Rites Of Hajj At-Tamattu
Upon completion of Umrah, it is obligatory for the mukallaf to get into the state of ihram for Hajj at-Tamattu.
If he makes niyyah for Hajj at-Tamattu and pronounces the wajib labbayks (as already mentioned in the part on ihram for Umrah), he would become a muhrim and does not need to make the intention for ihram and for abstaining from the muharramat. He should not make the intention of doing anything that would invalidate the ihram.
Niyyah should be pure and sincere to satisfy Almighty Allah (SwT). Hypocrisy would invalidate the Hajj at-Tamattu.
Getting into the state of ihram and pronouncing labbayk is the same as mentioned in regard to ihram for Umrah.
Everything presented as muharramat for ihram is also haram in the ihram for Hajj at-Tamattu. Likewise, all which required kaffarah there would also need kaffarah in the Hajj at-Tamattu.
Time is ample for ihram. The pilgrim can delay it so long as he still has time for ikhtiyari wuquf in Arafah after ihram. He cannot delay it further.
Ihram for Hajj should be done in any part of Makkah, even in the newly built districts. Nevertheless, ihram in the Masjid al-Haram is afdhal.
The same precept, which applies to one who has not got into the state of ihram due to forgetfulness, applies to the person who fails to have ihram due to unawareness.
Hajj will be invalidated if a person knowingly and intentionally postpones ihram until the time for wuquf in Arafat and Mashar is over.
Question 1: The distance between some newly built districts of Makkah and the Masjid al-Haram is more than 18 kilometers. These might conventionally be deemed as suburbs of Makkah, not as parts of it, since traffic signs indicate the direction of Makkah. Is it then possible to become muhrim for Hajj at the aforementioned districts?
Answer: There is no problem if they are the districts of Makkah. But if they are not Makkah's districts or if there is doubt about this, the pilgrim should avoid becoming a muhrim at these sites.
Wuquf is obligatory in Arafat, which is a famous place with commonly known bounds, with pure intention, as is the case of other acts of worship.
Based on the ahwat, wuquf in Arafat should commence at the zawal until maghreb. The pilgrim might be allowed delay from the zawal to recite the zuhr and asr prayers and make the preliminaries.
It is obligatory to be in Arafat from midday until sunset on the same day. But as already indicated, this is not entirely rukn to invalidate the Hajj if abandoned. Therefore, if the pilgrim engages in a brief wuquf, departs, and returns in the afternoon for wuquf, his Hajj will be correct, even if he deliberately and knowingly abstains from wuquf.
Mere presence in Arafat is the rukn for wuquf. This presence might be very brief such as one minute or two; therefore, if one does not at all go to Arafat, he has abstained from a rukn.
If one intentionally and knowingly dispenses with the rukni wuquf (namely if he does not have any presence in Arafat from midday until sunset), his Hajj will be invalidated.
If he deliberately departs from Arafat before sunset and leaves its precincts, he has committed a haram act. If he becomes repentant, returns, and engages in wuquf until sunset, he will not have to embark upon compensation.
If, however, he does not return, he should offer a camel as kaffarah to be sacrificed in the way of Almighty Allah (SwT) at any place. Based on ihtiyat mustahabb (recommended precaution), he should sacrifice the camel in Mina and on the day of Eid al-Qurban and his Hajj will be correct. If this is beyond his means, he should fast for 18 days.
If he mistakenly leaves Arafat, he should return before the time expires. If he realizes his mistake but does not return, he will be a sinner, yet he does not have to pay kaffarah. If he does not realize his mistake until the time expires, he does not have to offer kaffarah.
The same decree applies who leaves Arafat due to ignorance.
Realization of the obligatory stay (wajib wuquf) and not the rukni wuquf is the standard to measure the time for wuquf in Arafat, which converts the Hajj.
After completing wuquf in Arafat when the sun sets on the 9th of Dhul Hijjah, the pilgrim should go the Mashar al-Haram, which is a well-known place with specific limits.
After leaving Arafat, based on precaution, he should spend the night preceding the Eid al- Qurban until daybreak of the Eid in the Mashar al-Haram with the intention of submitting to the will of Almighty Allah (SwT) in spending the night there.
