Table of Contents

Rites Of Umrah Tamattu

Chapter 1: Place Of Getting Into The State Of Ihram In Umrah Tamattu

The place of getting into the state ihram in Umrah Tamattu, which is called miqat, can be different based on the different places from which the pilgrims depart for Hajj. The following five places serve as miqat:

1. Masjid ash-Shajarah (also known as Dhul-Hulayfah) is the miqat for the people of Madinah who go to Makkah.

In the case of emergency, getting into the state of ihram could be postponed to reach the miqat of the pilgrims of ash-Sham (Syria) or places parallel to it (including Lebanon, Palestine, and Jordan).

Ihram outside the Masjid ash-Shajarah is not acceptable for the people who depart from Madinah and head for Makkah. It is compulsory for them to put on ihram inside the Masjid ash-Shajarah.

A person in the state of junub or haydh can become a muhrim while passing through the Masjid ash-Shajarah but should not halt in it.

2. Al-Aqiq which has three points, namely "al-Maslakh", "al-Ghamrah", and "Dhat al Irq", is the
miqat for those who go to Makkah from Iraq and Najd.

3. Qarn al-Manazil is the miqat for the people who go on Hajj through Taif.

4. Yalamlam, which is the name of a mountain, is the miqat for those from Yemen.

5. Juhfah is the miqat for those who head for Makkah through ash-Sham.

After religious proof is provided on the miqat (that is, when two just witnesses testify about the place being miqat), there is no need for investigation. In the absence of religious proof, one can ask people who are informed of these places.

Whenever a pilgrim takes a route, which does not pass through any of the mawaqit, he should get into the state of ihram at any place parallel to the said mawaqit.

When there is choice, the pilgrim should not get into the state of ihram in Jeddah and should go to one of the five mawaqit, unless he or she lacks strength. In such a case, based on precaution, the pilgrim could put on ihram in Jeddah by making a nadhr.

Parallel areas refer to the case in which a person who heads for Makkah reaches a place where the miqat is located on his right or left in a straight line, such that if he passes this area, the miqat would stand behind him.

Getting into the state of ihram before reaching the miqat is not permissible. If one thus puts on the ihram, it would be incorrect, unless the pilgrim makes a nadhr to get into the state of ihram in a place before the miqat, He should then become a muhrim in this very place. For instance, if he makes a nadhr to become a muhrim in Qurn, it is incumbent on him to act in accordance with his nadhr.

It is not permissible to voluntarily delay getting into the state of ihram in miqat. If due to forgetfulness, ignorance, or some other excuse, he leaves the miqat without getting into the state of ihram, he should, if possible, return to the miqat and become muhrim there. If not possible to return to the miqat, he should leave the Haram, if he has entered it and, based on ihtiyat wajib, get as close to the miqat as possible and then get into the state of ihram. If he cannot go out of the Haram due to time limitation or the like, he should become a muhrim inside the Haram at the very point where his excuse has been removed.

If he leaves the miqat without getting into the state of ihram, it is wajib for him to return if time is not limited and become a muhrim in the miqat he has passed, no matter whether another miqat is before him or not.

Miscellaneous Issues Related To The Miqat

While putting on the ihram at Masjid ash-Shajarah, it is incumbent to put it on inside the mosque itself and not in its vicinities.

If a lady is haydh in miqat and is confident she cannot perform Umrah Tamattu in due time, she should make niyyah for Hajj al-Ifrad and after completion perform Hajj Umrah.

If a person is in Makkah and wants to perform Umrah Tamattu but has some reasons that prevent him from going to the miqat for it, he should go outside the harm and become a muhrim. It would suffice from Adni al-Hal.

For the Iranians, whether those employed in Jeddah or others, miqat for Umrah Tamattu and Umrah Mufradah is the prescribed mawaqit. But for Umrah Mufradah, there could be permit for ihram in Jeddah with nadhr, yet, as a precaution, the pilgrim should get into the state of ihram in the mawaqit.

