The Status Of Al-Anbiya’ In Islam

Islam is strictly a monotheistic faith. Based on the Five Roots of Faith, commonly known as Usul al-Din1, Islam makes it incumbent on all Muslims to believe in the following fundamentals. These form the fundamental belief. These are:

Tawhid, (the Oneness of Allah);

Adalah, (the Total Justness of Allah);

Nubuwwah (the emissaries (prophets) Allah sent to guide);

Imamah (the appointed Imams in the Shi’a Ja’fari faith); and the

Qiyamah (the Day of Resurrection and Judgment after our death).

From the Usul al-Din (Roots of Faith) shown above, branches out the Furu’ al-Din (Branches of Faith) which explain further the actions Muslims have to undertake in their daily lives. There are Ten branches that spring out of the Usul al-Din.

These are:

1. The Daily Salat,

2. Fasting in the month of Ramadhan,

3. Hajj – Pilgrimage to Mecca,

4. Zakat,

5. Khums,

6. Jihad,

7. Amr bi al-Ma’ruf,

8. Nahi ‘ anil-Munkar,

9. Tawallah, and

10. Tabarrah.

The Sunni Muslims too, have the Five Pillars: the Shahadah (the Creed that there is no God but Allah and Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah); the Salat (the Five daily Prayers); the Siyam (Fasting in the month of Ramadhan); the Zakat (giving of the charity out of the savings) and the Hajj (the Pilgrimage to Makkah, if one can afford it, at least once in one’s lifetime. The Shi’i Muslims have explained more the actions necessary to be undertaken. These they have included Furu al-Din the branches of Faith).

Islam makes it incumbent on all Muslims to believe in the concepts of Tawhid, or the Oneness of Allah; the Nubuwwah, or the Prophethood and the Qiyamah, or the Day of Resurrection.

In this chapter, we will discuss Nubuwwah (the concept of Prophethood).

It is interesting to note that because Islam is strictly monotheistic, it is also referred to as Din al-Tawhid, the religion of Absolute Oneness of Allah). In this sense, although the Nubuwwah and Qiyamah are from Usul al-Din, in truth they spring from the attributes inherent in Tawhid. Thus, Nubuwwah in Islam becomes reality as it reflects the Attributes of Allah to be al-Hadi (The Guide), al-Khabiru (The Informed), al-Ba’ithu,(The One who sends or raises the Prophets) etc.,

Since the belief of Nubuwwah in Islam springs from the Attributes inherent in Tawhid, Islam claims that 124,000 Anbiya (prophets) Allah sent for the guidance of mankind were all Muslims. They showed mankind what the Straight Path is to attain a successful life in the Hereafter.

The salvation of mankind depends on the sirat al-Mustaqim, the Straight Path. This Straight path is shown to mankind through the revelation (in theory) and (in practice) by the chosen ones of Allah whom He sends as Anbiya’. The need for Anbiya’ to mankind becomes necessary not only because Allah is al-Hadi (The Guide) but also because revelation becomes necessary to mankind. Man is a forgetful being.

The salvation of mankind therefore depends on the sirat al Mustaqim, the Straight Path. And therefore as already discussed above, this Straight Path is shown to mankind through the revelation (in theory) and (in practice) by the chosen ones of Allah whom He sends as His Prophets.

Thus, when Hadrat Adam and Bibi Hawwa were made to descend on the earth where their life would be temporary, Allah, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, promised mankind, as we read in the Qur’an:

قُلۡنَا ٱهۡبِطُواْ مِنۡہَا جَمِيعً۬ا‌ فَإِمَّا يَأۡتِيَنَّكُم مِّنِّى هُدً۬ى فَمَن تَبِعَ هُدَاىَ فَلَا خَوۡفٌ عَلَيۡہِمۡ وَلَا هُمۡ يَحۡزَنُونَ

“We said: ‘Get you down all from here; and if, as is sure, There comes to you guidance from Me, whosoever follows My guidance, on them shall be no fear, nor shall they grieve’.” (2:38).