In the morning of Eid al-Qurban, he should make niyyah for wuquf in the Mashar al-Haram until sunrise. This is the extent of wajib wuquf. As this wuquf is an act of worship for Almighty Allah (SwT), it should be based on sincere niyyah without engaging in hypocrisy and show-off.
Those having excuses, such as women, children, the ailing people, old men, the physically weak and those who need nurses and guides, can leave the Mashar al-Haram for Mina after some halt in the Mashar at night.
Ramy of Jamarat al-Aqaba refers to throwing pebbles at the symbolic Satans that are located in Mina.
The pilgrim should use pebbles for ramy. These should not be very small such as gravel. Nor should they be very large. The pebbles should be of stone not of other material like clod, potsherd, and gems. However, different types of stones, even marble, can be used.
The pebbles should belong to the Mashar al-Haram, and those outside the Mashar are not acceptable.
The pebbles must be new, that is to say they should not have been used for ramy in the past years.
The pebbles must be mubah; therefore, usurped pebbles or those procured by others for personal use are not sufficient.
Ramy should be done from sunrise until sunset of the day of Eid al-Qurban. If the pilgrim forgets to perform the ramy on this day, he can carry it out until the 13th. If he cannot carry it out by then, he should, based on necessary precaution, carry it out in person or through deputation. The following year, he or his naib should perform its qadha.
Several things are obligatory in ramy:
a. Niyyah, which should be sincere without hypocrisy or show-off, both of which invalidate the ramy.
b. The pebbles should be thrown. Going close to the jamarah and placing the pebbles on it would not be sufficient.
c. The pebbles, being thrown, should hit the jamarah.
d. Each ramy must be carried out using seven pebbles.
e. The pebbles should be gradually and consecutively thrown. In this case, there would be no problem if they hit the jamarah at the same time. But all or a few of the pebbles should not be thrown at the same time, even if they consecutively rather than simultaneously hit the jamarah.
If the pilgrim throws a pebble but does not hit the jamarah, he should throw it anew, even though at the time of ramy he conceived that the pebbles had hit the jamarah. Therefore, if there are other things installed close to the jamarah and he has mistakenly thrown the pebbles at them, the ramy should be repeated, even if next year and by the pilgrim's naib.
Those who have excuses not to engage in ramy during the day can perform it anytime at night.
One who performs the Hajj at-Tamattu should offer a hady (i.e. a camel or a cow, or a sheep) for dhibh. Camel is preferable.
Apart from the aforementioned three animals, other animals do not meet the requirements of dhibh.
Several points apply to the hady:
a. It should be free of any defect
b. It should have all bodily organs
c. Its inner horn should not be broken
d. It should not be thin
e. It should not be castrated
It is not a condition for the hady to have unmutilated testicles, unless it reaches the point of castration. All bodily organs such as testicles and ears or horns and tail that are natural to the relevant animals should be found in the hady; otherwise, it would be regarded as defective. The hady does not have to be young.
If the hady is a camel, it should have entered its sixth year. If the hady is a cow, based on necessary precaution, it should have entered its third year. The same applies to a goat. Based on necessary precaution, an ewe should have entered its second year.
Dhibh should be per after ramy jamarah.
Based on necessary precaution, dhibh of hady should be performed on the day of Eid al-Qurban and not afterwards.
If due to an excuse, such as forgetfulness or others, he forgets to perform the dhibh on the day of Eid al-Qurban, he should, based on necessary precaution, engage in dhibh during the tashriq period. If not possible, dhibh should be carried out in the remaining days of the month of Dhul Hijjah.
If the pilgrim engages in dhibh of a hady which he conceives to be sound and healthy and later realizes that it was sick or names (defective or having some bodily deficiencies) his dhibh will not suffice and he has to do it all over again if he can afford it.
Based on necessary precaution, the naib for dhibh should be a Shiite, unless the pilgrim himself makes the niyyah for dhibh and hires a naib only to perform the dhibh.