Based on ihtiyat, caravan attendants who want to go to Makkah and then leave it should not perform Umrah Tamattu. To enter Makkah, they should go to one of the prescribed mawaqit and become muhrim there for Umrah Mufradah. Adni al-Hal is not the miqat for such people. After performing Umrah Mufradah, they can leave Makkah. Afterwards entrance into Makkah for the second and third times would not require ihram. The last time such people arrive in Makkah they should go to one of the prescribed mawaqit such as Masjid ash-Shajarah or al-Juhfah to become muhrim for Umrah Tamattu.

Getting into the state of ihram before reaching the miqat would be correct with nadhr. As a result, haydh women who have religious excuses and cannot enter the Masjid can offer nadhr in Madinah to become muhrim for Umrah. In this case, they do not have to go to Masjid ash-Shajarah. If husbands of these women are present, they should give idhn for their wives' nadhr.

Miqat in al-Juhfah is not confined to the mosque, and people can become muhrim in any part of al-Juhfah.

Leaving Makkah between Umrah Tamattu and Hajj is not permissible, unless there is an emergency or exigency. In such a case, based on precaution, the muhrim should get into the state of ihram for the Hajj and then leave, unless this would cause him distress. In such a case, he can leave Makkah without ihram. At any rate, leaving Makkah would not make the Hajj incorrect. Caravan attendants and the like can enter Makkah with Umrah Mufradah and perform Umrah Tamattu when they would no longer leave Makkah unless for Wuquf in the plain of Arafat.

If a person has become muhrim in Jeddah and performed Umrah Tamattu, he should go to miqat, become muhrim, and renew Umrah Tamattu if he does not have any excuse not to go to miqat and if there is still time to perform Umrah Tamattu.

If a person leaves Makkah after performing Hajj at-Tamattu and wants to return while still a month has not passed from the time of ihram for Umrah Tamattu, he does not need to become muhrim and can enter Makkah without ihram.

One who has performed Umrah Mufradah less than a month back can pass the miqat without ihram.

In the absence of her husband, a woman who wants to make a nadhr to get into the state of ihram before reaching the miqat does not need his permission. But in case her husband is present, based on precaution, she should make the nadhr with his permission; otherwise, her nadhr would not be valid.

Pre-miqat nadhr for ihram is also permissible for the naib.

Question 1: A group headed for Makkah via Taif. Before reaching Qarn al-Manazil, they were sent to go through al-Aqiq. They were barred from going to Qarn al-Manazil and became muhrim in al-Aqia. What consideration should be taken in regard to their ihram?

Answer: Their ihram is correct.

Question 2: A haydh woman leaving Madinah for Makkah thought she could become muhrim and perform her duty while passing through Masjid ash-Shajarah. But when reaching the mosque's courtyard, she realised that due to the huge crowd gathering there she could not become a muhrim by passing through. She obtained her husband's permission for nadhr, went several steps away from the Masjid, and became muhrim with nadhr. Does this suffice or not?

Answer: There is no problem is she became muhrim with nadhr before reaching the miqat.

Question 3: A haydh woman, conceiving she could get into the state of ihram while passing through Masjid ash-Shajarah, entered the mosque, immediately got into the state of ihram, cited the talbiyah, and took several steps toward the door she wanted to use to leave the mosque. But when she saw she could not pass through, she left through the door from which she had entered. Is her ihram correct or not?

Answer: It is correct.

Question 4: If upon leaving the miqat and along the way the pilgrim realises that he has not made the talbiyah or niyyah or that his ihram is incorrect due to some other reason and wants to return to the miqat and that this would not be feasible for him unless he can possibly return to the miqat via Makkah, could he go to Makkah and return to the miqat? Or should he become muhrim where he is?

Answer: If he can return to the miqat, even from Makkah, he cannot become muhrim from any place other than the miqat. But to enter Makkah, he should become muhrim at Adni al-Hal, while making intention for Umrah Mufradah. After performing its rites, he should go to one of the prescribed mawaqit and get into the state of ihram for Umrah Tamattu.

Chapter 2: Three Acts Are Obligatory At The Time Of Getting Into The State Of Ihram

First: Niyyah

When a person wants to become muhrim for Umrah Tamattu, he should make niyyah for it.

Umrah, Hajj, and their rites serve as ibadat and should be carried out with sincere niyyah for the satisfaction of Almighty Allah (SwT) without any intention for whatsoever that renders ihram vain and void.