Allah first revealed to Nabi Adam, ‘alayhi as-salam, teaching him all names and when Nabi Adam, ‘alayhi as-salam transgressed with his wife Bibi Hawwa ‘alayha as-salam, Allah taught him the words of Du’a. Through the Du’a Allah, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, turned towards him forgiveness:

فَتَلَقَّىٰٓ ءَادَمُ مِن رَّبِّهِۦ كَلِمَـٰتٍ فَتَابَ عَلَيْهِ إِنَّهُۥ هُوَ ٱلتَّوَّابُ ٱلرَّحِيمُ

“Then Adam received from his Lord words [of revelation], and his Rabb and turned towards him; for He is oft-Returning, Most Merciful” (2:37).2

Hadrat Adam, ‘alayhi as-salam, became the first guide to his wife and their children. This was the beginning of the process of Nubuwwah. The guidance from Allah continued as He sent different Anbiya’ to different peoples and nations. No people remained without a guide in their own language, until finally, the process of Nubuwwah flowered in the “Seal of Prophets”,3 in the person of Muhammad, the final Rasul of Allah sent for the whole mankind. A Persian poet explains this process.

Nubuwwah ra azuhur az Adam amad,
Kamalash dar wujood e khatam amad4

Islam presents Adam, therefore, as not only the first man on the earth but also the first of the Anbiya’. For without the revelation and a model human being to show in practice what is revealed to him, it would be impossible for a man alone to spiritually uplift himself.5

We have already seen that Islam claims Allah sent 124,000 Anbiya’. He sent them not only to all nations, but also in the languages in which they spoke. Allah reveals this:

وَلِكُلِّ أُمَّةٍ رَسُولٌ

“To every people (was sent) an Apostle…” (10:47).

وَمَا أَرْسَلْنَا مِنْ رَسُولٍ إِلَّا بِلِسَانِ قَوْمِهِ لِيُبَيِّنَ لَهُم

“We sent not an Apostle except (to teach) in the language of his (own) people…” (14:4).

But not all Anbiya’ were commissioned to teach new traditions or laws. All did, however, bring a universal message of Tawhid. Some were commissioned towards small communities of people and some to the larger communities.

Sometimes a nabi (pl. Anbiya’) was strengthened by more than one nabi operating in the same community. Good examples of these in the Qur’an are Nabi Musa and Nabi Harun ‘alayhuma as-salam or three Anbiya’ together in the episode in the Surah Yasin.

If we were to broadly look at Anbiya’ as a whole, we see four categories.

The prophets in the first category were not more than the nabi. That is, they were the bringer of good news from Allah, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala. They were inspired by Allah to speak and to act in a way that they would make themselves intelligently understood. Their inspiration was direct and was from heaven. We are told in sources that Islam believes that Anbiya’ were not scholars who discerned from books certain truths or learned from other human beings their learning. This holds true for each and every nabi, ‘alayhi as-salam.6

This means that in Islamic belief, not only all orthodox religions are from heaven but in their originality they come with the universal message of Tawhid. Thus to Islam, the original founders of some of the faiths could have been from the Anbiya’ who preached Tawhid and taught about the impending Qiyamah. Thus to Islam, Zarathustra could have been from the Anbiya’. It is interesting to note that one respectable Muslim source suggests that even Gautam Buddha could have been from the Anbiya’ because in his original message he proclaimed Sovereignty and Worship of only One Allah.7

The second category of Anbiya’ are those that are known as the rusul (sing. Rasul).They were clearly charged with the duties to propagate in the territories they were commissioned in and to invite their respective communities to surrender themselves to the Will of One Allah. We see several examples of them in the Taurat, in the personalities of, for example, Jeremiah, Issiah and also Jonah. In our belief, out of 124,000 Anbiya’ at least 313 were the rusul.

The third category are the Anbiya’ known as ulu al-azm (the possessors of firmness and determination, the Anbiya’ with the resolve). Most of the ùlama have put their numbers to Five.8These are Nabi Nuh ‘alayhi as-salam, Nabi Ibrahim ‘alayhi as-salam, Nabi Musa ‘alayhi as-salam, Nabi Isa ibn Maryam ‘alayhi as-salam, and Rasul Jeremiah, Issiah and also Jonah. In our belief, out of 124,000 Anbiya’ at least 313 were the rusul.

