabriel to take them to the bountiful city of Makkah. Archangel Gabriel placed Adam on Mt. Safa and Hawwa’ on Mt. Marwa. They both stood there and looked towards the sky and started weeping and lamenting. “Why are you crying when I am satisfied with you?” asked Allah. They said, “O Allah! We are weeping for the sin that has separated us from the presence of Your Mercy. Because of us the purity and glory of Angels got veiled, our private parts became apparent. Our sins have forced us the toil cultivation, eating and drinking. We are terrified of the separation.”

Allah! The Beneficent and Merciful had Mercy on them and revealed to Archangel Gabriel, “I have Mercy on Adam and Hawwa’. As they have confessed to their sin and complained of their tribulations, take for them a tent from heaven, console them and teach them patience. Unite them in the tent because I had pity on them due to their weeping from fear and loneliness. Pitch the tent on the raised ground between the mountains of Makkah and the foundation that the angels have raised. Archangel Gabriel brought the tent, which was equivalent to the height of Ka‘bah, and placed it at that particular spot. Then he brought Adam and Hawwa’ from Safa and Marwa to the tent. The centre pole of the tent was of Red Ruby and due to its glow, the surroundings of Makkah and nearby mountains lit up. The glow arose as high as the sanctuary. The sanctity of the House increased due to the presence of the heavenly tent in its vicinity. It is for this reason that good and bad actions attain greater weight when performed in this area. Allah stretched the ropes of the tent around the sanctuary. It’s pegs were fixed in the branches of Paradise.

In another tradition, the pegs were of heaven’s pure gold. And its ropes from heaven’s purple ropes. Allah revealed to Archangel Gabriel to take 70000 angels to earth to supervise and protect the tent from evil jinn and befriend Adam and Hawwa’. They should show respect to the tent by circling around it. Angels descended and settled near the tent. They guarded it from the arrogant and evil Shaitans and circled Adam’s tent and Ka‘bah day and night as they used to circle al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur in the heavens. The Ka‘bah is exactly below al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. Allah sent Archangel Gabriel to Adam and Hawwa’ and take them away from the foundation of Ka‘bah as He wanted to send a group of angels to the Earth to build the Holy House for Angels and the progeny of Adam. Archangel Gabriel brought Adam and Hawwa’ out of tent and took Adam to Mt. Safa and Hawwa’ to Mt. Marwa and took the tent back to heaven. Adam and Hawwa’ asked Archangel Gabriel “O Archangel Gabriel! Is it due Allah’s wrath that you have separated us from the House and separated us or is it due to some wisdom for the satisfaction of Allah?” Archangel Gabriel said, “It is not because of divine wrath. But no one has the right to question Allah’s actions. O Adam! The 70000 angels that were sent for your company on earth and to do circumambulation around tent or the foundation of House asked Allah to replace it with a House equivalent to al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur so they can circle it as they circled al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur in the heaven.

Thus Allah asked me to take you away from there and take the tent back.” Adam said, “I am resigned to destiny and Divine order. It is for our good.” Therefore Adam and Hawwa’ were staying at Safa and Marwa respectively. Adam was pained at his separation from Hawwa’. He came down from Mt. Safa and looked towards Mt. Marwa in passion. He saw Hawwa’ on Mt. Marwa but when he reached the valley between Safa and Marwa he could neither see Mt. Marwa not Hawwa’. Adam feared that he has lost his way and began to run in the valley until he reached Marwa. He stopped running and climbed the mountain to Hawwa’ and greeted her with salaam. Both of them looked towards Ka‘bah that perhaps its foundations have elevated by then. He prayed to Allah to return them to the House. Adam came down and returned to Mt. Safa. Again he looked towards Ka‘bah and prayed. Again he longed for Hawwa’. He came down from Safa the second time and went towards Marwa. He did this three times and returned. When he reached Safa and prayed to Allah to keep them together and Hawwa’ also prayed. At that time, both of their prayers were accepted. It was afternoon (Zawal).

Archangel Gabriel told Adam to come down from Safa and meet Hawwa’. Adam came down from Safa and rushed towards Marwa, reached Hawwa’ and told her what Archangel Gabriel had said to him. Both of them were delighted. They thanked and praised Allah. It was due to this that the ritual of Sa’y (running seven times between Safa to Marwa) became established. Archangel Gabriel informed him that Allah has sent Angels to construct the Ka‘bah with stones of Mount Sinai and Jabal as-Salaam, (Najaf). Allah ordered Archangel Gabriel to build the Ka‘bah with the help of these Angels. Archangel Gabriel dug up the four stones that Allah had ordered and fixed them. Then he drew foundation of pillars as Allah had chosen. Allah revealed to Archangel Gabriel to complete the house with the stone that was kept as a trust on Mount Abu Qubays (the Black Stone). He also opened two doors in the Ka‘bah one opening to the east and other West. When Archangel Gabriel finished, the angels began to circle the Ka‘bah. Adam and Hawwa’ saw the Angels performing circumambulation so they also took seven rounds. Then they left the sanctuary to find something to eat. All this happened on the day they came down to Earth.

According to trustworthy chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that Adam was in Sajdah for 40 days on Mt. Safa and was lamenting the separation from Divine Mercy and heaven. Archangel Gabriel came to him and inquired why he was weeping. He said, “Why should not I cry? Allah has separated me from the vicinity of His Mercy and sent me down to Earth.” Archangel Gabriel said, “O Adam! Ask forgiveness from Allah.” “How should I repent,” he asked. Allah sent for him a dome of light at the site of Ka‘bah. Its glow illuminated the mountains of Makkah as high as the sanctuary. Allah ordered Archangel Gabriel to mark the precincts of the sanctuary. On the 8th of Dhu’l-hijjah Archangel Gabriel came to Adam and told him to arise. He took him out of the sanctuary and instructed him to perform Ghusl and wear the Ihram. Then he took him to the Mina and camped there overnight. Next morning they went to the plains of ‘Arafat. On the day of ‘Arafat at the time of Dhuhr prayers Adam was told to recite the Talbiya and perform Ghusl. After he completed the prayers Archangel Gabriel told him to stand on the plains of ‘Arafat and taught him the words that he had learnt from his Lord:

Subh’aanaka Allahumma wa be hamdeka laa ilaaha illa anta. A’melto sooan wa zalamto nafsi wa’tarafto be dhanbi. Faghfirli innaka antal gafoorur rah’eem. Subhaanaka Allahumma wa be hamdeka laa ilaaha illa anta. A’melto soooan wa zalamto nafsi wa’tarafto be dhanbi. Faghfirli innaka anta khairul ghaafereen. Subhaanaka Allahumma wa be hamdeka laa ilaaha illa anta. A’melto soooan wa zalamto nafsi wa’tarafto be dhanbi. Faghfirli innaka anta attawwaaburraheem.

Adam kept standing, prayed to Allah with sincerity, and wept. At sunset, Archangel Gabriel took Adam to Mash’ar and they stayed there for the night. In the morning, Adam stood on Mountain of Mashar-il-haram and prayed to Allah with the words that were taught to him. Allah forgave his sins. Then Archangel Gabriel brought him to Mina and asked him shave his head and again brought him to Makkah. Upon reaching al-Jamarah al-Ula, the Satan came to him and said, “O Adam! Where are you going?” Archangel Gabriel told Adam to say Allahu Akbar and hit him seven times with pebbles. When Adam did this, the Satan fled. Again, he met Adam at al-Jamarah al-Thaniyah. Archangel Gabriel again told him to toss seven pebbles. Adam obeyed reciting Allahu Akbar simultaneously. Satan ran away. At al-Jamarah al-Thalithah, Satan appeared once again and Adam threw seven pebbles at him while repeating Allahu Akbar. Satan ran away. Archangel Gabriel said, “You will not see him again.” Archangel Gabriel brought Adam towards Ka‘bah and ordered him to do circumambulation seven times. Archangel Gabriel said to Adam that Allah has accepted his repentance and has made his wife halal (permissible) to him. When Adam finished the hajj he met Angels at Abtali who said, “May Allah accept your hajj. We have performed the hajj of this House 2000 years before you.”

According to an authentic tradition Angels told him this when he was going to ‘Arafat. And in another good tradition when Adam was doing circumambulation of Ka‘bah and his Dua was about to be accepted and Archangel Gabriel told him to confess his sins at that place. Adam said, “O Allah every action carries a reward. What is the reward of my action?” Allah revealed to him, “O Adam! I will forgive all those from your progeny who visit this place and confess their sins.

A reliable chain of narrators has narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that when Adam constructed the Ka‘bah and did circumambulation he said, “Every doer of an action gets a reward. I also performed an act.” It was revealed to him, “O Adam! Ask what you want.” Adam said, “O Allah! Forgive my sins.” It was revealed to him, “O Adam! You are forgiven.” Adam said, “O Allah forgive my progeny also.” A voice came, “O Adam! Whoever performs this act and accepts his sins will be forgiven.”

In one of the traditions it is narrated that when Adam’s progeny increased and some of them were sitting with him and talking among themselves while Adam was silent. They asked him why he was so quite. He said, “When Allah expelled me from the vicinity of His Mercy He made me promise that I would talk less and that consequently He would accept me back in His Presence.”

