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Aphorisms Of Imam Ali As

The aphorisms of Imam Ali (‘a) have attained the climax of brilliance in their splendor and genuineness, because they have comprised the most wonderful thoughts and manners not to mention their eloquence and fluency. Let us now refer to a few examples of these aphorisms:

True Value

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The worth of every man is in his attainments.1

Knowledge Is Countless

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Knowledge is too much to be counted; therefore, try to take from everything the best of it.2

Opinion Of The Aged

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The view of the aged people is more preferable than the eye-witnessing of the youths.3

Enemies Of The Unknown

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

People are always the enemies of what they ignore.4

Succouring The Aggrieved

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

To render relief to the grief-stricken and to provide comfort in hardship are the atonement of great sins.5

The Abstinent

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Those who truly abstain from the worldly pleasures are those who receive sermons positively when they are said to them and who act upon their certitude. When they face an item of ease, they thank, and when they face an item of difficulty, they act steadfastly.6

Allah’s Gifts In This World And The Other World

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Verily, Allah the Almighty and All-majestic gives the pleasures of this world to whom He loves and to whom He does not love, but He does not give the pleasures of the other world except to those whom He loves. Sometimes, He gives the pleasures of the both worlds to some people.7

Rest And Fatigue

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Rest is very close to fatigue, misery is very close to happiness, and death is very close to life.8

Duty Towards The Friend

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The least one can do to one’s friend is to stop at (i.e. visit) his grave.9

The Most Helpless Of All People

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The most helpless of all men is he who cannot find a few friends during his life, but still more helpless is he who finds such a friend but loses him.10

Sovereignty And Religiousness

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Sovereignty and religiousness are brothers of each other that none can dispense with the other. Religiousness is the basis while sovereignty is the guard. Whoever has no basis is destroyable. Whoever has not guard is lost.11

Speech

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Had it not been that speech is always repeated, it would have run out.

The World Is Two Days

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The world has two days; one for you and the other against you. When the day is for yours, do not feel proud, but when it is against you, you should endure it. Through both of the days, you are put to the test.12

The Ignorant And The Learned

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Two men have broken my back: an ascetic man who is yet ignorant, and a learned man who is yet dissolute. The ignorant man seduces people by means of his asceticism, and the learned man alienates them due to his dissoluteness.13

Knowledge-Based Worship

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Acts of devotion that lack knowledge are worthless. Knowledge that lacks understanding is worthless. Reading that lacks reflection is worthless.14

Humorous Sayings

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Seek rest for your hearts and inquire about humorous wise sayings, because, just like bodies, hearts may become bored.15

Contemplation

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Awaken your heart by contemplation, take away your sides from sleep, and fear Allah your Lord.16

Imploration For Forgiveness

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

I am amazed at one who leads himself to perdition while he has the means of salvation; that is imploring Almighty Allah for forgiveness.17

The Matched Things

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Fright is always matched to disappointment and shyness is always matched to deprivation. An opportunity passes just like the passing of clouds. Wisdom is the lost of the true believer; therefore, take wisdom no matter what its source should be.18

The Soldiers Of Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The strongest of the soldiers of your Lord are ten: (1) the unshakable mountains, (2) iron, which cuts mountains, (3) fire, which melts iron, (4) water, which extinguishes fire, (5) the clouds that are made subservient between the heavens and the earth and the carry water, (6) wind, which scatters the clouds, (7) son of Adam (i.e. human beings) who can undermine wind by the covering of his dress or by anything else and thus he can keep on his way, (8) sugar, which overcomes son of Adam, (9) sleep that overcomes sugar, and (10) care, which overcomes sleep. As a result, the strongest of the creatures of Allah the Almighty and All-majestic is care.19

The Most Favorable Act Of Worship

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The best devotional acts are silence and expectation of relief.20

Regarding The Brethren-In-Faith

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Do not rupture your relationship with a friend on the basis of doubt, and do not alienate him before you blame him.21

Nice Words

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He whose words are nice will incumbently acquire the other’s affection.