The third category are the Anbiya’ known as ulu al-azm (the possessors of firmness and determination, the Anbiya’ with the resolve). Most of the ùlama have put their numbers to Five.9These are Nabi Nuh ‘alayhi as-salam, Nabi Ibrahim ‘alayhi as-salam, Nabi Musa ‘alayhi as-salam, Nabi Isa ibn Maryam ‘alayhi as-salam, and Rasul Allah Sallallahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam himself. These Five rusul of the ulu al-Azm clearly extended and built upon the laws or clarified further on the existing laws. They were also revealed with the Scriptures and the balanced laws for the mankind, as we read in the Qur’an:

لَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا رُسُلَنَا بِالْبَيِّنَاتِ وَأَنْزَلْنَا مَعَهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْمِيزَانَ

“Surely We sent aforetime Our rusul (rusulana) with Clear Signs and sent down with them The Book and the Balance (of right and wrong)” (57:25).

The Scriptures they brought are:

1) Nabi Nuh, ‘alayhi as-salam - the Scroll

2) Nabi Ibrahim, ‘alayhi as-salam - the Scroll

3) Nabi Musa, ‘alayhi as-salam - the Taurat

4) Nabi Isa ibn Maryam, ‘alayhi as-salam - the Injeel

5) Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam.

It is interesting to note in one Ayat in the Qur’an the name of all the five ulul azm Anbiya’ mentioned together thus confirming the universality of the one message from Allah. The Ayat reads:

شَرَعَ لَكُمْ مِنَ الدِّينِ مَا وَصَّىٰ بِهِ نُوحًا وَالَّذِي أَوْحَيْنَا إِلَيْكَ وَمَا وَصَّيْنَا بِهِ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَمُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ

“The same religion has He established for you As that which He enjoined on Nuh – the which We have sent by inspiration to thee – and that which We enjoined on Ibrahim, Musa and Isa (ibn Maryam)…” (42:13).10

It is evident that from these five ulul azm Anbiya’, Nabi Ibrahim (‘a) becomes the central figure in all the three great monotheistic faiths. The message of Nabi Ibrahim (‘a) to all his followers in Judaism, Christianity and Islam is the same; to be Muslims, to surrender totally to the Will of Allah. Nabi Ibrahim (‘a) was himself put through some very tough tests in this regard; and each time he fulfilled totally what was commanded to him by Allah. For this, Allah, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, is pleased with him and has given him three great titles, one of which is the Imam an-Nas (the leader of mankind).11

As stated earlier, all Anbiya’ were Muslims and had submitted themselves totally to the Will of Allah. In the case of Nabi Nuh, for example, the Qur’an reveals that he lived in his community for a very long time12pleading with them to believe him and to be Muslims like he was, for he said: wa umirtu an akuna min al-Muslimin.

وَأُمِرْتُ أَنْ أَكُونَ مِنَ الْمُسْلِمِينَ

“And I have been commanded to be of those who are Muslims. That is to be of those who submit to Allah’s Will in Islam”. (10:72).

The centrality of Nabi Ibrahim (‘a) as a perfect model for all prophets to follow him is presented in the Qur’an in most extraordinary terms. Nabi Ibrahim (‘a) is shown not only as the one who was not an idolator but also as the one who was deeply concerned about the future status of his progeny and mankind as a whole. Thus in the Qur’an Nabi Ibrahim (‘a) not only confirms he is a Muslim but also makes a Du’a13 to Allah that He make his progeny Muslims. The following Ayat in the Qur’an makes this clear,

وَإِذْ يَرْفَعُ إِبْرَاهِيمُ الْقَوَاعِدَ مِنَ الْبَيْتِ وَإِسْمَاعِيلُ رَبَّنَا تَقَبَّلْ مِنَّا إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ السَّمِيعُ الْعَلِيمُ

“And Ibrahim and Ismail raised the foundations of the House and prayed together: ‘Our Lord! Accept (this service) from us: For Thou art the All-Hearing, the All-knowing’.” (2:127).

