Chapter 1: His Birth and Childhood

The unique aspect by which Islam has been distinguished from the rest of the other religions and social schools is that it has raised the slogan of equality. It has demolished the barriers among the people, adopted that in an effective way, prepared all its powers and abilities to apply that on the arena of life, regarded that as one of the elements of its civilization and an important factor in building its social structure.

According to Allah’s Law, people are as equal as the teeth of a comb. No one has a distinction over another and no people have superiority over another. They are on one level with respect to their rights and dignity; there is one distinction among them except through piety and good deeds that bring man near to his Lord, send him far from the factors of evil, the inclinations of recklessness and vainglory.

Islam has brought such beliefs bringing hearts together, uniting feelings and sentiments. On these principles the summons to Islam has been based; Islam has ordered its followers to kill with their swords those who intend to destroy such fundamentals lest there should be a gap through which their union and unity is divided.

The Umayyads turned away from this Islamic basic rule and carried a pickax to demolish it because it opposed their pagan inclinations and their class interests. So they with some mad powers tried to erase it from the Islamic life; this is clear in their going too far in dispraising and scolding those who married an Arab slave girl; they not only do that, but also they severely punished them.

One of their tyrannical governors came to know that a person belonged to Saleem’s tribe married a slave girl, he ordered him to be brought, whipped a hundred times, separated from his wife, his hair, his beard, and his eye-brows to be shaved.1

According to the Umayyads’ traditions, such a person committed a crime and caused mischief in the land and was worthy of punishment.

The Umayyads deprived the child of a slave girl of assuming any office in the state and undertaking any public job. They claimed that he had no qualification for it.2

Through this pagan thinking, the Umayyad tyrant, Hisham b. ‘Abd al-Malik, advanced as an argument against Zayd b. ‘Ali, the martyr of honor and refusal, saying to him: “I have been informed that you mention the caliphate and desire it. You are not entitled to it because you are the son of a slave girl.”

Zayd opposed him and aimed at him an arrow of his flowing reason, saying to him: “Surely, mothers do not prevent men from (achieving their) objectives. Ismail’s mother was Ishaq’s servant girl. Nevertheless, Allah sent him as a prophet, made him the father of the Arabs, and took out of his backbone the best of the prophets, Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his family.”3

When the Umayyads adopted this abominable policy contrary to the real Islam, Ahl al-Bayt opposed it through denying and defaming it. They hailed what their grandfather, the great Savor, may Allah bless him and his family, had brought such as just equality among the Muslims. They gave as clear, political examples of it to confirm it.

For example, Imam Zayn al-’Abidin freed a slave girl of his and married her. So his opponent ‘Abd al-Malik made use of this deed and began criticizing him. He sent him a letter in which he blamed him, saying: “Now then, I have heard that you have married your slave girl. You know that there are among Quraysh your equals through whom you are glorified in marring and begetting children; therefore, you have not thought of yourself, nor have you retained your children. Greetings.”

When the Imam received the letter, he read it and understood that there was a belief of paganism standing among its lines and words. So he, peace be on him, refuted him with his answer in which appeared the beliefs and objectives of Islam, saying: “Now then, I have received your letter in which you have scold me due to my marrying my slave-girl.

You have claimed that there are among the Quraysh women (equal to me) through whom I am glorified in marrying and begetting children. There is no glorious ascent and no generous increase higher than Allah’s Apostle, may Allah bless him and his family. She had been possessed by my right hand and has been freed by me through the command of Allah’s will, Mighty and Majestic be He.

Through her I have sought His reward. Then I have returned her according to His Law. Whoever is pure in his religion, none of his affairs bring him about a defect. Through Islam Allah has raised meanness, completed defect, and taken away blame; therefore, no blame is placed on a Muslim, but the blame is placed on al-Jahiliya (pre-Islamic beliefs).”4

These are the beliefs of Islam in respect with justice and equality. According to them, the real honor belongs to the obedience to Allah and cleaving to His religion, so he who educates his own self, prevents it from committing sins and the forbidden, and conforms to Allah’s religion is the unique person who has excellence in Islam. As for superiority through racism and the rest of the other material considerations, they are not included in the excellence and honor with Allah.