According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Musa ibn Ja‘far when Adam and Hawwa’ committed ‘Tark al-Awla’ Allah sent Adam to Mt. Safa. It is called Safa because ‘Adam Mustafa’ (Adam the Chosen one) descended on it. Hawwa’ was brought to Mt. Marwa. It is called Marwa because it is ‘mar’a’ means one upon whom a woman descended. Adam thought that he was separated from Hawwa’ because she was not lawful for him. Therefore, Adam remained aloof from her. During the day he used to be with Hawwa’ at Marwa and at night return to his place at Mt. Safa due to the fear that desire does not overcome him. He had only the company of Hawwa’ until Angels were sent by Allah. Women are called ‘Nisa’ because Hawwa’ was the cause of affection for Adam. Allah favored and rewarded them by giving them Tawfiq for repentance and taught them some words. When Adam repented with those words, Allah accepted his repentance and sent Archangel Gabriel to him. Archangel Gabriel said, “As-Salaamo A’laikum O Adam! Allah has sent me to teach you the rituals of hajj, so that you get purified.”

Archangel Gabriel brought him to Ka‘bah. Allah sent a cloud over Ka‘bah to shadow them and it was equal to al-Bayt al-Ma‘mur. Archangel Gabriel said, “O Adam! Trace the boundaries of the Holy House around the shadow of this cloud and a cubicle will appear. It shall be the Qiblah for you and your children.” When Adam marked the boundary, a cubicle appeared under the cloud. Allah also sent the Black Stone and it was whiter than milk and brighter than Sun. As polytheists also touched it repeatedly, it became black. Archangel Gabriel told Adam to perform hajj and seek forgiveness for his sins at all the significant places. Then he said that Allah has forgiven him and now he must pick up pebbles from Mash’ar for stoning the Al-Jamarah. So he went near Al-Jamarah (as mentioned before, and his three encounters with Satan).

When he finished stoning, he was ordered to present a sacrifice in the way of Allah and shave his Allah as a mark of humility and respect. Then he was commanded to circle the Ka‘bah seven times and do perform Sa’y (act of trotting between Safa and Marwa) seven times. Again he was obliged to perform the circumambulation of Ka‘bah. That was Tawaaf Al Nisaa’ (Women Circumambulation) — a man cannot establish lawful relationship with his wife unless he performs this circumambulation. When Adam completed all the rituals Archangel Gabriel said that Allah has forgiven all his sins, accepted his repentance and has made lawful for him his wife.

In an authentic report Imam as-Sadiq performed circumambulation and recited two Rak‘ah prayers between the Black Stone and the door of Ka‘bah and said, “Adam’s repentance was accepted at this particular place.”

In another reliable tradition, it is narrated that people asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir how (with what instrument) was the head of Adam shaved after hajj. He said, “Archangel Gabriel brought a Ruby from Heaven and it was rubbed on Adam’s head and all his hair fell off.”

According to a trustworthy chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that when Adam came to Earth to India the Black Stone was dropped towards him. It was like a red Ruby from the Holy Throne. When Adam saw it, he recognized it. He kissed it and carried it to Makkah. On the way when he used to be tired, Archangel Gabriel carried it. Archangel Gabriel saw Adam often sad and dejected. Once he complained to Archangel Gabriel. Archangel Gabriel said, “Whenever you are sorrowful recite,

Laa Hawla walaa quwwata illaa billaahil a’liyyil a’zeem.

Shi‘ahs and Sunni sources have narrated from Wahab that Adam came down to down to Earth on a mountain in the eastern part of India. It was called Basim. Allah ordered him to proceed to Makkah. Earth rolled up for him. Wherever he set his foot, the place became populated. Adam wept for 200 years due to his expulsion from heaven. Allah sent a tent from heaven for his consolation and placed it at the position of Ka‘bah. It was of Red Ruby and had two golden doors. One towards the East and another facing West. Two lanterns of gold shone brightly in it. The Black Stone arrived and it was a white Ruby from heaven. A chair that Adam used in the heaven also came down and was placed in tent. When Adam died, the tent was lifted up to the sky and at that particular place the sons of Adam constructed a house of mud that did not submerge in the deluge of Nuh. It was intact until the time of Ibrahim.16

According to a reliable chain of narrators, it is quoted from Imam as-Sadiq that Adam had an Angel as a special companion. When Adam was expelled to the Earth the Angel became uneasy. He complained to Allah and asked permission to visit Adam on the Earth. He came and saw that Adam was sitting alone in a desert. Adam saw him he kept his hand on his head and raised such a loud cry that every creature heard it. The Angel said, “O Adam! You disobeyed the Lord and undertook the burden you were not capable of. Do you know what Allah had told us about you and we had differed with him?” “No,” replied Adam. “Allah told us that He was going to appoint His vicegerent on the Earth. We protested saying this would create mischief and bloodshed. Thus Allah actually created you for the Earth not that you remain in the heavens.” Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said thrice, “I swear by Allah, these words comforted Adam.”

It is narrated from the Holy Prophet that Satan was the inventor of singing and musical instruments. When Adam ate from the prohibited tree, Satan started singing. When Allah sent Adam from heaven to earth, he started singing songs of the camel driver. When he was himself expelled to the Earth, he remembered the bounties of heaven and sang dirges.

In another reliable tradition it is narrated from Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq that no one has wept like Adam, Yusuf, and Dawud. People asked how much they had wept. Imam said, “When Adam was sent from the heavens to Earth, he raised his head towards the sky and due to his tall stature his head reached a door of heaven. When he cried the inhabitants of heaven became restless. They complained to Allah and Allah reduced his height. Dawud cried so much that his tears caused grass to sprout up and he sighed so deep that the grass withered. Being separated from his father Yusuf cried so much that other inmates became uneasy and demanded that he lament on alternate days only.”

It is narrated from ‘Ali ibn Husayn that whenever Adam had sexual desire he used to take Hawwa’ out of the sanctuary and after performing the ritual bath they returned.

According to correct chain of narrators it is mentioned that Safwan asked Imam al-Ridha regarding the Holy Sanctuary and its signs. Imam said that when Adam descended on Mt. Abu Qubays; and people say he came down to India, he complained to Allah for the fear that he experienced and the absence of incantations of divine praise that he used to hear in the Heaven. Allah sent a red ruby that He kept at the location of Ka‘bah. Adam used to do circumambulation around it. Adam marked the boundaries as far as the glow of the ruby reached and Allah appointed it as the Sanctuary.

A reliable chain of narrators mention Imam as-Sadiq was asked regarding the origin of fragrance. He asked what people say? He was told that the people say that Adam came from heaven and had a crown on his head. Imam said, “I swear by Allah Adam was so much aggrieved that he could have a crown on his head! Before eating the fruit Hawwa’ had fragranced her hair with one of the heaven’s fragrance. When she came to earth, she loosened her hair. Allah sent a breeze that spread the fragrance from the East to the West. Every fragrance originated from that.”

In another reliable tradition, it is said that when Adam ate from the prohibited tree the robe that he was wearing suddenly separated from his body leaving him naked. He covered himself with leaves. When he came to the Earth, the fragrance of the leaves got mingled with grass. The south wind carried it to the west. When it halted in India, the fragrance merged with the trees and grasses and the land of India became fragrant. The first animal to feed on this grass was the Musk deer, the fragrance was instrumental in development of its flesh and blood, and it accumulated at its navel.

According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam al-Ridha that on 28th Dhu’l-Qa’dah Mercy of Allah spread wide, Earth was stretched and it became vast, and on the same day Ka‘bah was constructed and Adam came to earth.

It is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that Ka‘bah was at a raised plateau. Its flooring was white and shone like the Sun and Moon. When Qabil killed Habil the floor became black. When Adam came to earth, Allah raised the land for him so that he could see everyone. It was revealed, “All this is for you.” Adam asked, “O Allah! Is why the floor is so white and shinning?” He was told, “It is for Me, and I have made it incumbent upon you to do circumambulation 700 times everyday.”

In another reliable tradition, it is said the cirrus accompanied Adam for one month from Sarandeep to Jeddah.

According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam ‘Ali that he asked Holy Prophet why some trees bore fruits and others did not. The Holy Prophet said that when Adam glorified Allah by reciting one Tasbih (saying: Subhanallah), fruit bearing tree grew. When Hawwa’ recited a Tasbih one non-fruit tree grew.” ‘Ali asked, “Through what did Allah create barley?” Holy Prophet said, “Allah ordered Adam to do cultivate land and Archangel Gabriel got a handful of wheat for him. Adam took some of it and Hawwa’ some. Adam prohibited Hawwa’ to undertake cultivation but she did not listen and sowed the wheat. So that which Adam sowed gave wheat grown and that which Hawwa’ had sown gave Barley.”

According to an authentic tradition from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir Adam visited Ka‘bah a thousand times, and on foot. Seven hundred times for hajj and three hundred times for Umrah.

Reliable hadith of Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that when Adam came to the Earth and had eaten the earthly food he felt a hardness in his stomach and digestion. He mentioned it to Archangel Gabriel. Archangel Gabriel told him to go and sit in a corner. He did so and subsequently passed stool (for the first time)

Sunnis narrators quote the Holy Prophet to have said, “Your father Adam was like a date palm, sixty yards tall.”

Some people asked Imam as-Sadiq, “how tall were Adam and Hawwa’ that came to the Earth?” Imam replied, “I saw in the book of ‘Ali that when Allah sent Adam and Hawwa’ to Earth their feet touched Mt. Safa and heads were touching the sky. They complained of the severe heat of the Sun. Allah revealed to Archangel Gabriel to reduce the body by seventy hands for Adam and by thirty-five hands for Hawwa’.”17

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir quotes the Holy Prophet to have said that Allah sent down Adam to Earth and ordered him to grow his own food. After enjoying the bounties of heaven now, he should make his own effort to acquire sustenance. Adam continued to weep for 200 years due to his expulsion from heaven. He went into Sajdah and did not lift his head for three days and nights. He said, “O Allah have You not created?” Allah said, “Definitely, I have.” Again, he asked, “Have you not blown my soul into my body?” He was told, “Surely I have.” He asked, “Did You not settle me in heaven?” He was informed, “Yes I have.” He said, “Did you not subdue Your Wrath by Your Mercy for me?” Allah said, “Yes I did, but did you have patience and had thank Me?” Adam said, “There is no god except You, You are glorified, I have been unjust to my soul, so forgive me, surely You are all Forgiving all Merciful.”