رَبَّنَا وَاجْعَلْنَا مُسْلِمَيْنِ لَكَ وَمِنْ ذُرِّيَّتِنَا أُمَّةً مُسْلِمَةً لَكَ وَأَرِنَا مَنَاسِكَنَا وَتُبْ عَلَيْنَا إِنَّكَ أَنْتَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ

“‘Our Rabb! Make us of Muslims, bowing to The Will, and of our progeny a people Muslim Bowing to Thy (Will); and show us the places for the celebration of (due) rights; and turn unto us (in Mercy) for You are the Oft-Returning, Most Merciful’.” (2:128).

إِذْ قَالَ لَهُ رَبُّهُ أَسْلِمْ قَالَ أَسْلَمْتُ لِرَبِّ الْعَالَمِينَ

“Behold! His Rabb said to him (Ibrahim): Aslim (surrender your will to Me)! He replied, Aslamtu li Rabbi al-Alameen [I surrender my will to the Rabb and Cherisher of the Worlds]”. (2:131).

وَوَصَّىٰ بِهَا إِبْرَاهِيمُ بَنِيهِ وَيَعْقُوبُ يَا بَنِيَّ إِنَّ اللَّهَ اصْطَفَىٰ لَكُمُ الدِّينَ فَلَا تَمُوتُنَّ إِلَّا وَأَنْتُمْ مُسْلِمُونَ

“And this was the legacy that Ibrahim left to his Sons, and so did Yaqub (saying): ‘O my sons, Allah Has chosen the Faith for you; then die not except in the Faith of Islam”. (2:132).

أَمْ كُنْتُمْ شُهَدَاءَ إِذْ حَضَرَ يَعْقُوبَ الْمَوْتُ إِذْ قَالَ لِبَنِيهِ مَا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ بَعْدِي قَالُوا نَعْبُدُ إِلَٰهَكَ وَإِلَٰهَ آبَائِكَ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ إِلَٰهًا وَاحِدًا وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

“Were you witnesses when death appeared before Yaqub? Behold! He said to his sons: ‘What will you worship after me’? They said: ‘We shall worship your Allah and the Allah Of your fathers – of Ibrahim, Ismail and Ishaq, - the One Allah Wa nahnu lahu Muslimun [to Him we surrender ourselves in Islam]”. (2:133).

The fourth category for Anbiya’ is of the highest degree. This uniqueness Allah, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, blessed upon only Rasul Allah (S). In selecting Rasul Allah (S), Allah not only created him to be His Nabi, but also His Rasul, also the Rasul from Ulu al-Azm and finally He bestowed upon only him the highest Title, that of the Khatamu an-Nabiyyin (the Seal of all the Anbiya’). There were no more Anbiya’ to come after him. The process of wahy also ended with him.

Perhaps it is necessary at this point to explain why the status of all Anbiya’ in Islam is that of Muslims. They are not presented as Muslims in any narrow meaning of the word. The exact meaning of the word ‘Muslim’ is interesting and should be explained to understand and appreciate how well it befits the status of all Anbiya’ sent by Allah to guide mankind.

The word ‘Muslim’ comes from the Arabic root word salima meaning ‘peace or safety’. When this is conjugated to become aslama, it changes to mean “to surrender (in safety)”, or in Islamic meaning “to convert to Islam”. Since “Muslim” is the active participle of this derivation, it simply means ‘one who surrenders completely to the Will of Allah’. In this surrender, one strikes peace with Allah, that is to say, one is not on the war path (or rebellious) with the commands of Allah, and therefore safe. In other words, one accepts to be the ‘abd (slave) of Allah (hence the name like ‘Abd-Allah).

In this sense, since all the laws of nature follow the Command of Allah, they are “Muslims’” (although strictly, we can not refer them as such because they have no free-will). Likewise, all creatures who follow only their instincts given them by Allah, find themselves with no choice but to surrender to His Will and in that sense, they are “Muslims”.

Man has a limited free will and he has only within the parameters of that limit to make choice whether he will be a Muslim or not. Outside those parameters, he too is a ‘Muslim’. Thus a person may have chosen within his limited freewill to become a polytheist, but esoterically, he is still a Muslim because all the rest of the faculties that he possesses obey only the commands of Allah. Thus he has no control over his heartbeat of his journey through the time.