No one should harbor malice against the Imam when he married a Muslim slave-girl after he had emancipated her, for he through that did not oppose Allah’s Book, and the Sunna (practices) of His Prophet.

Surely, Islam has proudly and gloriously treated all Muslims equally, regarded the Muslim male as equal to the Muslim female, and abolished all the pagan distinctions. An example of that is that the great Prophet married his slave-girl, Zaynab, daughter of Jahsh, to his retainer Zayd b. Haritha, who was not equal to her in her social rank.

As for the story of Juwaybir, the destitute, the miserable, it is well-known and written in detail. Through this Islam has established a basic rule for the bond of marriage; it is based on the unity in religion and love in Allah.

When Islam spread in the first times and its brave mujahidin liberated many lands of the world to summon them to Allah, the movement and bringing of the slaves became very wide. We think that many kinds of such slaves were taken illegally, for the ruling authorities in those times did not observe the Islamic precepts in respect with them.

Anyway, Yethrib markets were full of slave traders who brought slaves to sell them; a street in Baghdad was called Slave Street5, in which slaves were shown and sold.

As for the attitude of Ahl al-Bayt toward those unfortunate slaves, it was merciful and kind to them. They bought some of them as possible as they could, and freed them for Allah’s sake. An example of that is that Ahmed b. Musa al-Kazim copied the Qur’an and bought it to buy for it some slaves and freed them for Allah’s sake; he freed a thousand slaves through his handwork.

The Imams not only showed kindness to them through releasing them, but they also held them through giving them a lot of money that they might be in no need of what was in the hand of the people; in this way they could get rid of slavery and poverty.

Imam Musa motivated and urged his companions to marry female slaves, saying: “Marry female slaves, for they have cleverness and intellects many women do not have.”6

Ahl al-Bayt not only were kind to slaves, but they also married female slaves to indicate that Islam had abolished discrimination and to destroy the severe measures taken by the Umayyads toward them.

Imam Musa’s mother was among those women brought to be sold in Yethrib market; Allah singled her with merit and honor through making her a container for the Imamate, virtue, and dignity.

As for how Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq got married, it has been narrated by b. ‘Akkasha al-Asadi. We will briefly mention his narration as follows:

“I (b.Akkasha) visited Imam Abu Ja’far al-Baqir, peace be on him. His son Abu ‘Abd Allah was standing before him to hand some grapes. ‘He turned to us to give us some teachings on the manners of having food, saying. The old man and the young boy must eat grapes one by one; those who think that they do not get full must eat it three or four (by three or four); and you eat it two by two because it is recommended.’”

Ibn ‘Akkasha said: “I looked at Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq and saw that he became a grown-up; I asked his father to marry him, saying: ‘My master, why do you not marry Abu ‘Abd Allah, for he has attained puberty.’ The Imam told me that he had decided that; there was a purse (of money) before him and he said to me: ‘A slave trader will come and stop at Maymun’s house; we will buy him (al-Sadiq) a slave- girl for this purse (of money).’”

The people left the Imam’s house. Shortly after that b. ‘Akkasha along with a group of his companions visited the Imam. When they had sat down, the Imam told them about the arrival of the slave-trader and the slave-girl. He asked them to buy the slave-girl for the purse they have seen before. They all arose and their hearts were full of happiness and delight. When they reached the slave trader, they asked him to show them the slaves he had.

He told them that he had no slave girl except two sick ones. They asked him to bring them and he did. They chose the one who was about to get well. He wanted to sell her for seventy dinars. They asked him to reduce her price, but he refused. They opened the purse and found seventy dinars wherein. They gave the money to him, took the slave-girl, and brought her to the Imam, who praised and lauded Allah, became happy and asked the slave-girl:

“What is your name?”

“Hamida,”7 she answered with a voice dripping shamefulness.

The Imam gave her a medal of honor and dignity, saying: “You are praiseworthy

(Hamida) in this world and praised (Mahmuda) in the hereafter.”