It is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that when Allah wanted to accept the repentance of Adam, Archangel Gabriel was sent to him. Archangel Gabriel came and said Assalaamo A’laikum! O! The one who is patient on his calamities and repent of ones mistake. Adam, Allah has sent me to teach you the rituals by which Allah would accept your repentance.” He took Adam’s hand and went near Ka‘bah. A cloud hovered from sky and shaded the precincts of Ka‘bah. Archangel Gabriel told him to mark the limit of the Sanctuary. Then Archangel Gabriel took him to Mina and showed him the site of the mosque. Adam marked the boundaries of the mosque. Archangel Gabriel now took him to ‘Arafat and asked him to wait until sunset and confess his sins seven times. Adam did as taught by Archangel Gabriel and due to this; the place was named ‘Mo’taraf’ or Ma’raf. This practice was established for Adam’s progeny.

Archangel Gabriel asked him to return from ‘Arafat. Adam passed the seven mountains and Archangel Gabriel asked him to say four times “Allahu Akbar” on each of the mountains. They reached Mashar-il-haram after three fourth of the night had passed and recited evening prayers and the Night Prayer. Due to this Mashar is called as Jama. Archangel Gabriel asked Adam to rest at Mashar and he went to sleep. In the morning, he was told to go upon Mashar and at sunrise confess for his sins and repent seven times and seek forgiveness from Allah. Adam did as commanded.

Thus, acceptance of sins became possible at these two places, ‘Arafat and Mashar. For the descendants of Adam it became the ritual that if they reach ‘Arafat it is as though they have completed the hajj. Adam left from Mashar and reached Mina at mid-morning and upon the instructions of Archangel Gabriel recited two Rak‘ah (units) prayers and sacrificed (an animal) for Allah. Allah accepted his sacrifice and a fire appeared from the sky and burnt the sacrificial animal. This was also included in the hajj rituals for the children of Adam. Archangel Gabriel said to Adam that Allah has favored him by teaching you the rites of pilgrimage and because of these rites, his repentance was accepted. And that his sacrifice was also accepted.

Therefore, he should shave his head as a mark of helplessness and humility before Allah. Adam shaved his head and Archangel Gabriel took him towards Ka‘bah. Satan met Adam near Jamarah Uqba and said, “O Adam where are you going?” Archangel Gabriel said, “O Adam hit him seven stones and with each one say Allahu Akbar. When Adam did, Satan fled. The next day again Archangel Gabriel caught Adam’s hand and brought him toward Al-Jamarah al-Ula. Again Satan appeared. Archangel Gabriel asked Adam to throw seven stones on him and while throwing say Allahu Akbar. When Adam did so, Satan ran away. Satan appeared at second Al-Jamarah and said to Adam, “O Adam where are you going?” Archangel Gabriel asked Adam to hit seven stones and every time say ‘Allahu Akbar’. Satan disappeared.

Similarly, on the 3rd and 4th day, the Satan was chased away and Archangel Gabriel said that he would not be seen again. Archangel Gabriel took Adam to Ka‘bah and ordered him to do circumambulation seven times. Adam did so, and then Archangel Gabriel said Allah has forgiven his sin and accepted his repentance. Now his wife was also lawful for him.

It is narrated from Ja‘far as-Sadiq that when Adam came to the Earth he prayed to Allah for fruits of heaven. Allah sent two bunches of grapes. Adam sowed it. Leaves sprouted, and then it bore fruit that was finally ripe. Satan, the accursed, arrived and built a boundary wall around it. Adam said, “O Accursed one! What you have got to do with it? Satan said, “It is for me.” “You are a liar,” said Adam. Both of them went to The Holy Spirit for arbitration. The Holy Spirit threw fire on the tree and it began to burn. Flames rose up. Adam thought that the whole tree would burn. Even Satan thought so. But when the flames calmed they saw that 2/3 of the tree was burnt and 1/3 remained. The Holy Spirit said that the burnt portion constituted the share of Satan and what remained belonged to Adam.

In another tradition narrated from Ja‘far as-Sadiq when Allah sent Adam to Earth He ordered him to plant a tree start cultivation. Four plants were sent for Adam from heaven i.e... date grapes, olive and pomegranate. Adam sowed them for his children and they enjoyed the fruits. Satan the accursed said, “O Adam, what is this tree that I have never seen before on the Earth? Although I was here much before you. Permit me so that I take few fruits from it.” Adam rebuked Satan and refused to oblige him. When Adam was at his death bed Satan went to Hawwa’ and said, “I am extremely hungry and thirsty.” Hawwa’ said that Adam had put her under oath not to allow Satan any of the fruits since they were from heaven and Satan did not have any right to eat the fruits of heaven. Satan said, “All right, at least put a little bit on my hand.” Still Hawwa’ refused. He said, “Give me a fruit. I will just suck at it.” Hawwa’ gave him a bunch of grapes. He began to suck. When he sucked one third Hawwa’ pulled it out from his mouth. Allah revealed to Adam, “Satan who is My and your enemy has sucked the grapes. Therefore, the juice, that becomes wine, is haram on you. If Satan had eaten them completely I would have made grapes haram for humans.”

In the same way he deceived Hawwa’ and sucked dates also. Dates and grapes both were more fragrant and sweeter than Musk but their fragrance was lost and sweetness decreased after the enemy of Allah, Satan the accursed had sucked them. Imam as-Sadiq said, “After the death of Adam Satan the accursed urinated at the base of date and grape plants and the water got mixed up with his urine. Due to this, the fermented juices of these fruits have a foul smell and intoxicating quality. Allah made unlawful all intoxicating liquids.” And in another reliable tradition said that our dates were sent to Adam from heaven and are better than all other dates.”

According to a correct chain of narrators Imam al-Ridha said that the date palm of Maryam was Ajwa. Ajwa and Ateeq were sent for Adam and through them, other kinds of dates evolved.

It is narrated from Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq that when Adam came to Earth he was in need of food. He complained to Archangel Gabriel. Archangel Gabriel told him to start cultivation. He asked Archangel Gabriel to teach him some Dua and he taught him the following,

Allahumma feni moonatadduniya wa kulla haulin doonal jannate wal besniy al a’afiyata hatta tohneniyal mae’esha.

An account of the children of Adam and continuation of his lineage

According to Zurarah people asked Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq, “How did the lineage of Adam come into being because those who live with us (Sunnis) say that Allah commanded Adam to marry his sons to his daughters.

Thus, humanity has descended from brothers and sisters. Imam said, “Allah is Purified and Highly Elevated from such kind of action. Those who say this have blamed Allah for the unlawful origin of His exalted creation like His friends, Prophets, Mu’mins and Muslims. This implies that Allah was unable to create through lawful ways although He had taken oath from them that they would be lawful, clean and purified. I swear by Allah news reached me of some animal that did not recognize their sisters and had intercourse with them. When later they came to know they bit their own sexual organs and died. In the same way, a person unknowingly committed incest with his mother. When later he realized his mistake, he killed himself. So how could one accept it when one is aware of the reality?

But there is a group, as you know, that has left the knowledge of Prophet and his Ahl al-Bayt, and they learn from those who have not been appointed by Allah, nor do have any divine knowledge. These people are ignorant and have deviated. They have no idea of the initialization of creation and subsequent developments. It is a pity they are ignorant of something regarding which there is no difference of opinion between the scholars of hijaz and Iraq.

Two thousand years before the creation of Adam Allah ordered the Pen (Qalam) to inscribe on al-Lawh al-Mahfu¨ (the protected tablet) all that was going to occur until the Day of Judgment. It included all the divine books. And in the books, Allah has made unlawful the sisters for their brothers. And at present all the four books. We see in Torah, Injeel, Zabur and Qur’an that were revealed by Allah to His Prophets through al-Lawh al-Mahfuz that nowhere has Allah made the sisters lawful for her brother. Whosoever says so supports the arguments of Magians. What is basis of their argument? May Allah destroys them.

Adam had 70 twins. Every twin consisted of a boy and a girl. When Qabil killed Habil, Adam was so much shocked that he cried for five hundred years and did not touch his wife. When he overcame his sorrow he cohabited and Allah gave him a son, Shith who was born a single child. Shith was named Hibtullah. He was the first successor to whom a will was made. After Shith, Yaafith was also born singly. When both grew up and Allah wanted to multiply human beings and as the Qalam had made the sisters unlawful for their brothers Allah on a Thursday after Asr sent a huri, Nazala and ordered Adam to marry Shith to her.

Next day another huri, Mauzela was sent and Allah ordered that Yafith be married to her. Adam did as was told. Shith got a son and Yafith a daughter. When both attained maturity Allah ordered Adam to marry them and Adam obeyed. Thus, the lineage of Prophets and Messengers of Allah began. Allah forbids! It is not so as people say that human beings have descended through brother and sister.”

According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam al-Baqir that Allah sent a huri from heaven and Adam married her to one of his sons. He also married a female jinni to another of his son. Therefore beauty in creation due to the huri and ugliness due the Jinn. Imam has emphatically denied that Adam married sons to daughters.

A reliable chain of narrators states that people asked Imam Muhammad al-Baqir regarding the evolution of generations. Imam asked what people said regarding the marriage of the sons of Adam. The narrator told him they say that in every delivery, twins (a boy and a girl) were born to Hawwa’. Adam used to marry a boy from one set of twins to a girl from another set. Imam said it was not so. When Haibatullah was born and attained maturity, Adam asked Allah to provide a wife for his son. Allah sent a huri and Adam married her to his son. Through her, four sons were born. Then Adam had another son. When he grew up he was married to a Jinn woman and she gave birth to four girls. Later Shith’s sons were married to the daughters of the Jinn woman. Therefore beauty from the huri and forbearance is from Adam, while every bad quality, ugliness and stupidity is due to the Jinn woman. After giving birth to sons, the huri returned to the heavens.