Second: Talbiyah

Talbiyah means saying labbayk. He should pronounce the following:

"Labbayk Allahuma labbayk. Labbayk la shareeka laka labbayk." (Yes, here I am O Lord, here I am. Here I am, there is no partner for You, here I am)

This much would be sufficient for him to become muhrim and for his ihram to be correct. Based on ihtiyat mustahabb, after pronouncing the four labbayk, he should say:

"Innal hamda wan-nemata laka wal-mulka, la shareeka laka labbayk." (Surely the praise and the bounties are for You, and the kingdom is Yours; there is no partner for You, here I am)

After pronouncing the above, as an additional precaution, he should say:

"Labbayk Allahuma labbayk. Innal hamda wan-ne'mata laka wal-mulka, la shareeka laka labbayk." (Yes, here I am O Lord, here I am. Surely the praise and the bounties are for You, and the kingdom is Yours; There is no partner for You, here I am) only once.

It is obligatory to recite labbayk.

If one cannot learn the obligatory labbayk, or if he is short of time to learn it and cannot pronounce it even with instruction, he should pronounce it any way he can, or, based on precaution, he should hire a naib.

It is obligatory to discontinue reciting the talbiyah for Umrah Tamattu upon sighting the houses of Makkah. It is also obligatory to discontinue reciting the talbiyah of Hajj by the zawal of Arafa Day.

Third: Ihram

Men should wear two pieces of clothing to get into the state of ihram. These are lounge (a piece of cloth worn around the waist downwards) and the rada (cloak which should be worn on the shoulders).

Based on ihtiyat, these two pieces of clothing should be worn before making the niyyah for ihram and pronouncing the labbayk. If he wears them after pronouncing the labbayk, he should repeat the pronouncement of the labbayk based on ihtiyat mustahabb.

It is not necessary for the lounge to cover the naval and the knees. It would suffice to be conventional.

While wearing the clothing for ihram, based on necessary precaution, one should make niyyah with the intention of submitting to the Will of Almighty Allah (SwT).

It is a condition that these two pieces of clothing are such that if one prays while wearing them, his prayer would be correct. Therefore, they should not be made of silk. Nor should they be stained with impurities that render prayer null and void. In addition, the lounge should not be made of thin and transparent cloth.

Women's ihram cloths should not be made of pure silk.

The two pieces of clothing, which the muhrim should wear, are exclusive to men. Women can become muhrim while wearing their usual clothes-whether stitched or not. But their clothes should not be made of pure silk, as already mentioned.

If the ihram clothing were made of hide, nylon, or the like, it would create no problems, provided that it is conventionally known as clothes.

The ihram clothing does not necessarily have to be made of woven fabrics. Rather if it is made of felt and is conventionally known as clothes, it would not be a problem.

If one knowingly and intentionally fails to take off his stitched clothes at the time of ihram, his ihram will not be completely correct.

While getting into the state of ihram, it is not permissible to wear the lounge around the neck. But tying the lounge and the like is permissible.

Secondary Issues Related To Ihram

An insane person has no takleef, and ihram is not obligatory for him. If he enters Makkah without ihram, it would not be a problem.

The Hajj rites of one who has deliberately mispronounced the talbiyah are incorrect. If talbiyah is mispronounced involuntarily or due to forgetfulness or unawareness, it might be deemed correct.

In the case of a person who mispronounces the talbiyah and realises that he has not correctly become muhrim after the wuqufayn and before the completion of the Hajj rites, his Hajj might be deemed correct, provided that he comes up with this realisation after the time for correction has passed. But based on the ahwat, he should not suffice with such a Hajj.

Chapter 3: What Becomes Haram To The Muhrim

First: Hunting Wild Animals, Unless There Is Fear Of Their Attack

Second: Sex

Having sexual intercourse, kissing, caressing, or amorously looking (at the opposite sex). In short, any kind of carnal pleasure.

If a man lustfully and sensually kisses his wife, he should give a camel as kaffarah. If there is no lust or sensuality, he should offer a sheep. Kissing those other than the spouse, such as one's mother or children, is not Haram and does not require kaffarah.