The Imam happily turned to his son and granted her to him.8 Abu ‘Abd Allah (al- Sadiq) married her; she was the dearest, most beloved, and preferred of all his wives to him.

The historians have differed over her name and origin: it was said that she was from al-Andulus and her nickname was Lu’lu’a.9 It was said that she belonged to the Berbers10 and was the daughter of Salih, al-Beriberi.11 It was said that she was Salih’s sister.12 Some historians believed that she was from Rome.13 It was said that she belonged to one of the greatest families of the non-Arabs.14 Many historians have neglected her lineage and not mention it.

Mrs. Hamida was generously treated in her house; the ‘Alawid women took care of her and respected her. Also Imam al-Sadiq did her a lot of favor, for he came to know that she had plentiful, perfect reason, and good faith. He greatly lauded her, saying: “Hamida is as purified from defilement as a gold ingot; the angels guarded her until she gave to me and the Imam after me a dignity from Allah.”15

This lady was righteous, pure and free from defects; the soul was full of faith and righteousness. Imam al-Sadiq supplied her with his knowledge to the extent that she became on top of the women of her time in knowledge, piety, and faith. He entrusted her with teaching the Muslim women the religious aspects.16

She was entitled to occupying this rank and to be the most brilliant of the women of her time in chastity, jurisprudence, and perfection.

The Blessed Baby

The time after the Imam’s marrying her lengthened, life was tranquil; house life was full of delights, prevailed by love, leaving formality, and avoiding bitter obscene language.

She became pregnant during that happy period of time; she was taken to Allah’s Sacred House by Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) when he went to perform the religious duty of the hajj. After they had finished the ceremonies of the hajj, they came back to Yethrib (Medina). When they reached al-Abwa’17, Hamida felt labor and she sent for the Imam telling him of the matter, for he had asked her not to precede him in respect with his child. Abu ‘Abd Allah al-Sadiq was having food along with a group of his companions. When he heard of the good news, he hurried to her.

Shortly after his arrival, Hamida gave birth to one of the masters of the Muslims and of the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt.

The world shone with this blessed baby like whom none was born at his time and was greater than him in bless, benefit, and favor toward Islam.

He was born (and his birthday) indicated that he would be the most pious of the people, the kindest of them to the poor, the greatest of them in tiredness and ordeals for Allah, the greatest of them in worship and fear of Allah.

Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) hurried and received his baby; he performed for him the religious ceremonies of birth; he said the adhan in his right ear and the iqama in his left ear.

The first picture Imam Musa saw was that of his father like whom there was none under the sky in highness, greatness and importance after his forefathers. The first word he heard was that of monotheism having the full meaning of faith.

Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq) returned to his companions smiling, so one of them asked him: “My master, may Allah make you glad and make us your ransom, what has Hamida done?”

The Imam gave them good news of his blessed baby telling them of his great affair, saying: “Allah has given a boy to me; he is the best of those Allah has created.”

Yes, he was the best of those Allah has created in knowledge, piety, rightness, and cleaving to the religion. Imam al-Sadiq informed his companions of that his son would be among the Imams of Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, to whom obedience Allah made incumbent on His servants, saying to them: “Follow him; by Allah, he will be your leader.”18

Imam Musa was born at al-Abwa’. It was said that he was born in Yethrib (Medina).19 This (narration) is contrary to the unanimous agreement of the historians. He was born in the year 128 A. H.20 it was said that he was born in the year 129 A. H.21 that was during the reign of ‘Abd al-Malik b. Merwan.

General Food

Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq), peace be on him, did not stay for a long time in al-Abwa’; rather he left it and headed for Yethrib (Medina). When he arrived in it, he immediately made a banquet to honor his baby; he gave food to the people for three days.22 His followers came to him, congratulated him on his blessed baby and took part in his delight and gladness.

His Pure Childhood

Imam Musa made general progress during his childhood. He sucked at the breast of faith and was brought up in the lap of Islam. Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq), peace be on him, fed him on his sympathy and kindness. He poured down upon him rays of his great soul, guided him to noble habits, and directed him to brilliant behavior. So during his early age all the elements of the Islamic education gathered in him to the extent that during his childhood he attained perfection and education none had ever attained.