The Imam (‘a) then cited this poetic verse:

Such simple words like ‘good morning’ and ‘good evening’ implant affection in the heart of the noble people.22

The Envious Are Restless

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

An envious man can never find rest. A bored man cannot be befriended. An impolite man cannot find the other’s affection.23

The Self-Possessed

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The first prize a self-possessed person can gain due to his self-control is that all people always stand to his side against the impetuous.24

The Discerning And The Foolish

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

It sometimes happens that a shrewd man misses the target while the foolish hits it.25

The Ansar

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

By Allah, the Ansar nurtured Islam with their generous hands and eloquent tongues as exactly as a one-year-old calf is nurtured.26

The Least Duty Towards Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The least of your binding duties towards Allah is that you should not use His graces to you for committing acts of disobedience to Him.27

Disadvantages Of Disunity

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Beware of disunity, because those who separate themselves from people will be the share of Satan in the same way as a sheep that separates itself from the herd will be the share of wolves.28

Suppression Of Rage

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Swallow your rage, because I have not seen any other swallow better than it with regard to the end result.29

Good Mannerism

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Good mannerism is the title of the faithful believers’ Record of Deeds.30

Beyond Illusions

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Allah is always unlike whatever can be imagined by illusions.31

The Rabble

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

We seek Allah’s protection against the people who cannot manage any of their affairs when they gather and who are not distinguished when they scatter.32

Categories Of People

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

People are of three types: One is the scholar and divine. Then comes the seeker of knowledge who is also on the way to deliverance. Then (lastly) come the common rot who run after every caller and bend in the direction of every wind.33

Categories Of Quran Reciters

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The Holy Quran will be recited for three purposes: some people will recite it for the sake of Almighty Allah, another category of people will recite it for gaining worldly profits, and a third category of people will recite it for using it in disputations. However, the three categories of people will attain their purposes despite their variety.34

Warning Against Joking

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Every joke that one makes will reduce his reason one bit.35

Funny Wording

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Beware of mentioning any funny wording, even when you report others’ words.36

Politeness

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Good mannerism is the substitute of high lineage.

Refraining From Prohibitions

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who is keen to nobilities of character must refrain from violating the prohibitions.

The Abstinent From Worldly Pleasures

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The more pleasant the worldly pleasures are in the sight of a true abstinent, the more he becomes separated from them.

Ignorance About Defects

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The most destructive sins are to ignore about your own defects.

Perfect Chastity

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Chastity in its perfect feature lies in satisfaction with the minimum subsistence.

Good Opinion

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He about whom people have good opinion will always be under their sights.

The Most Manifest Nobility

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The most manifest aspect of nobility is to be faithful to your friends in luxury and hardship.

Characteristics Of The Lewd

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The lewd is the one who slanders when he is enraged, tells untruth when he is pleased, and beguiles when he covets.

Proper Confession

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Proper confession demolishes the outcome of sinning.

Standing The Friends’ Slips

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Tolerate the slips of your friend, because you will need him when your enemy jumps on you.

Spending That Is Never Wasted

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Your wealth that you spend on what familiarizes you with the accuracy of your state is never wasted.

Economization

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Economization is easier than immoderation, and avoidance of intruding in unconcerned affairs is more tractable than excessive interfering in the issues of others.

Oppressing People

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The worst provisions to the Promised Day are to assume oppression of people.

Appreciation Of Graces

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

An advantage that is appreciated will never expire, and a grace for which ingratitude is shown will never endure.

Good Manners

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Too many are the dignified persons whom are humiliated due to their bad manners and too many are the humble ones whom are dignified due to their good mannerism.

Experience

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who does not benefit from experiences will be easily cheated, and he who challenges the truth will be knocked down.

Termination Of Lifetime

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

If the termination of lifetimes were to be known, expectations would be reduced.

Consultation

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who counsels the men of intelligence will be shown the true way.

Satisfaction

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who satisfies himself with the little will dispense with the much, but he who does not dispense with the much will be in incessant need for the trivial.

Putting The Hopes

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who puts his hopes in a certain person will always fear him, and he who fails to recognize the reality of something will find faults with it.

Assumption Of Continuity

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who has been sure of something but suspicion occurs to him afterward must assume to continue doing what he is sure of, because certainty cannot be cancelled by suspicion.

A Faithful Believer Tires Himself

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

A true faithful believer tires himself while all people are at rest with him.

Laziness

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The lazy will not be able to carry out any of their duties towards Allah the All-exalted. Treasures of Paradise Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The following three matters are within the treasures of Paradise: (1) to conceal the alms when they are given, (2) to conceal the misfortunes, and (3) to conceal the ailment.

Need, Dispensing With, And Doing Favors

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Feel needy for a person, and you will be his prisoner. Dispense with any person and you will be equal to him. Bring any person under necessity for you and you will be his leader.

Magnanimity

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Magnanimity is part of the nobility of character, while reminding someone of the favors done to him corrupts the character.

Negligence Of Friends

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

To neglect the friends results in rupture of relationships.

Seeking For Sustenance

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Seek sustenance, for it will be guaranteed for those who seek it.