If there is sexual intercourse after Wuquf in al-Mashar al-Haram and before the end of the tawaf an-nisa, Hajj would be correct, but kaffarah should be offered. But if it is after tawaf an-nisa, no kaffarah should be given. The fuqaha disagree on its hukm during tawaf an-nisa: whether doing half of it or passing through the fifth shawt is equal to the entire tawaf.

One camel should be offered as kaffarah for masturbation, which leads to ejaculation.

Third: Marriage

It is not permissible for the muhrim to contract marriage for himself or on behalf of another person whether the latter is a muhrim or a non-muhrim (muhill).

Fourth: Masturbation

Masturbation means causing ejaculation with the hands or other means.

One who mistakenly or unaware of the precept masturbates, does not have to pay kaffarah and should engage in istighfar. If he does so knowingly and deliberately, he should offer a camel as kaffarah. If he cannot offer the camel, he should sacrifice a sheep. If he masturbates before al- Muzdalifah, he should complete the Hajj rites and perform it over again next year. The same applies to a case in which his wife touches his genitals.

Fifth: Use Of Perfume

Use of perfume-whether it is musk, saffron, camphor, aloes-wood, ambergris (in general perfume in the absolute sense of the word is prohibited).

Based on necessary precaution, one should abstain from smelling anything, which has a scent, but which is not deemed perfume.

Repeated use of sweet-smelling material such that it is considered as one application does not increase the kaffarah, but apparently kaffarah should be offered for each application, even though the principle of necessity of kaffarah on sweet-smelling material is not prescribed.

Sixth: Men Should Not Wear Stitched Clothes

Men should not wear stitched clothes, including shirt, underwear, long garment open in the front, vest, coat, and the like. The same applies to clothes with buttons and also woven clothes, though these might not be stitched.

If a man needs the aforementioned clothes, it is permissible for him to wear them but, based on precaution, he should offer kaffarah.

Women are allowed to wear stitched clothes without any restrictions.

It is permissible to wear wallets, belts, and other small stitched items that are not ordinarily considered as clothes.

Seventh: Darkening The Eyelids With Kohl For Ornamentation, Even If There Is No Intention For Ornamentation

Based on necessary precaution, one should avoid using kohl, which might cause ornamentation.

Application of kohl is for both men and women.

There is no kaffarah for application of kohl.

Eighth: Looking Into The Mirror

There is no problem in wearing glasses without having the intention for adornment. But based on precaution, glasses should not be worn for adornment.

Ninth: Wearing Boots, Giveh (Light Cotton Shoes), Socks And The Like

This applies to men only.

Evidently, covering the surface of the feet (from the ankle) with boots, socks, and the like is forbidden. At any rate, if the muhrim has to wear such items, he should, as a precaution, tear the surface area.

There is no kaffarah for whatsoever covers the surface of the feet.

Tenth: Fusuq

Fusuq does not merely apply to lying. It also covers cursing and boasting.

Fusuq is forbidden, even if it does not involve insulting and cursing others.

Eleventh: Jidal

Jidal, which means saying such words as "Yes, by Allah!" or "No, by Allah!" Pronouncing the words "No" and "Yes" to indicate negative and affirmative contexts is not related to jidal. Jidal means swearing to prove or disprove something.

Twelfth: Killing Insects That Appear On One's Body Such As Louse, Flee And Leech

Thirteenth: Wearing Rings For Adornment

Wearing rings for adornment. There is, however, no problem in wearing rings for istihbab.

There is no problem in wearing rings for a special purpose other than adornment and istihbab.

It is forbidden for the muhrim to dye his body with henna for adornment. As a necessary precaution, henna should not be used for adornment, even if there is no intention to this effect. There is no kaffarah for wearing rings and dying the body with henna.

Fourteenth: Women's Use Of Ornaments

As necessary precaution, ornaments should not be used for adornment, even if there is no intention to this effect.

Ornaments that women habitually wear before ihram should not be taken off to get into the state of ihram.

Women should not show to men even to their husbands, ornaments that they habitually wear.

Using ornaments is n but does not involve kaffarah.