In another reliable tradition, it is said that Adam had four sons. Allah sent four houries for them. When children were born from them, Allah recalled the houries. Then the same sons were married to jinn women and in this way generations grew. Therefore, forbearance is from Adam and every beauty and perfection is due to four houries. Whereas ugliness, bad behavior and evil is from jinn.

According to reliable chain of narrators Sulayman ibn Khalid said to Ja‘far as-Sadiq, “May I be sacrificed for you, people says that Adam married his sons to his daughters?” Imam said, “Yes people do say that, but O Sulayman, you might not know that Holy Prophet said, ‘If Adam had married his daughters to his sons then certainly would have married Zaynab to Qasim without having left the religion of Adam.’”

Sulayman said, “May I be sacrificed on you, they say that Qabil killed Habil because Habil was ashamed that his sister was being given to Habil. Imam said, “O Sulayman! You also attribute such filthy things to Adam and do not feel ashamed?” He said, “May I be sacrificed on you. What was the reason that Qabil killed Habil?” Imam replied, “Because Adam had appointed Habil as his successor. Allah revealed to Adam to hand over the successorship and the Grand Name to Habil while Qabil was elder. When he knew this, he was angry and said that he was the rightful heir to successorship and bounties. Under divine instructions, Adam asked both of them to present a sacrifice to Allah. Allah accepted Habil’s sacrifice and rejected Qabil’s. So he envied Habil and killed him.”

Sulayman said, “May I be sacrificed on you how did the generations of Adam continue? Was there was a woman other than Hawwa’ and a man other than Adam?”

Imam said, “First Allah created Qabil and then Habil from the womb of Hawwa’. When Qabil attained maturity Allah sent a Jinn woman for him and revealed to Adam to marry both of them. Adam did so and Qabil was satisfied. When Habil attained age Allah sent for him a huri and asked Adam to marry them. Adam obeyed the divine command. When Habil was murdered the huri was pregnant and gave birth to a son. Adam named him Haibatullah. Allah ordered Adam to hand over the Grand Name and successorship to him. Then Hawwa’ gave birth to a son whom Adam named Shith. When he matured, Allah sent a huri and commanded Adam to marry his son Shith to her. A daughter was born to that Hoor and Adam named her Hoora. When she attained maturity Adam married her to Haibatullah the son of Habil. And through them, the generation of Adam continued established.

When Haibatullah died, Allah ordered Adam to transfer the Grand Name and other things, which were taught to him as well as knowledge of Prophets to Shith. O Sulayman this is the reality and the truth.”18

According to a reliable tradition of Abu Hamza Thumali, Imam Zayn al-‘abidin said, “When Adam’s repentance was accepted he had desire for Hawwa’. From the time he was created until then, he hadn’t such desire. But since Adam had great respect for Ka‘bah and its surrounding whenever he had sexual desire he used to take Hawwa’ out of the Sanctuary. Then perform Ghusl and return to Ka‘bah.

Adam and Hawwa’ had twenty sons and twenty daughters. In every delivery Hawwa’ gave birth to a set of twins consisting of a boy and a girl. First Habil was born with a girl who was named Aqleemiya. Then Qabil and a girl, Luza were born. Luza was the best child of Adam. When they attained maturity, Adam was worried they might be involved in fornication. So he called them and said to Habil that he wanted him to marry Luza and to Qabil that he wanted him to marry Aqleemiya. Qabil said that he was not satisfied with the arrangement. He said, “You want me to marry the ugly sister of and that my beautiful sister should marry Habil?” Adam I will draw a lot between you two and accordingly marry you. Both of them agreed. Adam drew a lot.

In Habil’s part came Luza and Qabil’s part came Aqleemiya. He married them. After that, marriage between brother and sister became haram. At that time a person from Quraysh was present he asked whether they had any children after that. Imam said, “Yes.” Person said it was an act of fire worshippers. Imam said, “After this the same act was performed by fire worshipper, and Allah made it unlawful.” Then he said, “Do not deny it. Did not Allah create Hawwa’ from the rib of Adam and made her lawful for him? In his shari‘ah it was allowed in the beginning and later prohibited.”

In another tradition it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that Qabil disputed with Habil regarding Luza. Adam ordered them to offer a sacrifice. Habil a shepherd, took out a healthy sheep and some milk for sacrifice. Qabil who was a cultivator took a few ears of grain. Both of them took their offerings and kept them at the mountain peak. A fire appeared and burnt the offering of Habil whereas Qabil’s remained as it was. Adam wasn’t present there. He had gone to visit Ka‘bah under divine instructions. Qabil said, “I couldn’t live in this world with ease because your sacrifice is accepted mine is not. And you want to marry my beautiful sister and your ugly sister to marry me?” Habil replied, as mentioned in Qur’an. Qabil hit a stone on the head of Habil and killed him.

According to narrators people asked Imam al-Ridha how the generations of Adam continued? Imam said, “Hawwa’ became pregnant with Habil and his sister. Next time she bore Qabil and his sister. Both of them got married to each other’s brothers and sisters and after that marriage of one to his sister became unlawful.19

It is narrated from ‘Ali that the Holy Prophet said, “When Allah sent down Adam to Earth He sent his wife also. Whereas Satan and the serpent came to Earth and had no one of the opposite to pair with. Therefore, they began to practice sodomy and initiated their generation. The generations of Adam grew through his wife.”

Allah informed Adam and Hawwa’ that both Satan and the serpent were their enemies.

Martyrdom of Habil

Allah says,

“And relate to them the story of the two sons of Adam with truth when they both offered an offering, but it was accepted from one of them and was not accepted from the other. He said, I would most certainly slay you. (The other) said, Allah only accepts from those who guard (against evil). If you will stretch forth your hand towards me to slay me, I am not one to stretch forth my hand towards you to slay you. Surely I fear Allah, the Lord of the worlds: Surely I wish that you should bear the sin committed against me and your own sin, and so you would be of the inmates of the fire, and this is the recompense of the unjust.” (5:27-29)

Thus the soul of Qabil instigated him to kill his brother. Allah sent a crow to dig the earth and show him how to dispose body of his brother. Qabil said, “It’s a pity. Am I so helpless that I cannot bury my brother’s body like this crow?” Thus, he regretted his mistake.

Imam Zayn al-‘abidin says that when the sons of Adam presented their offerings to Allah one of them took a healthy sheep and the second one took a few ears of inferior quality wheat. Habil’s offering was accepted and Qabil’s was not. Qabil became infuriated and told Habil, “I swear by God I will kill you.” Habil said, “Allah accepts the deeds of forbearing people. (ayah quoted above).” Qabil wanted to kill his brother did not know how. Iblis advised him to crush the head of his brother between two stones. When Habil died he did now not know what to do with the corpse. A pair crows appeared and started fighting. One killed another and the surviving crow dug the earth with his claws and buried the dead one. Seeing this Qabil buried Habil and the practice of burying the dead started.

When Qabil returned, Adam did not see Habil with him and asked where he had left his son. Qabil said, “You did not appoint me as his body guard. Adam realized what must have happened and asked Qabil to accompany him to a place where they had made the offering. When Adam reached the place he came to know that Habil was killed so he cursed the soil, which has absorbed the blood of Habil. After that, the Earth lost the ability to absorb blood. Allah ordered him to curse Qabil too. A voice from heavens announced, “You are the accursed one.” Adam returned and wept for forty days in Habil’s sorrow. When his sorrow reached a pitch, he complained to Allah. Allah revealed to him, “I will grant you another son who in lieu of Habil.” Hawwa’ gave birth to a blessed and pure son. On the eighth day Allah said, “O Adam this child is a gift from Me. Name him “Haibatullah.” Adam did as ordered by Allah.

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said that Habil owned a big herd of sheep and Qabil was a farmer. When they attained maturity Adam said, “I want both of you to present an offering to Allah. For the sake of Allah’s desire or the satisfaction of his father, Habil selected a healthy sheep whereas Qabil took out a few ears of wheat that were was lying useless, and even the cattle had refused it. He indented to neither fulfill Allah’s desire nor satisfy his father. Allah accepted the sacrifice of Habil and rejected Qabil’s offering. Satan came to Qabil and said, “When Habil has children they will boast to your sons that their father’s sacrifice was accepted. Therefore, you must kill him to avert such a situation.” Qabil followed this advice and murdered Habil. Allah deputed Archangel Gabriel to bury Habil. At that time Qabil said:

He said, Woe me! Do I lack the strength that I should be like this crow and cover the dead body of my brother? So he became of those who regret. (5:31)

Imam (AS) says that Habil meant to say, Had I been like this crow whom I didn’t recognize came and buried my brother. And I had no idea how should have buried him. A voice from the heavens told Qabil, “You are accursed because you have killed your brother.” Adam wept for forty days.

According to a good chain of narrator Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said when Adam appointed Habil as his successor Qabil was envious and killed him. Allah granted Adam another son, Haibatullah and asked Adam to appoint him his successor and keep it confidential. Thereafter it became the practice that every Prophet named a successor and kept it confidential. Qabil said to Haibatullah, “I know your father has made you his successor. So if you express it and talk like a Wasi I will kill you as I killed your brother.”

In another reliable tradition it is said that when Qabil intended to kill his brother he did not know how to accomplish it. Satan told him to keep Qabil’s head between two boulders and crush it.