Dhibh is also an act of worship and entails pure niyyah to submit to the will of Almighty Allah (SwT).
It is not permissible to deliberately delay the dhibh until after the day of Eid al-Qurban, unless there is an ahwat. But if the pilgrim intentionally, unknowingly, or mistakenly delays it, he should offer the dhibh during the tashriq period.
Based on precaution, the person who has accepted the niyabah of the mukallaf should personally conduct the dhibh.
Under the present conditions, offering the sacrifice at the new places for slaughter is correct and permissible.
If a man offers the dhibh on behalf of his wife or another person without having their wikalah and supposing to have implicit permission from them, the dhibh will not be correct. Based on necessary precaution, he should not suffice with the dhibh of the naib if prior permission has not been obtained from the one who hired the naib.
Iron and stainless steel (knives) should be used for dhibh. If the pilgrim doubts whether the knife or other instruments are made of iron or not, he should come to a certainty (and then perform the dhibh).
Question 1: What duty is shouldered by a person who has given his sheep to a non-believer for dhibh and who has performed halq and other subsequent rites and then realised that a non- believer has conducted dhibh for him?
Answer: There is no need to perform dhibh all over again if the naib is hired for the mere practice of dhibh. But if the naib had niyabah for both the practice of the dhibh and the niyyah for dhibh, it should be performed all over again. Then halq and other subsequent rites will be correct.
Question 2: What happens if a person mistakenly, unintentionally, or unknowingly fails to observe the specific order of the rites of the day of Eid al-Qurban?
Answer: It is obligatory to observe the specified order of the Mina rites. This order cannot be intentionally abandoned. If, however, one had not followed the order, obviously it is not obligatory for him to repeat the rites he had performed without observing order. But order should be observed based on precaution.
Question 3: What should be done if after dhibh and before or after completing the remaining Hajj rites, the pilgrim realizes that the age of the hady was less than required?
Answer: He should offer dhibh anew.
After dhibh, each mukallaf has the choice to either shave his head or shorten his, nail or hair.
Women should cut some locks of their hair or clip nails and should not shave their heads. Based on the ahwat, women should both clip their nails and cut some locks of their hair.
One who has gone on Hajj for the first time has the choice to either shave his head or perform taqsir. But based on the ahwat complete shaving of the head (halq) should be carried out.
Shaving the head and taqsir, being acts of worship, should be carried out with pure intention to submit to the Will of Almighty Allah (SwT). They would not be correct without pure intention and in such a case they would not make halal (permissible things which normally become halal after such acts).
Shaving the head and taqsir should be carried out in Mina and it is not permissible to voluntarily perform them elsewhere.
Based on precaution, the head should be shaved and taqsir should be performed on the day of the Eid, even though the pilgrim might be allowed to delay them until the end of the tashriq period.
In Mina, it is obligatory to primarily engage in ramy jamarah, then dhibh, and then taqsir or halq.
If the pilgrim does not observe the required order (of the Hajj rites), he has committed a sin. But obviously, he does not have to repeat those rites whose orders he has not observed, though their repetition would be in accordance with ihtiyat.
Based on necessary precaution halq or taqsir should not be postponed until the night. If the pilgrim fails or forgets to perform them on the day of the Eid, he should carry them out on the night of the 11th of Dhul Hijjah. And this would suffice.
One who wants to shave the head of another person cannot do so before he performs his own halq or taqsir. Removing the hair of another person is not permissible until one obtains relief from ihram.
One who has conducted halq in a place other than Mina and performed the subsequent rites has not become a muhill and should perform the subsequent rites all over again.
One who has, for some reason, postponed dhibh to after the Eid does not have to delay halq or taqsir. Based on precaution, halq and taqsir should be performed on the day of the Eid. But the tawaf al-Hajj would be invalid if performed before halq or taqsir.
Question 1: Would rites of Makkah be correct for those who came to Makkah after performing halq and taqsir, carried out Makkah rites such as tawaf, say, and tawaf an-nisa and then realised that their halq and taqsir was not carried out in Mina?
Answer: In such a case, their Makkah rites are incorrect and should be performed all over again.