Fifteenth: Applying Oil To The Body (An Ointment)

Application of oil to the body members and the hair for ornamentation and softness is not permissible, even if the oil has no perfume.

There is no kaffarah for application of perfume-free oil.

There is no kaffarah for application of perfumed oil, but based on the ahwat, a sheep should be offered as kaffarah.

Sixteenth: Removing Hair

Removing hair from the body of oneself or from that of another person, whether he is a muhrim or a muhill.

If apart from the time of wudhu and ghusl, one touches his head or face and hair falls out, he should, as a precaution, offer a handful of wheat, flour, or the like even though the necessity of this ihtiyat is not prescribed.

Seventeenth: Men Should Not Cover Their Heads With Anything

As a precaution, men should offer a sheep as sacrifice for covering the head. Covering parts of the head does not involve the hukm for the entire head, unless it conventionally signifies this; for instance, such as wearing a small hat that covers only the middle part of the head.

As a precaution, kaffarah should be offered each time the head is covered.

It is not permissible to immerse the entire head into water. The impermissibility of this act as regards some parts of the head has not been prescribed.

Based on precaution, a sheep should be offered as kaffarah for immersing the entire head into water.

There is no problem in drying the head with towels and the like, unless the towel covers the entire head.

There is no problem in wearing a handkerchief around the head to relieve headache.

Eighteenth: Women Covering Their Faces

Women should not cover their faces with small black veils or any other such items.

It is forbidden for women to cover the face as they habitually do to observe the hijab. But covering parts of the top or bottom or the sides of the face during prayer and on other occasions would bear no problem, provided that it does not signify covering the whole face.

There is no kaffarah for using small black veils on the face, no matter how these are used.

Nineteenth: It Is Not Permissible For The Muhrim Man To Shade Himself

Men are not allowed to shade themselves. But for women and child it is permissible and involves no kaffarah.

Passing under a shade is forbidden when one is moving from a place. But when one resides in a place such as Mina or elsewhere there is no problem in moving under the shade. Nor is there any problem in using an umbrella or the like to be under shade, even if one is walking. Therefore, the muhrim can use an umbrella to go from his tent in Mina to the place where sacrifices are offered or where ramy al-Jamarat is carried out.

It is not permissible for the muhrim to be under shade while travelling in any vehicle, aeroplane, or ship, which has a roof. There is, however, no problem in passing through or under fixed shades such as bridges and tunnels.

While moving from a place, the muhrim can use the shade of the side of the mount, the wall, or the car, but, based on precaution, he should abstain from it.

Sitting under the roof while moving from a place at night is contrary to precaution, even though it might be permissible.

The muhrim can sit in a roofed car or aeroplane that transports him at night. But he should observe the ihtiyat on rainy and cold nights, unless this ihtiyat causes him distress.

Those who board a ship in the state of ihram should not remain under its root. But sitting next to the ship's wall, which provides shade, is obviously permissible, though, based on ihtiyat mustahabb, this should be avoided.

A sheep should be offered as kaffarah for going under the shade while moving or travelling from a place.

Those who become muhrim for Hajj in the Masjid al-Haram and have taken residence in Makkah till the Day of Arafa can use shade, so long as they are not going outside Makkah.

Using the shade involves no problem for one who has become muhrim in Taneem since it has become part of Makkah, which in turn has the status of residence.

Twentieth: Causing Blood To Gush Out From The Body

There is no kaffarah for causing blood to gush out from the body, although as a precaution, one sheep should be offered as sacrifice.

During ihram, it is impermissible to scrape the skin, brush the teeth or do anything, else that causes bleeding. But drawing blood out of body of others does not have the same hukm.

Twenty-first: Clipping The Nails

If a person clips all nails of his hands and less than ten nails of his feet, he should offer one sheep for nails of his hands and one mudd food for each nail of his feet. If he clips alt nails on his feet and clips less than ten nails on his hands, he should offer a sheep for the nails of his feet and one mudd food for each nail of his hand.

Twenty-second: Pulling Out A Tooth Without Bleeding Is Not Forbidden, Nor Does It Require Kaffarah

In case pulling out the tooth is imperative and causes bleeding, a sheep should be offered as kaffarah based on ihtiyat mustahabb.