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir says that when the sons of Adam presented a sacrifice each, Habil’s was accepted and Qabil became jealous. He used to spy on Habil for a chance to find him alone. One day he saw that Adam was not with him and killed him.

It is narrated from Imam al-Ridha that a Syrian asked ‘Ali regarding the ayah,

“The day on which a man shall fly from his brother.” (80:34)

Imam said, “It is Qabil who will fly from his brother Habil.” The Syrian asked about the inauspiciousness of Wednesday. Imam said, “It is the last Wednesday of the month. This day Qabil killed Habil. Again, the Syrian asked about the first person to recite a poem? Imam said, “It was Adam.”

What kind of a poem was it? Imam said, “When he came down to Earth he saw the vast land, and when Qabil killed Habil. Adam recited a couplet poem that meant: ‘Everything in the cities is transformed and the surroundings have become polluted and foul. Every color and taste has changed, the charm and beauty of faces is cheerless.’ Iblis the accursed said, ‘Then go away from the cities and its inhabitants. The vast abode of heaven became straitened for you although you and your wife were safe from worldly problems. At last, you fell to my deceit and lost the bounties by your own actions. And if the Powerful Lord had not bestowed His Mercy you would have got nothing from heaven except air, and no other benefit would have accrued to you.’”

According to a trustworthy tradition from Imam Muhammad, al-Baqir there is a person in India who stands in garments of sack cloth. Ten persons are appointed on him and one of them dies another person from the village is appointed in his place. People die and are replaced, but ten caretakers continue to mind this person. When the Sun rises, they turn the person’s face towards the Sun and keep it facing the Sun until sunset. In winter, they pour cold water on him and in summer hot water. He was in the same condition when a person passed by. He asked, “O creature of Allah, who are you?” He said, “Either you are a stupid person or an intellectual. I am standing here since creation and no one inquired about asked me.” People say that he was Adam’s son Qabil, who had killed his brother.

Another narration states that Imam himself visited the place, questioned the man under punishment and composed couplets on it. The difference in this narration is that fire was lighted around the person in summer and water was poured on him in winter.

In another reliable tradition it is narrated from ‘Ali that a person came to the Holy Prophet and said, “Messenger of Allah, I have seen an amazing thing.” When the Prophet asked him about it he said, “One of my relative was sick and people advised for him water of Ahqaf well that is situated Wadiul Barhoot. I took a bucket and water bag and reached the place. When I tried to draw water I saw a chain like thing coming from sky with a man tied to it. He was saying give me water I am dying of thirst. I raised the bowl towards him but the chain around his neck tightened and took up to the sun. Again I drew out some water and the same scene was enacted. This happened thrice. So I finally tied up the water bag and did not try to give him any water.” The Holy Prophet said, “He was Qabil the son of Adam; who had killed his brother. And the same thing is mentioned in the Qur'an,

“…and those whom they pray to besides Allah give them no answer, but (they are) like one who stretches forth his two hands towards water that it may reach his mouth, but it will not reach it; and the prayer of the unbelievers is only in error.” (13:14)

Through few chains of reporters, it is narrated that one day Imam Muhammad al-Baqir was sitting in Holy Masjid. Tawus al-Yamani suggested to his companion to go and ask Imam a few things and see what he says. They came and Imam Tawus asked, “Do you know the day when one-third of the world population perished?” “Not one-third,” corrected Imam, “You have made a mistake. Actually you meant one-fourth.”

“How is that?” he asked. Imam said, “When the world population consisted of Adam, Hawwa’, Habil and Qabil and Qabil killed Habil, one-fourth of the population perished. Tawus said, “You have spoken truly.”

Imam then asked, “Do you know what was happened to Qabil?” “No,” he replied. Imam said, “He is hanging from the Sun and hot water is sprinkled on him. This will continue until the Resurrection Day.” Tawus asked whether the progenitor of humanity was the murderer or the slain one. Imam said that generations continued from Shith (another) son of Adam.20

According to reliable chain of narrators Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq said that seven people would get the worst punishment on the day of judgment. First of them being Qabil, the son of Adam who killed his own brother (until the end of hadith).

It is narrated from the Holy Prophet that the following five are the worst of the creatures: Satan, Qabil, the Pharaoh, the man who deviated The Israelites from their religion and a person from this Ummah of to whom the people will pledge allegiance in his Kufr (disbelief) –that is Muawiyah.

In another reliable hadith it is said that when the offering of Habil was burnt and that of Qabil rejected Satan lied that since Habil worshipped fire his sacrifice was accepted. Qabil said, “If it were so then I would also worship fire. But not the one that Habil worshipped. And I will present my offering to it so that it is accepted. Then he made a fire temple presented offerings therein and did not recognize his Creator. He did not leave anything except fire worship as his heirloom.

In another authentic tradition, it is said that during the time of Adam ferocious, birds and beasts all lived in harmony. But when the son of Adam killed his own brother, they began to hate and fear each other. So they segregated according to their genre and habits.

According to Imam al-Baqir the son of Adam, Qabil is strung by his hair to the Sun and he rotates with it whether it is summer or winter. He will do so until the Resurrection Day when Allah would throw him into Hell.

In another tradition, it is narrated that Imam Muhammad al-Baqir was asked regarding the condition of the son of Adam in Hell. Imam said, “Glory be to Allah. Allah is more just to chastise him in the world and hereafter.”21

A reliable tradition of ‘Ali says that the son of Adam, who had killed Habil, was born in heaven.22

It is narrated in reliable books from Amir al-Mu’minin that the person to rebel against Allah was Enaaq, the daughter of Adam. Allah has created her with twenty fingers and each finger had two spade-like nails. She was so huge she occupied about 60 square yards while sitting. When she rebelled against Allah He sent a lion as big as an elephant, a wolf the size of a camel and a donkey. These animals were like this at that time. These animals overpowered and killed her.

And in some traditions it is mentioned that Ewaj the son of Enaaq was a despot and an enemy of Allah and Islam. He was tall and huge. He used to catch fish for his food and roast them by holding them near the Sun. He lived for 3060 years. When Nuh was about to board his ark, Ewaj came and asked him to take him also. Nuh said he was not permitted. The floodwater did not rise above his thigh. He was alive until the time of Musa and Musa finally killed him. Allah says,

“He it is who created you from a single being, and of the same (Kind) did he make his mate, that he might incline to her; so when he covers her she bears a light burden, then moves about with it, but when it grows heavy, they bath call upon Allah their Lord: If Thou givest us a good one, we shall certainly be of the grateful ones. But when He gives them a good one, they set up with Him associates in what He has given them, but high is Allah above what they associate (with Him).” (7:189-190)

According to a good chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that when Hawwa’ was pregnant and the child moved in her womb. She said to Adam that something was moving in her womb. Adam said it was his sperm, which has placed itself there. Allah shall create a creature so that He tests us through him. Satan came to Hawwa’ and asked how she felt. Hawwa’ said, “I have a child of Adam in my womb that moves.” The accursed said, “If you make an intention to name it Abdul Haris it would be a male child and would be born alive. And if you do not do so it will die within six days.” Hawwa’ doubted the words of Satan and informed Adam. Adam said, “The wretched Satan came to deceive you. Do not believe him. I am hopeful of the Grace of Allah that our child shall live against the prediction of Satan.”

But even Adam harbored a little doubt, which was inculcated by Satan. So, a son was born but he died after six days. Hawwa’ said that whatever Satan had said was correct. Both of them fell into doubts. After sometime Hawwa’ conceived another child. Satan came and asked her condition. Hawwa’ told him that previously a child was born who died in six days. Satan said, “If you had made an intention to name him Abdul Haris he wouldn’t have died. Now you shall beget an animal like camel, cow, sheep or goat.” Hawwa’ decided to believe him and she mentioned it to Adam. Adam also thought the same thing. When Hawwa’ was in labor they prayed to Allah that if He grants them a good son they shall be thankful to Him.

Allah bestowed them a courteous son, not an animal. Satan came to Hawwa’ before the delivery and asked about her condition. Hawwa’ said, “I am about to deliver the child.” Satan said, “You shall be terrified when you see an animal come out from your womb. Adam will hate you and your child.” At last he convinced Hawwa’ and said, “If you decide to name him Abdul Haris and dedicate him to me he would be normal and will remain alive.” Hawwa’ said, “I have made an intention that a part of him shall be yours.” Satan insisted that Adam should also say so. So Hawwa’ narrated the conversation to Adam. He was also frightened and somewhat inclined towards it. Hawwa’ said, “If you do not name him Abdul Haris or make an intention to dedicate a part of him to Satan I won’t allow you to come near me, nor would I fulfill your desire. Our relationship would be over.”

Adam said, “First of all you caused me to be expelled from heaven. Now, again you have been deceived by Satan. All the same I agree to name the child as Abdul Haris.” At last, a child was born safe and sound. Adam was happy and less fearful. He thought that the child would survive. So he named him Abdul Haris on the 7th day.

In another tradition it is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir regarding the ayah,

“But when He gives them a good one, they set up with Him associates in what He has given them.” (7:90)

It refers to Adam and Hawwa’. Their Shirk was of Shirk of obedience when they obeyed Satan. They dedicated to Satan some part of the creature of Allah and named it Abdul Haris. They did not commit Shirk in the worship of Allah nor had they worshipped some other God.23

It could also mean that Allah bestowed upon Adam and Hawwa’ a healthy child and later some of his descendants committed Shirk. This explanation is more plausible as mentioned in Bihar al-Anwar. It is also supported by reliable traditions.

Al-Ma’mun asked Imam al-Ridha the tafsir of this ayah. Imam said, “Hawwa’ had five hundred pregnancies and every time a boy and a girl was born. Adam and Hawwa’ vowed to Allah that if He granted them a virtuous son they would be thankful. So Allah gave them good and healthy twins. From their progeny some became polytheist. And they (sons and daughters) did not thank Allah as their parents (Adam and Hawwa’) did.”