Love and Honouring

Imam Musa made good progress during his childhood. He was tranquil and received life with welcome and honoring. Everyday his father showered him with his plentiful sympathy. The Muslim masses met him with care and honoring. Imam al-Sadiq, peace be on him, gave preference to him over the rest of his children; he showed toward him love he did not show toward any other than him.

Among the aspects of his love for him is that he gave him a piece of ground called al-Basariya, which he had bought for twenty-six thousand dinars.23 He was asked about the extent of love for him and he answered: “I wish that I had no child other than him lest none should take part in my love for him.”24

While still young, Imam Musa said some words that amazed his father, who said: “Praise belongs to Allah Who has made you as a successor instead of the forefathers, a delight in the place of the children, and a substitute for the friends.”25

The Shi’ites believe that the office of the Imamate is like that of the prophethood irrespective of favoritism, zeal out of the sentiment of love, except confirming virtue and praising faith.

Accordingly Imam Abu ‘Abd Allah (al-Sadiq), peace be on him, declared his strong love and firm affection for his son. For he came to know that he was a real copy of him in talent and genius. Besides he came to know that he would be the Imam after him over the community of his grandfather.

His Features

The narrators of traditions have described Imam Musa’s features, saying: “He was very brunet.”26 It was said that he had a black color.27 It was said that he had a bright color, of medium height, and had a thick beard.28 Shaqiq al-Balakhi has described him, saying: “He had a good face, was very brunet and weak-bodied.”

His Veneration and Esteem

Imam Musa had veneration similar to that of the prophets. The features of the pure Imams from among his forefathers appeared on his face. When some saw him, he respected and admired him. His veneration and esteem was described by Abu Nu’as, the poet of the ‘Abbasid royal palace, when he met him on the road, saying:

If the eye sees you without doubt and doubt opposes you, the heart will confirm you.

And if some riders appoint you as an Imam, your knowledge will lead them, so the riders see guidance through you.

I have made you as my sufficiency in my affairs, and he whose sufficiency is you does not fail.29

These poetry lines are one of the gushes of the soul and one of the kinds of awareness of living conscience. That is because Abu Nu’as spent the days of his life in amusement and impudence and lived on the dining tables of the ‘Abbasids.

He showed this sweet-smelling praise toward the Ahl al-Bayt at the time when someone praised them faced punishment and displeasure. He was urged to declare such praise by the Imam’s reality and ideals of which there was no like during his time.

The lights of the Imam dazzled the poet of al-Ma’arra, Abu al-’Ala, and he composed a poem on lamenting Abu Ahmed, the Imam’s grandson, saying:

Because of his majesty in the soul, your grandfather, Musa, is regarded as the character in Surat al-’Araf.30

Abu al-’Ala had no good opinion of anyone, nor did he praise anyone unless he tested him and came to know of his reality, but when he heard of Imam Musa and knew that he was unique, he praised and described him.

The Inscription of his ring

As for the inscription of his ring, it displays that he cleaved to Allah and devoted himself to Him. It is as follows: “The kingdom belongs to Allah only.”31

His Kunyas

(His kunyas are): Abu al-Hasan, Abu al-Hasan al-Madi, Abu Ibrahim, Abu ‘‘Ali, Abu Isma’il.

His Nicknames

As for his nicknames, they indicate the aspects of his personality and sides of his greatness; they are as follows:

Al-Sabir (The Patient)

Because he was patient toward the pain and the misfortunes he met form the tyrannical rulers, who punished him severely and treated him with all kinds of wrong and detested things.

Al-Zahir (The Brilliant)

Because he was brilliant through his holy ethics and his bright generosity through which he represented the ethics of his grandfather, the Messenger, may Allah bless him and his family.

Al-Abdal-Salih (The pious worshipper)

He was given the nickname of al-’Abd al-Salih because of his (too much) worship and exertion in obedience (to Allah) to the extent that proverbs were coined about him throughout times and generations. He is famous for this nickname with the narrators of hadith; those who narrated on his authority said: “Al-’Abd al-Salih has related to me.”