The invitation of Nabi Ibrahim (‘a) to Islam was total and the highest example of his being a total Muslim was in his willingness to sacrifice Ismail to fulfil the command of Allah, Subhanahu wa Ta’ala, he saw in his vision.

Likewise, we find Nabi Musa (‘a) in the Qur’an declaring his status as a complete Muslim inviting the Pharaoh and the Egyptians to believe in him and submit to the Will of Allah. But he found people afraid of the might of the Pharaoh and his repercussions against them. Nabi Musa is recorded in the Qur’an like this:

وَقَالَ مُوسَىٰ يَا قَوْمِ إِنْ كُنْتُمْ آمَنْتُمْ بِاللَّهِ فَعَلَيْهِ تَوَكَّلُوا إِنْ كُنْتُمْ مُسْلِمِينَ

“Musa said: ‘O my people! If you do really believe in Allah then in Him (alone) put your trust if ‘kuntum Muslimun’ (you submit your will to His).” (10:84).

In Nabi ‘Isa ibn Maryam (‘a), this fact is seen from his childhood. For when Bibi Maryam (‘a) gives birth to Nabi ‘Isa (‘a) and:

فَأَتَتْ بِهِ قَوْمَهَا تَحْمِلُهُ قَالُوا يَا مَرْيَمُ لَقَدْ جِئْتِ شَيْئًا فَرِيًّا

“Brings the (babe) to her people, carrying him (in her arms), they said: ‘O Maryam! Truly an amazing thing have you brought!” (19:27).

يَا أُخْتَ هَارُونَ مَا كَانَ أَبُوكِ امْرَأَ سَوْءٍ وَمَا كَانَتْ أُمُّكِ بَغِيًّا

“O sister of Harun, your father was not a man of evil, nor your mother was a woman unchaste!’.”(19:28).

فَأَشَارَتْ إِلَيْهِ قَالُوا كَيْفَ نُكَلِّمُ مَنْ كَانَ فِي الْمَهْدِ صَبِيًّا

“But she pointed to the babe. They said: “How can we talk to one who is a child in the cradle?” (19:29).

The Qur’an tells us that at that point Nabi ‘Isa ibn Maryam (‘a) spoke from the cradle:

إِنِّي عَبْدُ اللَّهِ آتَانِيَ الْكِتَابَ وَجَعَلَنِي نَبِيًّا

“I am indeed the slave of Allah. He has given me Revelation and made me a nabi” (19:30).

وَجَعَلَنِي مُبَارَكًا أَيْنَ مَا كُنْتُ وَأَوْصَانِي بِالصَّلَاةِ وَالزَّكَاةِ مَا دُمْتُ حَيًّا

“And He has made me blessed wheresoever I be, and has enjoined on me the salat and the zakat as long as I live.” (19:31).

The life of Nabi ‘Isa ibn Maryam (‘a) is presented in the Qur’an in glorious terms showing him a total Muslim and his disciples yearning to be Muslims.

Thus, Nabi ‘Isa ibn Maryam (‘a) asks his disciples in the Qur’an:

مَنْ أَنْصَارِي إِلَى اللَّهِ قَالَ الْحَوَارِيُّونَ نَحْنُ أَنْصَارُ اللَّهِ آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَاشْهَدْ بِأَنَّا مُسْلِمُونَ

“…Who will be my helpers to (the work of) Allah? Replied the Disciples: ‘We are Allah’s helpers: We Believe in Allah, and do thou bear witness that We are Muslims.” (3:52).

And in the Ayat preceding this, Nabi Isa ibn Maryam (‘a) says:

وَإِنَّ اللَّهَ رَبِّي وَرَبُّكُمْ فَاعْبُدُوهُ ۚ هَٰذَا صِرَاطٌ مُسْتَقِيمٌ

“It is Allah who is my Rabb and your Rabb Then worship (only) Him. Hadha siratun Mustaqim That is a Way that is straight.” (19:36).

In conclusion, it is the Qur’an that explains fully the status of all Anbiya’ and explains how Muslims ought to react about all Anbiya’.