Masoodi in his book Muruj-uz-Zahab narrates that when Habil was killed Adam became was devastated with grief. Allah sent revelation that, “From you a light will be born which I would continue in purified descendants to culminate in the best of My creation. I will make him My last messenger and I appoint for him the best successors and Imams in whose reign the tenure of this world will end. I will inhabit the earth with those who obey them. So be alert and prepare yourself. Perform ghusl and remember Allah. Fulfill your desire with your wife she is also purified with ghusl. Because My Trust will be transferred through this son.” Adam was happy to know this. He came to Hawwa’ and she became pregnant. She became more beautiful. A bright light illuminated her whole body. Shith was born. He was handsome, healthy and a dignified child with an aura of authority. The Noor was transferred from Hawwa’ to Shith and shone on his forehead. Adam named him Shith. Some say he was named Haibatullah. He reached the age of maturity and Adam made a bequest to him and made him aware of the dignity of knowledge, which he was going to inherit, and told him that he is going to be the proof of Allah and his successor after him. He willed that he should fulfill the duties of successorship granted by Allah. And that his successorship should continue on others until it reaches the last Messenger and his heir, which will continue. Shith accepted the legacy and kept it secret as was appropriate. On Friday, in the 6th month of the year Adam left this temporal world. His age was around 930 years.

According to a tradition, Adam left 40,000 children, grandchildren and great grandchildren etc. Shith was the successor of Adam and he guided with the Sahifah (divine book), that he had received from his father. From Shith the light was transferred to Anoosh. When he was born, the light was apparent on him. When he reached the last moments of his tenure Shith transferred all the relics to him and made him the Wasi. He inculcated an awareness of the high station of Successorship and also told him to teach his children the importance of this legacy. This continued until the Noor reached Abdul Muttalib and ‘Abdullah.

Anoosh expired on October 3 at the age of 960 years. Qinyan was his legatee and Anoosh took oath of successorship from him. He attained the age of 120 years. People say his death took place in July.

Mahlayel was the successor of Qinyan. He lived for 800 years. From him came Lood and his age was 962 years. He passed away in the month of Azar. He was succeeded by Idris and light of Muhammad and his progeny were transferred to him. People say that Qabil and his sons had invented many kinds of musical instruments.

Revelations on Adam

Sayyid ibn Tawus says that it is mentioned in the Suhuf (book) of Idris that on the 27th of Ramadhan, Thursday afternoon, Allah revealed on Adam a twenty page book in Syriac and it was the first book that Allah sent to the Earth. It contained all the languages and dictionaries. Altogether there were 1000 languages and a person proficient in one could not understand the others languages. It also contained proofs of Allah’s existence, the obligatory acts, practical laws, recommended acts and penal laws.

According to a reliable chain of narrators Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq and Imam Muhammad al-Baqir said that Allah (SWT) revealed to Adam, “I present to you truth and righteousness in four sentences: One concerns Mine, one is for you, One is common between Me and you, and one is common between you and other creatures. Whatever is in it with regard to Me is your worship. You worship Me and do not associate anyone with Me. Whatever is regarding you is the reward of your action will be bestowed when you deserve it. The words common between you and Me is that it is necessary for you to supplicate Me and it is My responsibility to accept it. Whatever is common between you and creatures is that you should like for others what you like for yourself.”

Death of Adam; His age and his bequest to Shith

Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq and Imam Muhammad al-Baqir state that Adam was informed the names of all Prophets and their ages. When he learnt that the age of Dawud was to be only 40 years he said, “O Allah! Why is the age of Dawud so less while I had such a long life? O Allah would you accept if I gift thirty years of my life to Dawud and increases his age?” “Yes,” said Allah. So Adam requested Him to reduce his age by thirty or sixty years and increase the age of Dawud. When the angel of death came to take away his soul Adam said, “I have thirty to sixty years remaining.” “Did you not gift it to Dawud?” the angel of death reminded. “When the names of Prophets and their age were presented to you in the valley of Jenaam?” Adam said he didn’t remember. The angel of death said, “O Adam! Do not refuse it now. Did you not ask Allah that your life should be reduced and given to Dawud? Allah established it in Zabur and decreased your life.” Adam said, “Bring to me Zabur so that I recall it.”

Imam Muhammad al-Baqir says, “Adam was speaking the truth that he had forgotten it. Therefore from that day onwards Allah ordered that all transactions must be put in writing so that no one could deny later.”

A tradition of Ja‘far as-Sadiq says that initially Allah had told Archangel Gabriel, Mika’il and the angel of death to write it because Adam will forget. So it was written and the angels sealed it with the Tinat of their arms. When Adam refused the angel of death showed him the document.

Imam as-Sadiq said that is why the loaner gets embarrassed when the promissory note is shown to the debtor.24

According to a reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq that when Adam became sick, he called Shith and said, “O my Son! I am going to die very soon. Whatever you see has been sent by Allah from His kingdom, and He has taken the oath from me so I make a bequest to you. I make you the legatee for whatever Allah given me. The book of wasiyyah is under my head. It contains the heritage of knowledge and the Grand Names of Allah. After I am dead, you take it in your possession and do not let anyone know of it. Nor should you look at it until the next year. It contains (Suhuf) everything that would need regarding the affairs of this world.”

It was the scroll that Adam had brought from the heaven. Then he said, “I wish to have fruit from heaven. Go to Mt. Hadeed and if you see any Angel convey my regards and say that your father is sick and needs a fruit of heaven.” Shith went to the mountain. He saw Archangel Gabriel with a group of angels. Archangel Gabriel saluted him and asked where he was going?” “Who are you, O servant of Allah?” Shith asked. “I am the trustworthy spirit, Archangel Gabriel.” Archangel Gabriel said. Shith conveyed the salaam of Adam. He said, “O Shith! Salutations upon your father. He has departed from this world and that’s why we have descended to the Earth. May Allah reward you and grant you patience in this great calamity. Now go back to your father.” Shith returned. The Angels brought with them whatever was required for the burial. When Shith reached home he took the will from beneath the head of Adam and tied it to his stomach.

Archangel Gabriel said, “Congratulation O Shith! Who can be compared to you? Allah has honored you with His Generosities and clothed you in the dress of salvation. By my life, Allah has selected you for a very special affair. Then Shith bathed Adam’s body under instruction from Archangel Gabriel. He also taught him to shroud and embalm the body. When he finished Archangel Gabriel taught him to dig the grave. He made him stand before the bier of Adam to recite the prayers of Mayyit (dead). Archangel Gabriel told Shith to recite seventy Takbirs and then taught him the method of Salat al-Mayyit. The Angels stood behind Shith in a row for the prayers. Shith wanted Archangel Gabriel to lead the prayers but he said that as the Angels were made to pay obedience to Adam they could not lead them in prayers. Archangel Gabriel said, “You might not know that when Allah created your father, He made him stand before us and ordered us to prostrate to him. Therefore, Adam became the Imam and this practice continued in his generations. Today he has left this world and now you are his successor and the inheritor of his knowledge. How we we replace you? You are our Imam!”

Shith recited Salat al-Mayyit for Adam as taught by Archangel Gabriel who taught him how to bury his father. After the burial when Archangel Gabriel and other Angels were about to leave Shith started weeping and exclaimed, “O what a terror!” Archangel Gabriel said, “You should not have any fear as Allah is with you. We will visit you by the permission of Allah. Allah is your associate, so do not be sad and have faith in your Lord because He is the Beneficent upon you.” Archangel Gabriel and other Angel returned to the heavens. At that time Qabil who had ran away fearing his father came down from the mountain. He met Shith and said, “I killed my brother Habil because my sacrifice wasn’t accepted and I suspected that he would get the position, which you have now got. I didn’t want him to become the successor and legatee of his father as you are today. So if you narrate even one sentence of whatever father has taught you, I will kill you like I killed Habil.”

A similar tradition has been narrated from Imam Zayn al-‘abidin. It also mentions that Shith recited seventy five takbirs on Adam. Seventy for Adam and five for his children.

It is narrated from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that when Adam learnt of the murder of Habil he wept bitterly and complained to Allah regarding his sorrow. Allah revealed, “I will give you another son like Habil.” A child was born and on the 7th day, Allah revealed that since it was a Gift from His side he should be named Hibtullah (Gift of Allah). When time of his death approached Allah revealed on him, “Soon I am going to summon you to the vicinity of My Mercy. Therefore, make a bequest to the best of your sons, who is gifted by Me because I do not like that the world should be devoid of one whom I have given knowledge and one who executes My commands. I want him to be a proof upon My creatures.” Adam gathered his clan and said, “My Children, I am about to depart from this world and Allah has ordered me to appoint Haibatullah as my successor. So listen to him and obey him, as he is my successor and caliph on you.” All of them said, “We have heard you and we will obey him.”

The Ark of covenant trunk was prepared according to the order of Adam and he placed in it the relics, will, and testament and gave it to Haibatullah. He said, “After I am dead give me Ghusl and shroud, recite prayers and bury me. And when your death is near you will know it. At that time, you must also make a bequest to your son who is the best among your children from the aspect of manners and helpfulness. And do not ever leave the Earth devoid of a person from us (Ahl al-Bayt). O Son! Allah has sent me to the Earth and appointed made me His vicegerent and a proof over His creatures. After me, you shall be my proof. You must also not leave the world without appointing your successor. Pass on these relics to your successor as I am handing it to you. Also inform him that a Prophet from my progeny is going to come whose name is Nuh and his nation will be submerged in water. Make a bequest to your legatee to protect whatever is in this Ark of covenant. Emphasize that when he is about to depart he should also appoint his best son as the legatee and this should continue until the time of Nuh. Then he should board the ship and take with him the chest of relics. O Haibatullah! Of all my sons, beware of Qabil the accursed.”