Rites that is obligatory to be performed in Makkah:
a. Tawaf al-Hajj known as tawaf
b. Tawaf prayer
c. Say between Safa and Marwah
d. Tawaf an-nisa
e. Prayer of tawaf an-nisa
The tawaf al-Hajj, its prayer, say, tawaf an-nisa and its prayer should he performed exactly as already indicated in the part of tawaf al-Umrah and its prayer and say. Only the niyyah would be different here. The pilgrim has to make niyyah for tawaf al-Hajj, it say and tawaf an-nisa.
If Mina rites were performed in advance due to excuses, they would suffice, unless the excuses become invalid later. For instance, a woman (who thought her monthly period would start) does not become haydh, a sick person recovers, and overcrowding is not as such to cause annoyance. Thus in such cases, it is not exigent to perform the rites all over again. But performing them all over again is in accordance with the ahwat.
A separate tawaf an-nisa is obligatory for Hajj and for Umrah Mufradah.
Question 1: A person has forgotten to perform tawaf an-nisa for Umrah Mufradah and has become muhrim for Umrah Tamattu. Should he perform the forgotten tawaf an-nisa before or after Umrah Tamattu rites?
Answer: He can perform it after the Tamattu rites. If tawaf an-nisa is delayed it would bear adverse impacts and the Hajj will not suffice.
Question 2: A person who has not performed the tawaf an-nisa of Umrah Mufradah is to carry out the Hajj al-Ifrad subsequently. Would tawaf an-nisa of the Hajj al-Ifrad suffice for him or not?
Answer: It will not suffice.
It is obligatory for the pilgrims to spend the nights preceding the 11th and 12th of Dhul Hijjah in Mina. That is to say, they should stay there from sunset until midnight or from midnight until sunrise. Those who hold vigil in Makkah and engage in worship until the morning without doing anything else other than what is exigent (such as eating and drinking as needed, and renewing the wudhu) do not have to spend the nights preceding the 11th and the 12th in Mina.
Remaining in Mina for the said three nights could extend from the evening until midnight or from midnight until sunrise.
Staying overnight in Mina is an act of worship and should be performed with pure intention for the satisfaction of Almighty Allah (SwT).
One who abstains from remaining in Mina on the nights, which are obligatory, should sacrifice one sheep for each night he misses.
Based on precaution, the sacrifice should be offered if the pilgrim fails to spend the night at Mina either knowingly and deliberately, or forgetfully and unknowingly.
The kaffarah for hunting should be offered in Makkah during Umrah and in Mina during Hajj. Based on precaution, the same should apply to other instances of kaffarah.
Question 1: What would happen if one stays overnight in a place other than Mina? Are those ignorant of this precept excused or not?
Answer: He should offer a sacrifice. Based on precaution, there is no difference between those aware and those ignorant of this precept.
Question 2: After performing the threefold rites of the day of the Eid, a pilgrim wants to go to Makkah to perform the tawafs. But he knows that if he goes to Makkah he would not be able to spend the first three hours of the required period in Mina. Should he go to Makkah or not? Does he have to pay kaffarah for going to Makkah (in this case)?
Answer: In this case, there is nothing wrong with going from Mina to Makkah. But kaffarah should be given for delay. Unless he spends the entire second half of the night in Mina.
Ramy al-Jamarat should be performed on the days following nights that are obligatory to be spent in Mina. Ramy al-Jamarat means throwing pebbles at the three Jamar or the symbolic Satans, namely the ones in the front, the middle, and the rear.
The pilgrim should daily throw seven pebbles at each jamarah. The manner, condition, and obligations of ramy have already been presented in the previous part on Jamarat al-Aqabah.
Pebbles should be thrown from sunrise until sunset on the morrow of the night the pilgrim spends in Mina. Ramy should not be carried out at night.
People with excuses not to perform the ramy during the day, such as shepherds, sick ones, impotent individuals, and those fearing something such as the huge crowds, are allowed to perform the ramy on the night of the same day or on the next night.
Ramy should be carried out in order. The front, the middle, and the rear jamarah should be respectively hit with pebbles.