Al-Sayyid (The Master)

Because he was one of the Muslim masters and one of their Imams; due to this nickname he was praised by the famous poet, Abu al-Fath who says:

I am the servant of the noble master; wherever I am, he is given my best regards. And if I am the servant of the noble, then I am free and the time is my servant.32

Al-Wafi (The Faithful)

Because he was the most faithful human being who was created in his time; he was loyal and kind to his companions and followers; rather he was loyal even to his opponents and those who harbored malice against him.

Al-Amin (The Trusted one)

He was trusted in the full meaning of the word; rather his great personality was full of trust-he was entrusted with the affairs and precepts of the religion and with the affairs of the Muslims. He gained this nickname just as his grandfather, the great Prophet, had gained it and attained through it the confidence of all the people.

Qa‘idal- Askar (The Commander of the Troops)

Among his nicknames is Qa’id al-’Askar.33 Shaikh ‘Abbas al-Gummi, Thiqatual Islam and a famous researcher, may Allah make bloom his grave, has said: “The reason for giving such a nickname to the Imam, peace be on him, is that he represented al-Mansur on the Day of al-Nouruz. Meanwhile the troops and their commanders paid a visit to him. None of his forefathers and sons had undertaken such a ceremony, so he was given this nickname on this occasion.”34

Al-Kazim (The Restrained)

He was given this nickname because he restrained his anger toward those wrongdoers who severely punished him and subjected him to exhaustion, to the extent that he died a martyr of poison in a dark prison. He did not show his pain and sorrows to anyone; rather he thanked Allah for that. Ibn al-Athir has said: “He (Musa) is known for this nickname due to his patience, gentleness, and repelling evil with kindness.”35

Dhual-Nafsal-Zakiya (The one with pure Soul)

He was given this nickname because he had a clear soul which was not spoiled by neither the sins of life nor by the defilement of material, to the extent that it became high and unique.

Babal-Hawaijj (The Gate of Need)

This is the greatest of his nicknames in mentioning, the most famous of them in circulation and spreading. The non-Shi’a and the Shi’a know well that when a distressed or a sad person visit the grave of Musa, Allah relieves his pain and sorrows, and that when someone seeks sanctuary in his holy shrine, his needs are granted.

He returns home cool-hearted and tranquil, free from sudden events and the calamities of days. All Shi’a, rather all Muslims, of different classes and tendencies, believe in that; for example, Shaykh and head of the Hanbalis, says: “When a certain matter worries me, and I visit the grave of Musa b. Ja’far, Allah, the Exalted, make easy to me what I like.”36

Imam al-Shafi’i says: “The grave of Musa b. Ja’far is a tried antidote.”37

The disasters of time and misfortunes of days overburdened a group of poets and writers, so they resorted to him and sought refuge with his shrine asking Allah through him to raise their ordeals, to remove their tribulation and detested things, so Allah remove that from them. We have read many of their eloquent poems.

If we want to mention all their poems, then we have to write a big book; but we will mention some of them. Among them is al-hajj Muhammad Jewad al-Baghdadi, who visited the grave of the Imam asking him for granting his need, saying:

O he who is the namesake of the epithet of Moses, I have come to you walking toward your grave and intending (to visit you) from my homeland.

Our needs are not granted except through the Gate of Hope, al-Jewad’s grandfather.

Ayat Allah al-’Uzma Aal Bahr al-’Ulum, Sayyid Mahdi Aal Bahr al-’Ulum, May

Allah light his grave, have hemstitched the above-mentioned two lines, saying:

O he who is the namesake of the epithet of Moses, I have come to you walking while love is my mount and love for you is my provisions.

Harm has afflicted me; my poverty has made me head for your grave intending (to visit you) from my homeland.

Our needs are not granted except through the usual Gate of Needs, near the see of generosity, at the Gate of Hope, al-Jewad’s grandfather.38

‘Abbas al-Baghdadi, the orator, has made them five, saying:

You are still doing well to mankind, giving sanctuary to him who comes to you and take care (of him).