Twenty-third: Cutting A Tree Or Plant That Has Grown In The Haram

Twenty-fourth: Carrying Arms

Miscellaneous Issues Related To Restrictions Of Ihram

Going under the shade is Haram while one is in the state of ihram. But if the vehicle of the muhrim passes under bridges along the way or remains under a roof at the gas station, there would be no problem for the muhrim, and he does not have to pay kaffarah.

There is no problem in having injections while in the state of Ihram. But injections, which cause bleeding, should be avoided, unless there is dire necessity for them. In this case, no kaffarah would be required.

After the muhrim reaches Makkah, even those new districts that are away from the Masjid al-Haram, he could use roofed vehicles or shades to go to the Masjid al-Haram.

As a necessary precaution, perfumed soaps and shampoos should be avoided. There is no problem in using perfume-free soaps and shampoos.

Question 1: Due to heat rash, some muhrims need ointments. Could a muhrim use such ointments or not?

Answer: No, unless there is exigency for it. But use of ointment, even if not exigent, does require kaffarah, unless it is perfumed. In this case, based on ihtiyat istihbabi, he should offer a sheep as kaffarah.

Question 2: Does shading oneself refer to bringing the head under the shade only or does it also apply to the shoulders?

Answer: It does not apply to the shoulders.

Question 3: Does shading oneself only apply to going under the roof or does it also signify shades of cars?

Answer: It does not signify the latter, even though, based on ihtiyat mustahabb, it should be avoided.

Question 4: Could one use an umbrella in Arafat as with Mina? Or does Arafat involves a
hukm different from that of Mina?

Answer: There is no problem in using an umbrella in Arafat.

Question 5: Along the way from Makkah to Arafat and Mina, could the muhrim pass through tunnels, knowing that there is no other route that has no tunnels?

Answer: There is no problem in it.

Chapter 4: Obligatory Tawaf And Some Of Its Ahkam

The first rite of the Umrah, which is obligatory for one, who becomes a muhrim for Umrah Tamattu and enters the holy Makkah is to engage in tawaf around the Kabah for Umrah Tamattu.

Tawaf means circumambulating the Kabah seven times (as will be explained later). Each turn is called shawt. Tawaf then comprises of seven ashwat.

Tawaf is rukn of Umrah, and Umrah would be vain and void for whoever deliberately abstains from tawaf until its time is over, whether this is done knowingly or unknowingly.

One who makes his Umrah void without any excuse and who has no time for provisions should, based on the ahwat, perform Hajj al-Ifrad after which he would embark upon the Umrah and leave the Hajj for the coming year.

In case the muhrim wants to perform the tawaf with other rites of Umrah but would not be able to have ikhtiyari wuquf in Arafat, he would be regarded as being short of time for the tawaf.

If he mistakenly avoids tawaf, he should perform the tawaf and its prayer at any time. If he has returned to his place and cannot return to Makkah or if such a return is difficult, he should hire a trustworthy naib.

On Obligations Of Tawaf

First: Prerequisites Of The Tawaf

A. Niyyah
B. One should be pure of hadath Akbar and hadath asghar

One should be pure of hadath Akbar (such as janabah, haydh, and nifas) and hadath asghar (i.e. he should have wudhu after passing of gasses or after coming from toilet).

Tawaf of a person with hadath Akbar or asghar is null and void, whether willful or due to negligence, forgetfulness, or unawareness.

If hadath asghar occurs during tawaf (after the completion of the fourth round), he should stop and gain taharah. Afterwards, he should start from where he left off and complete the tawaf. If the hadath occurs before completing half of the fourth round, it is wajib to stop, gain taharah and then complete it. Likewise if hadath asghar occurs before half the fourth round (namely before completing the fourth round), he should stop, gain taharah and then complete it as ma fil-dhimmah.

Taharah from hadath akbar and asghar is not a precondition for a recommended tawaf.

If during tawaf, hadath akbar (such as janabah or haydh) occurs, the pilgrim should immediately leave the Masjid al-Haram. If this happens before half of the fourth round, he should complete it after ghusl. If it happens after half of the fourth round, he should again complete it after ghusl as ma fil-dhimmah.