قُولُوا آمَنَّا بِاللَّهِ وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَيْنَا وَمَا أُنْزِلَ إِلَىٰ إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَإِسْمَاعِيلَ وَإِسْحَاقَ وَيَعْقُوبَ وَالْأَسْبَاطِ وَمَا أُوتِيَ مُوسَىٰ وَعِيسَىٰ وَمَا أُوتِيَ النَّبِيُّونَ مِنْ رَبِّهِمْ لَا نُفَرِّقُ بَيْنَ أَحَدٍ مِنْهُمْ وَنَحْنُ لَهُ مُسْلِمُونَ

“Say ye: ‘We believe in Allah, and the revelation given to us, and to Ibrahim, Ismail, Ishaq, Yaqub, and the tribes, and that given to Musa and ‘Isa, and that given to all the Prophets from their Rabb: We make no difference between One and another of them: And we bow to Allah in Islam.” (2:136).

  • 1. The Five Roots, the fundamental belief, called the Usul al-Din in Islam are the belief in Tawhid, the Oneness of Allah; Adalah, the Justness of Allah; Nubuwwah, the Prophets of Allah sent to guide mankind; Imamah the appointed Imams in the Imami Shi’a faith; and the Qiyamah, the Day of Resurrection and Judgment after our death. The Sunni Muslims too, have the Five Pillars: the Shahadah, the Salat, the Siyam, the Zakat, and the Hajj, if one can afford it, at least once in one’s lifetime. The Shi’ Muslims have included all these pillars in their Furu ‘al-Din, (the Branches of Faith).
  • 2. It is interesting to note that the history of mankind on the earth begins with the Du’a to the Compassionate and Merciful Allah and His retuning in Mercy to those who do the Du’a to Him and Him alone.
  • 3. See Qur’an:

    مَا كَانَ مُحَمَّدٌ أَبَا أَحَدٍ مِنْ رِجَالِكُمْ وَلَٰكِنْ رَسُولَ اللَّهِ وَخَاتَمَ النَّبِيِّينَ وَكَانَ اللَّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمًا

    “Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the Messenger of Allah and the Last of the prophets; and Allah is cognizant of all things.” (33:40).

  • 4. Quote in Syed Hosein Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam, p.68.
  • 5. Syed Hosein Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam, p.22.
  • 6. Syed Hosein Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam, p.85.
  • 7. See al-Allamah as-Sayyid Muhammad Husayn at-Tabatabai, al-Mizan: An Exegesis of the Qur’an, vol.1, p.278.
  • 8. Some scholars say the number of ulu al-Azm prophets is seven. They include two Arabian rusul, Saleh and Shuayb. However, there is no reliable proof for this. The Five are clearly mentioned. See my footnote number on this issue. Interestingly, Nasr thinks they were Seven. See Syed Hosein Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam, p.86.
  • 9. Some scholars say the number of ulu al-Azm prophets is seven. They include two Arabian rusul, Saleh and Shuayb. However, there is no reliable proof for this. The Five are clearly mentioned. See my footnote number on this issue. Interestingly, Nasr thinks they were Seven. See Syed Hosein Nasr, Ideals and Realities of Islam, p.86.
  • 10. The confirmation of revealed faiths directly from the Qur’an gives the Jews and Christians the status of Ahl al-Kitab or ‘the People of the Book’.
  • 11. The other two titles of Nabi Ibrahim (‘a) are Khalil Allah (the Friend of Allah) and Ubb al-Anbiya (the father of the Prophets) i.e. father of all prophets that followed him.
  • 12. 950 years according to the following Verse of the Qur’an:
    وَلَقَدْ أَرْسَلْنَا نُوحًا إِلَىٰ قَوْمِهِ فَلَبِثَ فِيهِمْ أَلْفَ سَنَةٍ إِلَّا خَمْسِينَ عَامًا فَأَخَذَهُمُ الطُّوفَانُ وَهُمْ ظَالِمُونَ

    “And certainly We sent Nuh to his people, so he remained among them a thousand years save fifty years. And the deluge overtook them, while they were unjust.” (29:14).

  • 13. Find this and following Du’as quoted in this book under Ad’iyyah of Nabi Ibrahim (‘a).