Thus, when the end of Adam was near the angel of death arrived. Adam said, “I witness that Allah is One and has no partner. I witness that I am the servant of Allah and His Caliph on this earth. He favored me by creating me and asking the Angels to prostrate to me. And He taught me all the names. He settled me in heaven although He had created me to inhabit the Earth according to His Plan.” When Archangel Gabriel brought Hanoot and wooden planks with the shroud from heaven, he was accompanied by 70000 Angels. They gave Ghusl, shrouded him and anointed (Hanoot) him. Archangel Gabriel told Haibatullah to go ahead and recite prayers for his departed father with 75 Takbirs. Angels dug a grave and buried Adam. Haibatullah assumed the leadership of Adam’s children as ordered by Allah. When Haibatullah neared his end, he transferred the legacy to his son Qinan and handed over the Ark of covenant to him. Qinan lived among his clan and promoted obedience towards Allah. At his death bed he appointed his son, Barra as the successor (wasi) and handed over the Ark of covenant to him and also reminded him about the Prophethood of Nuh. At the time of his death Barra made bequest in favor of his son, Akhnu‘ (Idris) and handed over the Ark of covenant to him. Idris completed his tenure. When he was about to die Allah revealed to him, “I am going to raise you to the heavens, so bequeath all the things to Khargaeel.” Khargaeel stood thus became the wasi Idris. When Khargaeel’s death approached he nominated his son Nuh and handed over the Ark of covenant. It was always with him and he took it abroad the ship. When his death was near, he gave the Ark of covenant to his son, Sam and did formally appointed him the legatee.25

It is mentioned from Imam Muhammad al-Baqir that Adam sent his son to Archangel Gabriel and said, “Ask Archangel Gabriel to get me some food from near that particular tree of heaven.” When the son met Archangel Gabriel he was informed that Adam has already expired.” We have been commanded to meet him at his last moments and recite prayers for him,” said Archangel Gabriel. After the Ghusl Archangel Gabriel asked Haibatullah to lead the prayer of his father. Haibatullah stood up at the front recited 75 takbirs. 70 takbirs for the excellence of Adam and five takbirs to establish the Sunnah.

Imam says that Adam used to be engrossed in the worship of Allah at Makkah. When Allah wanted to take his soul, He sent Angels from heaven, with wooden plank, a shroud and anointments. When Hawwa’ saw the Angels she tried to intervene but Adam told her to leave them alone. The Angels captured his soul and bathed with lote-tree water. They made a grave for him and said this practice shall continue in the generations of Adam. Adam was 936 years old and was buried in Makkah. There was a gap of 1500 years between Adam and Nuh.

According to reliable chain of narrators from Imam, as-Sadiq when it was time for the funeral prayers Haibatullah told Archangel Gabriel, “O Messenger! Go ahead and recite prayers for the Prophet of Allah.” Archangel Gabriel said, “Allah has ordered us to prostrate to your father. So we cannot lead their children in prayers. And you are the best of his children.”

Thus Haibatullah led the funeral prayers of his father with five takbirs as prescribed by Allah for the followers of Muhammad. This practice was to continue among the children of Adam until the Resurrection Day.

Another reliable tradition from the same Imam states that Adam requested for a fruit. Haibatullah went out to bring him the fruit. Archangel Gabriel met him and asked where he was going. He told him Adam wanted a fruit as he was unwell. Archangel Gabriel said, “Go back as Allah has taken away his soul.” When he returned, he saw that Adam was no more. Angels gave him the Ghusl and asked to Haibatullah to recite the prayers. Allah revealed upon him to recite five takbirs. Then he was laid in his grave. Haibatullah was told to perform funeral rites in the same way.

In another reliable tradition it is said that thirty takbirs were recited for Adam. Twenty five were dropped later on and five remained. Imam Muhammad al-Baqir says that the grave of Adam is in the Holy Sanctuary and according to Prophet Muhammad Adam expired on Friday.

Some great scholars have mentioned in mursal (without chains of narrators) that when Allah sent Adam to Earth he was terrified due his separation from heaven. He prayed to Allah to send him a tree of heaven. Allah sent for him a date palm, which remained with him all his life. When death was near, he told his sons, “This tree has been with all my life and I hope after my death it will remain so. Therefore, you split a branch of it and keep it in my shroud.” The sons did as bidden. After him, other Prophets also followed the same way. It was discontinued in the Jahiliyya (pre-Islamic period) but Prophet Muhammad restarted the practice.

According to reliable chain of narrators, it is narrated from Imam as-Sadiq when Adam died, Qabil and Satan rejoiced and played musical instruments vain sports. Thus all the musical instruments and vain past times of the world are derived from the invention of Satan.

Sunni and Shi‘ah scholars have narrated from Wahab ibn Munabbah that Shith buried Adam in a cave of Mt. Abu Qubays known as Ghaarul Kabeer (the big cave). He remained buried until the deluge of Nuh. During the deluge Nuh exhumed him and placed him in a coffin abroad his ship.

Reliable chains of narrators narrate from Imam as-Sadiq that when Nuh (as.) was abroad the Ark, Allah revealed him to perform the circumambulation of the Holy Ka‘bah seven times. When he completed the circumambulation and came down from the ship the water was up to his thighs. He dug out a coffin from the earth containing the bones of Adam and placed it on the ship and again did circumambulation of Ka‘bah. The Ark reached al-Kufah and Allah ordered the Earth to absorb the water as it has gushed out from the mosque. Nuh buried Adam at Najaf.26

It is narrated from Imam Ja‘far as-Sadiq that the Holy Prophet said, “Adam was nine hundred and thirty years old.”

Sayyid ibn Tawus quotes from the book of Idris that Adam was ill for ten days. He died on Friday the fifteenth of Muharram and was buried in a cave of Mt. Abu Qubays facing Kiblah. And his age from the day the soul entered his body and until the time it was taken out was 1030 years. After one year and fifteen days Hawwa’ also fell sick and died. She was buried next to Adam.

Sayyid says, “I have seen in Torah in 3rd Chapter that Adam’s age was 930 years and the same is narrated by Muhammad ibn Khalid Barqi in his book ‘Beda’ from Ja‘far as-Sadiq.”27

According to reliable chain of narrators it is narrated from Imam Al-Hasan that the successor of Adam was Shith. He lived for one thousand years. In a tradition narrated by Abu-Dharr, as mentioned before, the language of Shith was Syrian. Fifty scriptures were revealed on him. Most of the historians have mentioned that Shith was born when Adam was 235 years old. Shith lived for 912 years. He is buried in Mt. Abu Qubays next to his parents.

Sayyid ibn Tawus mentions, “I have seen in the Sahifah of Idris that Allah revealed fifty books on Shith containing the proof of the existence of Allah, Laws and practices and the prescribed penalties. Shith lived in Makkah and preached the scriptures to the children of Adam. He worshipped Allah at the Ka‘bah and performed hajj and Umrah until was 912 years. When he fell sick, he appointed his son Ewas as his Legatee and warned him to fear Allah and be humble and pious. When Shith died, Ewas along with his son Qinan and grand son Mahkael (son of Qinan) performed Ghusl and Ewas recited the prayers and buried Shith at the right of his father in the cave of Mt. Abu Qubays.