If during the obligatory tawaf, the pilgrim has an excuse not to engage in wudhu or ghusl, it is obligatory to perform tayammum and then embark upon the tawaf.

If during the tawaf, he doubts whether he has performed the wudhu or the ghusl, he should disregard his doubt if he has already had taharah; otherwise, he should engage in taharah and complete the tawaf.

C. Taharah of the body and the clothes from nijasah or impurities

If during tawaf, the pilgrim's body or clothes become najis in such a way that purification would is impossible while performing the tawaf, he should stop, purify the clothes or the body, immediately return, and complete the tawaf from where he left off. His tawaf would be correct.

Apparently the previous hokum also applies to a case in which he realises that his body or clothes have become najis during tawaf and supposes that nijasah has occurred during tawaf.

If he forgets about the nijasah in his body or clothes and performs the tawaf but remembers it during the tawaf or afterwards, he should, based on ihtiyat wajib, perform tawaf all over again.

The type of bleeding that is excusable during prayer is not excused in tawaf. Taharah is not requisite for items such as socks, skullcaps, handkerchiefs, and rings.

D. Covering naked parts of the body

Based on necessary precaution, covering naked parts of the body is a precondition of tawaf.

E. Circumcision

Circumcision is a prerequisite for men's tawaf to be correct. This hukm applies to both the mature and the immature males.

Second: Essential Elements Of Tawaf Are Seven In Number

A. Commencing at the Hajar al-Aswad (the Black Stone of the Kabah).

While commencing at the Hajar al-Aswad, all parts of the pilgrim's body do not have to face all parts of the Hajar al-Aswad.

It is obligatory to start from any part of the Hajar al-Aswad and end where he started. For the sake of certainty, he can make the niyyah a little before the Hajar al-Aswad and start the tawaf while reaching its parallel areas and end where he started.

It is obligatory to start and end the tawaf at the Hajar al-Aswad in the commonly understood sense, whether at the beginning, the middle, or the end of it.

The seventh round should be completed at the point where one started the tawaf. As a result, if he started the tawaf at the beginning of the Hajar al-Aswad, he should end it at the same place. Likewise, if he started at the middle or the end, he should complete the tawaf at the same place.

As with all Muslims, the pilgrim should start the tawaf at the parallel areas of the Hajar al- Aswad without meticulousness shown by those having scruples. The seven rounds should be completed without any halt.

B. Ending each round at the Hajar al-Aswad

This can be done through completing the seven rounds without any halt. The seventh round should end at the same point where the pilgrim started the tawaf. It is not necessary to halt after each round and then commence a new round.

C. The Kabah should be on his left during tawaf
D. The Hijr Ismail must be included in tawaf

The Hijr Ismail must be included in tawaf. Hijr Ismail is linked to the Kabah and the pilgrim should circumambulate it.

If he does not circumambulate the Hijr Ismail and passes between it on all rounds, his tawaf will be null and void and should be performed all over again.

If in some rounds he does not circumambulate the Hijr Ismail, it is obligatory to repeat the relevant rounds. If this is not done and he continues the tawaf, the tawaf will be vain and void and must be performed all over again.

E. Tawaf should be performed between the Kabah and Maqam Ibrahim

It is held that tawaf should be performed between the Kabah and the rock called Maqam Ibrahim (Station of Abraham) on all sides. But based on the aqwa, there is no obligation in this act.

There is no limitation for mataf. Tawaf is permissible up to any part of the Masjid al-Haram in which tawaf would be regarded as the tawaf of Kabah. If there is no crowd and exigency, it is mustahabb to perform tawaf between Kabah and Maqam Ibrahim.

F. Covering the Kabah and whatever is part of it

There is a projected part called Shadhrawan around the walls of the Kabah. Shadhrawan is part of the Kabah and should be included in the tawaf.

It is permissible to place the hand on the wall of the Kabah at the Shadhrawan, and this act will not invalidate the tawaf.

It is permissible to place the hand on the wall of Hijr Ismail during tawaf and this act will not render the tawaf null and void.