The Best Of Wealth

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The best of wealth is to forsake asking from people, while the most evil feature of poverty is to stick to submission to others.

Experiments

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Had it not been for learning from experiments, all paths would have been ambiguous.

Excessive Expectation

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who depends excessively on expectations will fall short to work.

The Most Grateful And The Least Grateful

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The most grateful of all people is the most satisfied, but the worst ungrateful for the graces is the most covetous.37

Respite Of Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Almighty Allah gave such long respite to Pharaoh although he had claimed godhead, because it was easy (for people) to visit him and he used to serve the needy with food.38

Mirror Of Character

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Whenever a person conceals a thing in his heart, it manifests itself through unintentional words from his tongue and through the expressions of his face.39

Custody Of The Family Members

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

A husband can be a real custodian of his family members only after he does not care for the kind of food he provides for himself and does not care for the kind of clothing he may dress.40

Source Of Pleasance

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Within the source of the pleasance of a person are that his wife is agreeable with him, his sons are pious, his friends are righteous, and the source of his sustenance lies in the region where his family members live.41

Generosity

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Generosity covers all defects.42

Beauty Of Men And Beauty Of Women

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Beauty of men lies in their outward appearance, while beauty of women lies in their ornaments.43

Evil Characteristics

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Do not be like him who does not show gratitude for what he begets and covets for increase in whatever remains with him; he orders others not to do what he himself does, and commands them to do what he himself does not do; he loves the virtuous but does not behave like them, and hates the vicious but he himself is one of them; he dislikes death because of the excess of his sins, but adheres to that because of which he is afraid of death.44

Modesty Before The Rich

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who visits a rich man and humiliates himself before him because of his richness will have wasted two thirds of his faith.45

Almsgiving

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

When poverty afflicts you, you must then trade with Allah through almsgiving.46

The True Noble

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The true noble man does not humble himself when he is in hardship and does not act brutally when he is in luxury.

Repentance

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The last days of the lifetime of the faithful believer can be beyond value if he makes up what he has missed and revives what he has deadened.

This World And The Other World

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

This world is won by wealth while the other world is won by deeds.

Fear From Humiliation

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

As they fear from humiliation, people are actually driving humiliation to themselves.

Silence

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Silence is sometimes more expressive than speaking.

Patience

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Patience is a riding animal that never stumbles.47

Verification Of The Authenticity Of Reports

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

When you hear a (reported) tradition, you must test it according to the criterion of intelligence not that of mere hearing, because relaters of knowledge are numerous but those who guard it are few.

Readiness For The Hereafter

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who recollects the distance of the journey will make preparations for it.

Significance Of Knowledge

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Knowledge dispels the excuse of those who advance excuses.

Deprivation Of Knowledge

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

When Allah intends to humiliate a person, He denies him knowledge.

Words Of The Wise

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

When the utterance of the wise is to the point, it serves as a cure; but if it is wrong, it proves like an illness.

Anger

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Anger is a kind of madness, because the victim to it regrets it afterwards. If he does not regret, his madness is confirmed.

Kind Acts

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Kind acts are more compassionate than kinship.

Recognition Of Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

I came to know Allah the Glorified through the breaking of determinations, the change of intentions, and the losing of courage.

Thanking For The Blessings

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Surely, in every blessing there is a right of Allah. If one discharges that right, Allah increases the blessing, and if one falls short of doing so, one stands in danger of losing the blessing.

Envying The Friends

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Envying the friends is an indication of ill affection.

Container Of Knowledge

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Every container becomes narrower according to what is placed in it except knowledge, which expands instead.

Doing Favours

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

If one is not grateful to you, this should not prevent you from doing good actions, because possibly such a person who has not even drawn any benefit from it will feel grateful, and his gratefulness will be more than ingratitude of the denier. Besides, Allah loves those who do good deeds.

Means Of Headship

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The effective means of headship is broad-mindedness.

The Most Humble Knowledge

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The most humble knowledge is that which remains on the tongue; and the most honorable one is that which manifests itself through the action of the limbs and the organs of the body.

Connection With Almighty Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

If man behaves properly in matters between himself and Allah, then Allah will keep proper the matters between him and the other people; and if man keeps proper the affairs of his next life, then Allah will keep proper for him the affairs of this world. Whoever is a preacher for himself is protected by Allah.

Shame Of Niggardliness

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Miserliness is shame. Cowardice is a defect. Poverty disables an intelligent man from arguing his case. A destitute person is a stranger in his hometown. Incapability is a catastrophe. Endurance is bravery. Abstinence is riches. Self-restraint is a shield against sin. The best companion is submission to Allah’s will.