  • 1. These difficult traditional reports require detailed analysis, however it is beyond the scope of this book. Those who wish to pursue the subject further may refer to my book, Behaarul Anwaar.
  • 2. This is the exegesis in Tafsir of Imam. The gist of this interpretation is as follows:
    When the Angels tried to justify that they glorified Allah’s praise whereas, the creation that was to come to the Earth were going to be a corrupted lot. The Almighty Allah taught Adam the names of his progeny and informed him of their exalted status. Then Allah presented the Holy lights (Noor) of the Prophets and their legatees to the Angels. He asked the Angels if they knew their names and qualities. When the Angels confessed their ignorance Allah appointed Adam to teach them the names and qualities of these benevolent personalities.
    When Adam mentioned the names, the Angels realized that there were definitely some personalities in the children of Adam who were more deserving of Divine vicegerency than the Angels themselves were.
    Almighty Allah exhausted the proof on them in two distinct ways: firstly the Angels had said that all creatures that are going to be created the Earth are corrupt, without any exceptions among them. Allah proved their ignorance in the matter. It was only after Adam had mentioned their names did they realize that among the progeny of Adam were many personalities more deserving of Allah’s Caliphate.
    Secondly the Almighty removed the misconception the Angels had harboured about themselves. They thought they were unsurpassable in piety and praising Allah. They could not even imagine that a person like Iblis was also one of them. Hence another fact became clear for them.
    It must be clarified that there is a difference of opinion between two schools of thoughts as far as the absolute infallibility of Angels is concerned. According to Shi‘ahs the infallibility of Angels is proved beyond any doubt according to Qur’anic Ayats and traditions of Masoomeen Furthermore their questioning Allah’s decision was not an act of arrogance and they knew very well that Allah shall do whatever is best. Yet they questioned him to know the wisdom it.
    Such a type of questioning falls under the category of Tark al-Awla, therefore it didn’t harm the infallibility of the Angels.
    There is also a difference of opinion among the Shi‘ah and Sunni Commentators regarding the names taught to Adam. According to some, Adam was taught the names of things in various languages. The children of Adam learnt the various languages from him. When they separated, each of them spoke the language he liked best. Due to the passage of time each of the languages diverged from each other. Some more traditions on this topic shall be quoted in the forthcoming discussion.
    There is also a group that interprets ‘names’ to mean rights, obligations and origins of different things. For example, the creation of water, making of the earth, prescriptions of medicines and diets, mining of metals, and all things concerned with life and hereafter.
    The experts also think that both these meanings are general. And the last interpretation is the summary of all varying traditions.
    People may object that the superiority of Adam was due to the fact that Allah taught him the names beforehand whereas He didn’t teach the Angels. So it was an unequal match. The reply to this is that Allah might have taught Adam in front of the Angels but they were unable to grasp the meaning whereas Adam could.
    There are many aspects to this problem and it is beyond the scope of this book to mention them all. The interpretation of Imam is not in need of detailed explanations. (i.e.. It is self - explanatory.)
    This view is supported by two narrations of Ja’far al-Sadiq wherein he says,
    “The Almighty Allah taught Adam the names of all His Proofs that were in the spiritual form at that time. Then He presented them to the Angels. Allah asked the Angels to name them to support their claim of superiority over Adam in the matter of Divine vicegerency. The Angels said,
    “They said: Glory be to Thee! we have no knowledge but that which Thou hast taught us; surely Thou art the Knowing, the Wise.” (Surah Baqarah 2:32)
    Allah told Adam to mention the ‘names’ along with their status and characteristics. When Adam did so, the Angels became aware of their names and their high station. Then the realization dawned on the Angels that those personalities were really more deserving of Allah’s Caliphate and to be Allah’s proof on His creatures than the Angels were.
    Then their lights was hidden from the eyes of the Angels. Allah Commanded the Angels to cultivate love and devotion of these luminaries.
    Allah then said, “Did I not say that I was having knowledge of whatever is hidden in the Earth and the heavens, and whatever you manifest and hide?’
  • 3. The splendor of Allah could denote the light of recognition that Allah deprived the Angels; that they had previously possessed. It could mean the light of His Greatness and Glory that was manifested in the Holy Throne and the curtains.
  • 4. All the Muslims agree that the Sajdah of Angels to Adam’s was not a Sajdah of deification. Because Sajdah for anyone other than Allah is Polytheism and Disbelief. There are three opinions regarding this Sajdah. First: The Sajdah was for Almighty Allah and Adam was just a Kiblah. Just as people face the Ka‘bah during prayers. The first traditions proves this point. Second: The word ‘Sajdah’ indicates honoring or paying respect and not the Sajdah in the literal sense. Although the former is in consonance with the dictionary meaning but most of the traditions disprove it. Third: The Sajdah to respect Adam was actually the Sajdah of Allah’s worship. Because Allah had ordered it. This point is also stated in the majority of tradition.
    Thus it proves that doing Sajdah for anyone else other than Allah with the intention of worship is infidelity. It is a sin if Allah had not commanded it. Although there is a possibility that Sajdah of respect was permitted in previous nations but it is emphatically stated to be haram for this Ummah. A number of traditions to this effect have been recorded and as mentioned below.
  • 5. There are different views regarding Iblis, some which are erroneous. First of all they have considered greatness as the root. Secondly Prophet Adam’s excellence is concerned with his soul because ‘noor’ is a basis of all things. And the ‘noor’ of Adam was imbued with divine recognition and knowledge. Both these things are bestowed to Allah’s beloved people. And the fire’s luminosity is imperfect. It depends how much it is beneficial; if anyone goes near it, it destroys him. Fire burns to ashes. In comparison, Adam’s brilliance is different. Thirdly, Satan thought fire is better than dust and this was his mistake. He thought all attributes of fire are beneficial. Allah granted a temporary brightness to fire and it became proud, so Allah the Supreme, disgraced it. Allah bestowed the dust with superiority. He grew tasty fruits and vegetables from it. It became useful to all mankind and was bestowed with natural power. Its inherent qualities were concealed in the earth. The dust was taken to the Holy Throne and exalted. The kings and ordinary persons all are ultimately buried in it.
  • 6. We should know that there are different views about how Satan deceived Adam. He had already been expelled from heaven whereas Adam and Hawwa’ resided. According to some scholars, Adam and Hawwa’ came up to the entrance of heaven and the Satan also had access until there. And he used to speak to them from outside. Some have stated that Satan wrote an anonymous letter to them. According to another view when Satan tried to enter the Garden he was prevented by the guards. So he approached in turn all the animals of Paradise but they all refused to gain him entry. At last he came to the serpent and said, “I swear, I will remove your baneful effect from the son of Adam and you will remain in my protection. Now take me inside the Garden.” The serpent asked him to sit between his two fangs and smuggled him into Paradise. At that time the body of the serpent was covered. He had four limbs and was much better in appearance than other animals. He was as tall as a camel. When he brought Satan into Paradise, Allah became angry and stripped him down and cut off his hands and legs. From that day the serpents crawl on the earth because they helped Satan to enter the Garden in contravention of divine command.
  • 7. There are many different views about the administration of divine justice. It is possible that Allah created Prophet Adam for the Earth and not for the heaven.
  • 8. There are different views regarding the tree which was forbidden by Allah. Some say it was a fig tree and for some it was a grapevine and some others say it was a camphor tree. Shaykh al-Tusi has narrated from Imam ‘Ali that it was a tree of secret knowledge and death and the same Imam has mentioned that it was an eternal tree from which the angels eat and acquire immortality.
    We have already proved that Prophets are infallible. Jealousy is a sin and a Prophet can never commit a sin. Here it must be clarified that jealousy implies a desire that the recipient of bounty should lose it. Whereas it was obvious that Adam had already learnt of the high status of the family of Muhammad and could never have wished them to lose the Divine Bounty. Thus it was not exactly ‘jealousy’. Hence, at the most it could be said to be Makrooh (detestable) or Tark al-Awla (Leaving the preferable option).
  • 9. There are some differences regarding the Paradise of Adam. Whether it is on the earth or in the heavens? Is it the same that the virtuous people will enter or some other? The writers of Qur’anic exegesis agree that it was one of the gardens of heaven. The others say that it was a garden of the earth and from the same tradition have stated that one who enters once never comes out. Regarding this people say that due to the good deeds a person will enter in the heaven and will not come out. But it is a doubtful matter. For example, Prophet Muhammad al-Mustafa ’s flight to the heavens and back. The angels also come and go. Besides this, there are different opinions about it. In most traditions it is stated that the Paradise of Adam was on the heavens.
  • 10. The text of this hadith is same as those quoted above so we refrain from repetition.
  • 11. The other prayers are not mentioned in this hadith
  • 12. The third question is not mentioned in the narration.
  • 13. We have already discussed the meaning of Jealousy in the previous section.
  • 14. There is no contradiction between these traditions. It is possible that all this might have occurred and all these personalities might have interceded for his repentance.
  • 15. There are differences in traditions regarding the site of descent of Adam and Hawwa’. Many reliable traditions shows Adam came down to Safa and Marwa. And some traditions say that they came down to India. Commonly held opinion is that Adam came on one of the mountains of Sarandeep which is called Nood or Navad. And Hawwa’ came down to Jeddah. It is possible that India was mentioned due to Taqiyyah. And it is also possible that initially they came down to India and later went to Makkah and stayed at Safa and Marwa as we shall see in traditions later.
  • 16. This tradition is usually quoted from Sunni sources, and the traditions discussed earlier are much more reliable.
  • 17. Adam felt the heat of the Sun because he could not take shelter under a tree or cave. His height may have been reduced by 70 hands. That is previously he was 70 hands and tall and subsequently reduced to one unit it might refer to the unit ‘hand’ of that time or the unit that which Adam fixed for measurement of things. Same is regarding Hawwa’. I have explained this tradition in a number of ways in my book Behaarul Anwaar.
  • 18. It is very difficult to establish unanimity in these traditions. It is possible all this occurred and generations continued.
  • 19. As these traditions are in accordance with the view of Sunni they have appeared due to taqiyyah. The traditions mentioned previously are more reliable.
  • 20. It is possible that the sisters who were born with him died before and Qabil hadn’t seen their burial, or the report of the birth of twin brother-sisters is based on taqiyyah. It is narrated in another tradition that according to Tawus the first blood to be shed was of Habil and same day one-fourth of the people were killed. Imam Zayn al-‘abidin said, “It is not so, first blood was the menstrual blood of Hawwa’. When Qabil killed Habil it was one-sixth of humanity because they were six: Adam, Hawwa’, Habil, Qabil and two sisters. Then he said, “Allah has appointed two guards over Qabil. When the Sun rises they bring him out. And they take him back at Sunset. They sprinkle hot water on him and he will be punished like this until the day of judgment.
  • 21. This hadith contradicts other traditions. It might be referring to the fact that the chastisement of world is less than the chastisement of hereafter or that the punishment of killing Habil shall not be meted out in the hereafter, rather he would go to hell due to his disbelief.
  • 22. This hadith is accepted by the Sunni but according to Shi‘ahs Adam didn’t have any children in heaven.
  • 23. This hadith is against the Shi‘ahs belief but accepted by some Sunni scholars. It might have entered hadith books due to taqiyyah.
  • 24. This tradition is against the Shi‘ah belief that Prophets are infallible. According to most Ulama this has come in hadith books due to taqiyyah.
  • 25. All these traditions shall be discussed in the volume of Imamate.
  • 26. This proves that Adam and Nuh are buried in Najaf. So the tradition which say that Adam is buried in Makkah mean that initially he was buried there but later his remains were exhumed by Nuh and buried at al-Kufah.
  • 27. Commentators and narrators differ regarding age of Adam. Some say it was a thousand years and he gave 60 years to Dawud but later he denied so again it became 1000 years. Other maintain it was 936 years. Some others claim it to be 930 years. The last two traditions show that it was probably 936 years and it is usual to mention the figure in tens (i.e. 930 instead of 936).