If the vast space is unable to bear me, O namesake of the epithet of Moses, I will come to you running; and love is my mount and love for you is my provisions.

You are rain for those who have no rain; were it not for your abundant knowledge, existence would vanished.

I swear by Him Who is Exalted and Almighty, needs are not granted for us except at the Gate of Hope, al-Jewad’s grandfather.

Yet another example of those who composed poetry on this subject is the great, genius poet, the late Sayyid ‘Abd al-Baqi al-’Umary, who says:

If your affairs become narrow or difficult, resort to Abu al-Ridha’, Musa b. Ja’far, al- Jewad’s grandfather; seek refuge with him and use him as a means (for granting your needs).39

During his lifetime, Imam Musa was a place of flight and shelter for all Muslims. After his death, he is also an invincible fortress for those who seek refuge with him. For Allah, may His name be exalted, has gifted him with granting the needs of those who seek refuge with his shrine; to this meaning Thabit al-Wa’iz has referred in his poem in which he has praised Yehya b. Ja’far, Abu al-Fadhl:

Yehya b. Ja’far is in the eastern side, and Musa b. Ja’far is in the western side.

That intercedes with Allah, the Generous, for us, and this (intercedes) with the pure Imam (for us).40

Most Muslims believe that Allah removes affliction and harm through resorting to the shrine of the Imam, peace be on him. Al-Khatib al-Baghdadi reported a story on the authority of an eye-witness who saw a woman who lost her mind and was very worried because she was told that her son had committed a crime. The local authority had arrested and imprisoned him; the woman began running toward the shrine of Imam Musa seeking refuge with it; a rogue who did not believe in the Imam asked her: “Where to?”

“To Musa b. Ja’far,” she replied, “for my son has been imprisoned.” “Surely, he has died in prison,” explained the rogue sneeringly.

His words hurt the woman and she said with pain: “O Allah, show me your power by him who has been killed in prison!”

Allah responded to her prayer- her son was released and the mocker’s son was imprisoned due to the crime ascribed to the former.41 In this manner, Allah wanted to show her His power and to show to that person the dignity of the Imam with Allah.

I (the author) personally was afflicted by one of the ordeals of the world and was about to fold my life, so I hurried to the shrine of Imam Musa, peace be on him, with a good intention, so Allah relived me and removed what had afflicted me. No one has doubt about this aspect by which the Imam has been marked except those who have doubt about their religion and Islam.

Since the dawn of history, the Muslims have believed in this (quality of the Imam) and thought without doubt that Ahl al-Bayt, peace be on them, have a noble position with Allah, that tribulation is repelled through them, and that Allah is asked for rain through them. Just as Jabir b. ‘Abd Allah (al-Ansari) said during his talk with Imam ‘‘Ali b. al-Husayn, peace be on him; praising Imam Zayn al- ‘Abidin, al-Farazdaq says in his poem called al-’Asma’:

He belongs to the people for whom love is religion, toward whom showing hatred is unbelief, to whom nearness is a refuge and place of preservation.

Evil and affliction are driven away through love for them; kindness and favors are increased through it.

Surely their graves are shelter and refuge for askers.

Al-Jawahry says:

Those who have installed their houses and their graves as guide for those who ask about the generous.

Those who have effaced the darkness of ignorance and showed the lamp of reason.42

Allah has gifted them with His favors and distinguished them by a great position, whether they are dead or alive.

