From all of that which has been mentioned, we reach to this conclusion that the issue of love and hate and specifically the act of malediction is not only something which is allowed in Islam, rather, it is one of the societal requirements and is one of the ways to encourage people towards the truth and realities of Islam, and it is a mechanism by way the masses are kept away from corruption and destruction.

How is it possible that a person refrains from renouncing those who are worthy of being repudiated whereas God, the Most High, says in the Qur’an:

قَدْ كَانَتْ لَکُمْ أُسْوَةٌ حَسَنَةٌ فِي إِبْرَاهِيمَ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ إِذْ قَالُوا لِقَوْمِهِمْ إِنَّا بُرَآءُ مِنْکُمْ وَمِمَّا تَعْبُدُونَ مِنْ دُونِ اللهِ كَفَرْنَا بِکُمْ وَبَدَا بَيْنَنَا وَبَيْنَکُمُ الْعَدَاوَةُ وَالْبَغْضَآءُ أَبَداً

“There is certainly a good exemplar for you in Abraham and those who were with him, when they said to their own people, ‘Indeed we repudiate you and whatever you worship besides God. We disavow you, and between you and us there has appeared enmity and hate forever….”1

However it must be noted that some companions of the Messenger of Allah (S)- meaning those who accepted the call to Islam and went through extreme pressures while in Mecca and resorted to various means in order to safeguard their religion, and even the Muslims who after the migration to Medina shed their blood to water this new-sapling called Islam in the initial wars, as well as the individuals who after the death of the Messenger of Allah (S) said farewell to their homes and possessions and went forth in the sacred struggle – all of these groups of individuals are to be congratulated, honoured and respected.

Similar to a candle, they “burnt” while trying to give light to their surroundings – and no Muslims have a difference of opinion in regards to these self-sacrificing individuals, who were true and noble companions.

Rather, the debate and examination is in regards to the other companions of the Prophet (S) - because of the fact that they were not flawless. When they intentionally performed a sin and fit into the criteria for one who is worthy of having malediction evoked upon them – then what is the religious ruling on passing judgement over such individuals?

Naturally, the ruling of such people, as it would be for anyone other than them who are in the same position of committing such an act is the same [and thus they should and must be open to critique and criticism when they openly and intentionally violate the Islamic laws].

Therefore, if the Shiʿa seek to distance themselves from an identifiable group of “companions” of the Noble Prophet (S) then it is not because they are considered as “companions”; rather, evoking the malediction of God upon this limited group of individuals known as the “companions” is due to the fact that even though they saw the Prophet (S), and were able to benefit from him and his magnanimous status, however they actively and consciously decided to stay in their state of spiritual negligence and to act against the orders and commandments of the Noble Prophet (S) such that they deserve that the Muslims distance themselves from them – as the Noble Qur’an has stated:

إِنَّ الَّذِينَ يُؤْذُونَ اللهَ وَرَسُولَهُ لَعَنَهُمُ اللهُ فِي الدُّنْيا وَالآخِرَةِ وَأَعَدَّ لَهُمْ عَذاباً مُهِيناً

“Indeed those who torment God and His Apostle are cursed by God in this world and in the Hereafter, and He has prepared a humiliating punishment for them.”2

Therefore, if one of the “companions” of Prophet Muhammad (S) did something which led to the Prophet (S) being tormented, then that companion would definitely be found guilty of the infraction mentioned in the verse quoted above, just like if anyone other than one of the companions was to possess any of the traits which would make him worthy of having the mercy of God be removed from him.

Further, he too would definitely be worthy of having the malediction of God inflicted upon him – and of course in Islam, there is no discrimination when it comes to such things – all are equal in front of the law.

It is with this said that the Shiʿa employ the concept of evoking the malediction of God upon certain “companions” who were sources of corruption in the Muslim society - not only during their own era, but even after they left this world and up until the Day of Judgement.

  • 1. Al-Qurʾan, Suratul Mumtahina (60), verse 4
  • 2. Al-Qur’an, Suratul Ahzab (33), verse 57