Table of Contents



afdhal meritorious

ahkam decrees or injunctions; plural of hukm

ahwat greater precaution or care

Arafat the 9th day of Dhul Hijjah when the pilgrims assemble at the place outside Makkah, known as the plain of Arafat

asr afternoon

aqwa (what is) stronger or more forceful

ashwat rounds or turns; plural of shawt


badhl gift, present

Badhli Hajj Gifting of Hajj; sending someone on Hajj as a way of generosity

Bayt Allah al-Haram The Sacred House of Allah


dhibh slaughtering, animal sacrifice


Eid al-Qurban Feast of Sacrifice celebrated on 10th Dhul Hijjah


faridhah an indispensable religious duty

fuqaha jurisprudents

fusuq disobedience to the commends of God; committing sins


ghayr ul-mahram one who is not mahram

ghusl ritual bathing


hadath akbar major impurity requiring ghusl

hadath asghar minor impurity requiring wudhu

hady animal sacrifice, sacrificial offering

haidh menstruating

Hajar al-Aswad The Black Stone

Hajj pilgrimage

Hajjat ul-Islam the obligatory Hajj pilgrimage in Islam

Hajji pilgrim

Hajj Miqati Hajj, which starts from one of the mawaqit or the specified places where pilgrims are required to assemble

Hajj Nyabi pilgrimage performed on one's behalf

halal permitted; religiously lawful

halq complete shaving of the head

haram prohibited; religiously unlawful

Haram sanctuary, sacred precincts

harwalah with a fast pace

haydh menstruation

hijab Islamic mode of dressing and covering for women

Hijr Ismail The semicircular 1.3 meter high wall on the northern side of the Kabah, where Ismail and his mother Hajar are buried

Hujjaj pilgrims

hukm religious decree or injunction acts of worship


ibadat acts of worship

idhn permission

idhtirar exigency; urgency; emergency need

idhtirari based on exigency, exigent, emergency

ihram state of pilgrim sanctity, which a pilgrim of Hajj or Umrah assumes on reaching miqat

ihtiyat precaution, reservation

ikhtiyar choice

ikhtiyari based on choice, optional

istidar circular

istighfar seeking forgiveness

istihbab considering an act as mustahabb; recommendable

istitaah capability

itmam reciting the prayer completely as opposed to the shortened prayer of the traveller


jidal quarrelling, swearing

janabah major ritual impurity caused by sexual intercourse or the like

jabirah wudhu a special kind of ablution for one who has bandages or the like on the parts that should be washed during wudhu

junub one who is in the state of janabah


kaffarah expiation, atonement

khums one-fifth levy

kifayah being sufficient, sufficiency, competence, capability

kurr water weighing about 384 kilograms which does not become najis if nijasah reaches it


Madinah Medina

ma fil-dhimmah an act or deed that is incumbent on the pilgrim and should duly be discharged

maghreb sunset

mahram Relations with whom marriage is not permissible such as father, mother, step father, step mothers, sons, daughters, brothers, sisters, grandfathers, grandmothers, grandsons, granddaughters, maternal or paternal uncles and aunts, nieces, nephews, grand nephews and grand nieces, father law and mother law, son law and daughter law, wet nurses, etc. Consequently husband and wife are considered Mahram to each other

Makkah Mecca

mal al-ijarah wages paid to a person hired as a naib

Marja Taqlid Religious Authority for following such as the Chief Jurisprudent

masjid mosque

mataf place for (conducting) the tawaf

mawaqit the places permissible for halting

mawaqit plural of miqat

miqat a number of stations outside Makkah from where the pilgrims intending Hajj or Umrah assume ihram

mubah permissible; allowed

mudd dry measure equal to 800 grams

muharramat acts and things that are religiously unlawful

muhill one who has been relieved from ihram, non-muhrim

muhrim a pilgrim in the state of ihram

mukallaf one who has reached the age of takleef

mustahabb desirable though not obligatory; recommended

mustahsan praiseworthy; commendable

mustati a person possessing capability (istitaah)

muwalat continuity without break


nadhr vow

nafaqah maintenance; necessary living expenses

nafelah prayer supererogatory prayer

naib deputy

najis ritual unclean

nifas puerperal period

nijasah ritual uncleanness

niyabah deputation

niyyah intention


qadha settling a wajib act which had not been performed in time, not performed but due

qaleel little in quantity, less than kurr

qasr reciting two rakah instead of the 4 rakah prayer during a journey exceeding 23 Kms

qiraah the recitation of the Quran in the prayer


rakah unit of the length of prayer

ramy threefold throwing of stones at al-jamarat or symbolic satans

rukn essential part or pillar


sajdah prostration

shawt round, turn


taharah purity, cleanness

tahlil relief from the state of ihram

takleef age in which one becomes mature and thus responsible for performing Islamic duties

taqsir partial shortening of the hair on the head

tashriq period the three days following Eid al-qurban

tawaf sevenfold circumambulation of the Kabah

tayammum statutory dry ablution with soil, sand, etc.


udul change of purpose by the naib

Umrah (in common usage) visit, (in religious texts) paying a visit to the Bayt Allah al Haram (the Sacred House of Allah, i.e. the Holy Kabah)

Umrah- Mufradah Umrah performed independently of Hajj


wajab span

wajib religiously obligatory

wajib Hajj obligatory pilgrimage

Wajib ul-Hajj one for whom Hajj has become obligatory

wajibat obligatory acts and deeds

wali guardian, heir

wikalah deputation

wudhu ablution with water

wujub obligation

wujuh shareeyah religiously due sums, religious payments

wuquf stop, halt

wuqufayn the two stays


zawal time when the sun crosses the meridian

ziyarah visit

zuhr noon