Seditions

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

During disturbance, you must be like an adolescent camel that has neither a back strong enough to be ridden nor udders heavy enough to be milked.

Greed

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who adopts greed as a habit devalues himself; he who discloses his hardship agrees to humiliation; and he who allows his tongue to overpower his soul debases the soul.

Satisfaction And Knowledge

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Knowledge is a venerable estate; good manners are new dresses; and thinking is clear mirror.

Charity

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Charity is an effective cure, and the actions of people in their present life will be before their eyes in the next life.

Spending

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who is sure of a good return will be generous in giving.

Moderation

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who is moderate does not become destitute.

True Friend

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

A friend is not a true friend unless he protects his friend on three occasions: (1) when the friend is experiencing adversity, (2) when he is absent, and (3) after he dies.

The Everlasting Deeds

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

What a big difference there is between two kinds of actions: an act whose pleasure passes away, but its (ill) consequence remains; and the act whose hardship passes away but its reward endures.

Missing The Opportunity

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

To miss an opportunity brings about grief.

Piety-Accompanied Actions

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Action that is accompanied by fear of Allah does not fail, and how can a thing fail when it is accepted?

Establishing The Orders Of Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

No one can establish the rule of Allah the Glorified except one who shows no relenting in the matter of the truth, who does not behave like wrongdoers, and who does not run after objects of greed.

Care

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Half of being old aged is caused by grief.

Consequence

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

There is consequence for each person, be it sweet or bitter.

Steadfastness

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The steadfast does not miss success even if it may take a long time.

Obedience

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

On you lies the obligation of obedience to the person about whom you cannot plead the excuse of ignorance.

Despotism

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who acts solely according to his own opinion will be ruined; and he who consults other people shares in their understanding.

Concealment Of Secrets

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

He who guards his secrets retains control in his own hands.

Poverty

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Poverty is the major death.

Befriending The Foolish

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Do not associate with a fool, because he will beautify his actions before you and he will hope that you too would be like him.

Lessons

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

How many the objects of lessons are, but how few the taking of lessons is!

Starvation of the poor

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Allah the Glorified has fixed the livelihood of the destitute in the wealth of the rich. Consequently, whenever a destitute remains hungry, it is because some rich person has denied him his share. Allah the Sublime will question them about it.

Partners

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

There are two partners in the property of every person: the heirs and the vicissitudes of time.

Speech

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Have your say so that you may be known, since man is hidden under his tongue.

Forbearance

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Forbearance is a defensive tribe.

Knowledge Seekers And Worldly Pleasures Seekers

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Two categories of gluttonous people will never be sated; a seeker of knowledge and a seeker of worldly pleasures.

Forbearance And Tolerance

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Forbearance and tolerance are twins and they are the product of high courage.

The Evilest Friends

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The worst friend is he for whom formality has to be observed.48

The Whole Asceticism

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

The whole asceticism is confined between two expressions of the Quran. Allah the Glorified says, ‘Lest distress you yourselves for what escapes you, and be over-joyous for what He has granted you.’ Whoever does not grieve over what he misses and does not revel over what comes to him acquires asceticism from both its sides.

Encouragement On Doing Kind Acts

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Do kind acts and do not regard any part of kindness as small, because its smallness is big and its littleness is much. No one of you should say that another person is more deserving than he is in doing kind acts. Otherwise, by Allah, it would really be so. There are people of kind acts and people of evil acts. When you leave either of the two, others will perform them.

Blessings Of Almighty Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Almighty Allah has particularized some of His servants with favors for benefiting the other people; therefore, He stays these favors in their hands so long as they give them to others; but when they deny them to others, He takes away the favors from them and sends them to others.

Modesty Of The Rich

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

How excellent it is for the rich to show humility before the poor for purpose of seeking reward from Allah! However, what is better than that is the haughtiness of the poor towards the rich that is based on their full confidence in Allah.

Fear Of Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Beware lest Allah sees you committing an act of disobedience to Him or misses you when it is time to do an act of obedience to Him; otherwise, you will be one of the losers. When you are strong enough, use your strength for obeying Allah, and when you are weak, be too weak to commit any act of disobedience to Allah.

Pursuit Of The Best Meaning

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Never deem evil any word that has been said by your brother-in-faith as long as you can find an acceptable excuse for it.

Moderate Care For The Family Members

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Do not devote much of your activity to your wife and your children, because if your wife and children are lovers of Allah, then He will not leave His lovers uncared for, and if they are enemies of Allah, then why should you worry and keep yourself busy about the enemies of Allah?

Beware Of Disobeying Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

Beware of disobeying Allah in solitude, because the witness of that situation is also the judge.