A person who forgets to perform the ramy and leaves Mina should return and perform the ramy. If he cannot return, he should hire a naib. If the tashriq period has passed, he should return, based on necessary precaution, and perform ramy or hire a naib. He or his naib should perform the qadha the following year.
Women and their caretakers, as well as weak people, who are allowed to arrive in Mina from the Mashar al-Haram after midnight can engage in ramy at night, if they have excuses not to perform it during the day. Women are allowed to engage in ramy at night.
Ramy al-Jamarat can be done from the upper floor, though, based on recommended precaution (ihtiyat mustahabb), it should be conducted from the conventional place of the past (ground level).
Those who have excuses not to engage in ramy on the day of the Eid can do so on the preceding or following night of the Eid. If they also have excuses not to conduct ramy on the 11th of Dhul Hijjah, they can perform the relevant ramy of the 11th on its night.
Question 1: Can one conduct the ramy at night without having any excuses? If ramy at night is correct, does it involve a sin? Likewise, although delay in dhibh on the day of Eid al-Qurban is aright, does it involve a sin?
Answer: Ramy cannot be done at night without an excuse. If one does not conduct ramy during the day without having a valid excuse, he would be committing a sin. Likewise, based on the ahwat, if he deliberately delays the dhibh and does not perform it on the day of the Eid, he would be committing a sin, though his dhibh would be correct.
Question 2: Can one throw the pebbles at the cement made part of the column?
Answer: If the cement-made part were conventionally regarded as a constituent of the column (jamarah), ramy would be correct.
Question 3: Due to overcrowding and possible dangers, is it possible to bring the women from Mashar to Mina after the midnight of the 10th of Dhul Hijjah, take them to jamarah Aqabah on the same night for ramy, return them to the tents, and again take them to the Jamarat close to the sunset on the 11th to perform the ramy of both the 11th and the 12th on the night of the 12th?
Answer: After wuquf in Mashar and arrival in Mina, women can perform ramy jamarah al- Aqabah on the night before Eid al-Qurban. But they could perform the ramy on the 11th and the 12th at night, only if they have excuses not to perform them during the day.
One has the option of qasr and itmam for the daily prayers all over the two holy cities of Makkah and Madinah. Apparently, the precept applies to the two cities as they stand, without any distinction between their former and new districts. But, based on the ahwat, in this case, one should suffice with the limits of the past Makkah and Madinah or rather the Masjidayn Sharifayn (The Masjid al-Haram in Makkah and the Masjid an-Nabi in Madinah).
If due to an excuse, such as illness, a pilgrim has failed to take off his stitched clothes in order to enter the state of ihram, he should make niyyah for Umrah and/or Hajj and pronounce the labbayk at the miqat or areas parallel to it. This would suffice. Whenever he is relieved of the excuse, he should remove the stitched clothes and enter the state of ihram. He, however, does not have to return to miqat, but, based on ihtiyat wajib, he should offer a sheep as sacrifice for having worn stitched clothes.
Kaffarah should be given to the poor and the needy.
A person who made intention for iqamah ashrah in Makkah retains his intention upon going to
Arafat and Mina and returning. His Prayer would be itmam at all these sites.
Question 1: Should prayer be performed all over again if a person has engaged in istidarah prayer in the Masjid al-Haram such that he faced the congregation prayer leader or stood on his sides?
Answer: There is no need to perform it all over again and it is permissible.
Question 2: In Purifying the Masjid al-Haram, the nijasah is removed and it is then washed with water. Qaleel water is used to wash each side and one becomes aware of the nijasah of the entire Masjid. Can one engage in sajdah on those stones due to distress or difficulty or some other reason?
Answer: One cannot gain awareness (about this issue) and should disregard any doubt that may arise.
Question 3: A pilgrim, after performing all the rites of Umrah and Hajj, realised that his wudhu was null and void. Would his Hajj be considered correct if he makes provisions for the tawafs and prayer? Supposing that his Hajj would become invalidate, how should he be relieved of ihram, and what duty does he shoulder?
ANSWER: Yes, by making provisions for the tawafs and the prayer his Hajj would be correct.