  • 1. Al-Aghani, vol. 4, p. 150.
  • 2. Al-’Aqd al-Fereed, vol. 4., p. 160.
  • 3. Ibn al-Atheer, al-Kamil, vol. 5, p. 84.
  • 4. ‘Ayan al-Shi’a, vol. 4, p. 480.
  • 5. Murjj al-Dhahab, vol. 3, p. 316.
  • 6. Al-Ithaf bi Hub al-Ashraf, p. 55.
  • 7. Al-Nefha al-’Anbariya, p. 15. It is a handwritten book and is available in the Public Library of Imam Kashif al-Ghta’. It has been mentioned in it that her name was Nabbata.
  • 8. Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 476. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 11, p. 232.
  • 9. Mir’at al-’Uqool, vol. 1, p. 451. Ma’lim al-’Ittra.
  • 10. Keshf al-Ghumma, vol. 3, p. 2.
  • 11. A’lam al-Wara. Bihar al-Anwar. In al-Menaqib vol. 4, p. 323, her name is Hamida al-Musaffat (the purified one), daughter of Sa’id al-Berberi.
  • 12. Mukhtasar Akhbar al-Kulafa’, p. 39.
  • 13. Al-Sayyid Damin b. Shaddqam, Tuhfat al-Azhar wa Zulal al-Anhar. It is a handwritten book and is available in the Library of Imam Kashif al-Ghita’.
  • 14. Al-Anwar al-Behiyya, p. 87.
  • 15. Bihar al-Anwar, vol., 11, p. 232. Usool al-Kafi, vol. 1, p. 477. A’yan al-Shi’a, second part of vol. 4, p. 5.
  • 16. Al-Anwar al-Behiyya, p. 78.
  • 17. Al-Abwa’ is a village in Medina. The gave of the pure one Amina b. Wahab, mother of the great Prophet, may Allah bless him and his family, is in it. It was said that it was called al-Abwa’ because many epidemics happened in it. Thabit, a linguist, said that it was named al-Abwa’ because it was full of floods. This justification is good. Mu’jam al-Buldan, vol. 1, p.92.
  • 18. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 11, p. 230. Dela’il al-Imama.
  • 19. Wafayat al-A’yan, vol. 4, p. 395.
  • 20. Tehdhib al-Tehdhib, vol. 10, p. 34. Al-Tebeqat al-Kubra, vol. 1, p. 33. Noor al-Abbsar, p. 135. Al- Menaqib, vol. 4, 323. Keshf al-Ghumma, vol. 3, p. 2.
  • 21. A’yan al-Shi’a, vol. 4, p. 3. It has been mentioned in Tuhfat al-Azhar that he was born before the rise of dawn of Tuesday, in the month of Sefer, in the year 127 A. H. It has been mentioned in Behar al-Ansab that he was born on Sunday, Sefer 7. A narration similar to this has been mentioned in the book al-Durus
  • 22. A’yan al-Shi’a, vol. 4, p. 3.
  • 23. Dela’il al-Imama, pp. 49-50.
  • 24. Al-Ithaf bi Hub al-Ashraf, p. 54.
  • 25. Bihar al-Anwar, vol. 11, p. 237.
  • 26. Ibn al-Sebbagh, al-Fusool al-Muhimma. Akhbar al-Duwal, p. 112.
  • 27. ‘Umdat al-Talib, p. 185. Al-Nefha al-’Anberiya, p. 15. In it the author has added that he was self- possessed and open handed
  • 28. A’yan al-Shi’a, vol. 4, p. 9.
  • 29. Al-Menaqib, vol. 4, p. 318.
  • 30. Seqeta al-Zind.
  • 31. Akhbar al-Duwal, p. 112.
  • 32. Ibid., p. 133.
  • 33. Tuhfat al-Azhar wa Zulal al-Anhar.
  • 34. Al-Kuna wa al-Alqab, vol. 1, p. 167.
  • 35. Mukhteser Tarikh al-’Arab, p. 209.
  • 36. Tarikh Baghdad, vol. 1, p. 120. Al-Shi’a wa al-Tarikh.
  • 37. Tuhfat al-’Alam, vol. 2, p. 20.
  • 38. Al-Sayyid Mehdi Behr al-’Uloom, Divan. It is a handwritten book and is available in the Library of al-’Allama al-Sayyid Sadiq Behr al-’Uloom.
  • 39. ‘Abd al-Baqi, Divan, p. 133.
  • 40. Al-Nijoom al-Zahira.
  • 41. Tarikh Baghdad.
  • 42. Al-Jewahiri, Divan, vol. 3, pp. 177-178.