Serving Allah

Imam Ali (‘a) says,

A group of people worshipped Allah out of desire for reward. Surely, this is the worship of traders. Another group worshipped Allah out of fear. This is the worship of slaves. Still another group worshipped Allah out of gratefulness. This is the worship of free men.49

  • 1. Commenting on this word, Sharif Al-Radhi says, ‘This is the sentence whose value cannot be assessed, with which no wise saying can be weighed, and with which no other sentence can be matched.’
  • 2. Al-Tha’alibi, Al-Tamthil wa’l-Muhasarah, pp. 165.
  • 3. Al-Bayhaqi, Al-Sunan Al-Kubra 10:113.
  • 4. Nahj Al-Balaghah, Aphorism No. 172.
  • 5. Nahj Al-Balaghah, Aphorism No. 24.
  • 6. Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Bahjat Al-Majalis 3:301.
  • 7. Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Bahjat Al-Majalis 3:381.
  • 8. Ibn Taghri, Al-Nujum Al-Zahirah 8:257.
  • 9. Abu-kayyan Al-Tawhidi, Al-Ba•a'ir wa’l-Dhakha’ir, pp. 25.
  • 10. Nahj Al-Balaghah, Aphorism No. 2.
  • 11. Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Bahjat Al-Majalis 3:332.
  • 12. Abu-kayyan Al-Tawhidi, Al-Basa'ir wa’l-Dhakha’ir, pp. 155.
  • 13. tash Kubri Zadah, Miftah Al-Sa’adah wa-Misbah Al-Siyadah 1:49.
  • 14. Abu-Na’im, Hilyat Al-Awliya' 1:77.
  • 15. Yaqut Al-kamawi, Mu’jam Al-Udaba' 1:94.
  • 16. Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Bahjat Al-Majalis 1:115.
  • 17. Ibn Taghri, Al-Nujum Al-Zahirah 2:123.
  • 18. Abu-’Ali Al-Qali, Al-Amali 3:94.
  • 19. Abu-’Ali Al-Qali, Dhayl Al-Amali, pp. 174.
  • 20. Al-Jahis, Al-Bayan wa’l-Tabyin 1:297.
  • 21. Ibn Abd-Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Al-’Iqd Al-Farid 2:309.
  • 22. Ibn Abd-Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Al-’Iqd Al-Farid 2:310.
  • 23. Ibn Abd-Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Al-’Iqd Al-Farid 2:319.
  • 24. Ibn Abd-Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Al-’Iqd Al-Farid 2:281.
  • 25. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 4:157.
  • 26. Nahj Al-Balaghah, Aphorism No. 475.
  • 27. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 4:319
  • 28. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar. 4:140.
  • 29. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 2:28.
  • 30. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 2:50.
  • 31. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 2:57.
  • 32. Al-Jahis, Al-Rasa'il 1:253.
  • 33. Ibn Abd-Rabbih Al-Andalusi, Al-’Iqd Al-Farid 2:294.
  • 34. Abu-Bakr Al-Baghdadi, Akhlaq Hamalat Al-Quran, pp. 60.
  • 35. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 4:167.
  • 36. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 4:167.
  • 37. All the previous sayings that are not footnoted are quoted from Shaykh Al-Mufid’s Kitab Al-Irshad.
  • 38. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 4:245.
  • 39. Al-Qalqashandi, Subh Al-A’sha 7:267.
  • 40. Abu-Na’im, Hilyat Al-Awliya' 7:306.
  • 41. Ibn Abd Al-Barr, Bahjat Al-Majalis 1:221.
  • 42. tash Kubri Zadah, Miftah Al-Sa’adah wa-Misbah Al-Siyadah 1:54.
  • 43. Al-Jahis, Al-Bayan wa’l-Tabyin 2:88.
  • 44. Al-Jahis, Al-Bayan wa’l-Tabyin 2:111.
  • 45. Al-Zamakhshari, Rabi’ Al-Abrar 4:149.
  • 46. Abu-kayyan Al-Tawhidi, Al-Basa'ir wa’l-Dhakha’ir, pp. 37.
  • 47. All of the previous sayings that are not footnoted are quoted from Al-Tha’alibi’s Al- Tamthil wa’l-Muhasarah, pp. 30.
  • 48. Commenting on this aphorism, Sharif Al-Radhi says, ‘This is because formality is inseparable from hardship and it is an evil that is caused by a comrade for whom formality is observed. Consequently, he is the worst of all friends.’
  • 49. All the previous sayings that are not footnoted are quoted from Nahj Al-Balaghah.