G. The tawaf should consist of seven rounds, no more, no less

If upon returning to his country, the pilgrim realises that his tawaf has been incompletely performed, he must return and correctly perform the tawaf and its prayers. If he cannot return, he should hire a naib.

If during tawaf, he faces hadath before reaching half the fourth shawt (namely reaching the parallel of the Kabah's third pillar), he should dispense with the tawaf, perform wudhu, and start the tawaf all over again. If the hadath appears between half the fourth shawt and the end of this round, he should dispense with the tawaf, perform wudhu, and then engage in a complete tawaf as ma fil-dhimmah. If the hadath occurs after the completion of the fourth shawt, he should stop the tawaf, perform wudhu, and then carry out three other ashwat. If he faces hadath akbar during tawaf, he should immediately leave the Masjid al-Haram and perform ghusl. If the hadath akbar happens before completing half of the fourth shawt, his tawaf will be vain and void and should be performed anew. If hadath akbar occurs after completing half of the fourth shawt, he should perform a complete tawaf as ma fil-dhimmah.

If he mistakenly, negligently, or unknowingly performs the tawaf, without wudhu, his tawaf will be invalidated. The same applies to engaging in tawaf while in the states of janabah, haydh, and nifas.

If due to illness or brevity of time, a muhrim cannot perform the tawaf, he should be assisted and taken (by others) for tawaf. If this is not possible either, he should hire a naib.

Based on necessary precaution, muwalat should be observed during the tawaf. This does not apply to halting the tawaf after completing half of its rites to perform prayer and the like.

If during the obligatory tawaf, he halts for daily prayer after having completed at least half of the required rounds (namely three and a half ashwat), he should continue the tawaf from where he left off. If he has completed less than three and a half ashwat, based on ihtiyat, he should perform the tawaf all over again if the time gap is long. But if the time interval is not long, this ihtiyat might not be wajib and is mustahsan. In the relevant Ahkam, there is no difference between congregation or individual prayers or abundance or brevity of time.

Secondary Issues Related To The Tawaf

If upon completion of Hajj at-Tamattu, the muhrim realises that he has passed through the Hijr Ismail during several of the ashwat on tawaf of Umrah or Hajj, his Hajj will be correct, and he should only perform tawaf and its prayer all over again.

If after taqsir in Umrah Tamattu, he realises that his wudhu was null and void or was not performed and that he has, nonetheless, engaged in tawaf and its prayer, he should perform tawaf and its prayer anew, and thus his Umrah will be correct.

There is no problem in halting the tawaf. But based on ihtiyat mustahabb, the obligatory tawaf should not be halted in such a way as to disrupt its muwalat.

One who has to perform jabirah wudhu and tayammum but who has ignorantly completed Umrah rites without tayammum should perform tawaf and its prayer all over again.

If a woman's hair or parts of body, which should be covered during tawaf, are deliberately uncovered, her tawaf will be correct but she has committed a sin.

It is permissible to perform the tawaf in the upper floor, which would be parallel to the ceiling of the Kabah. But based on ihtiyat, this should be dispensed with.

Chapter 5: The Tawaf Prayer

Upon completion of the Umrah tawaf, it is obligatory to recite two rakah of prayer similar to the morning prayer.

Based on the ahwat, the prayer should be performed immediately after tawaf.

It is obligatory to perform this prayer at Maqam Ibrahim. It is wajib to offer this prayer behind the Maqam such that the Maqam would stand between him and the Kabah. He should stand as close to the Maqam as possible, provided that he does not disturb others.

If due to overcrowding he cannot stand behind Maqam Ibrahim, he should stand at any point that would be considered as the Maqam’s back even, if it were far away. Possibly then the prayer would be correct in any part of the Masjid al-Haram.

If he forgets to perform the obligatory prayer of the tawaf, he should offer it at the Maqam Ibrahim's back whenever he remembers it.

If he forgets to perform the tawaf prayer and realises this while engaged in say between Safa and Marwah, he should stop the say at that very point, return, offer two rakah of prayer, and then complete the say from where he left off.

The person who has forgotten to perform the tawaf prayer should return to the Masjid al- Haram if he has not gone far away from Makkah and if he does not face any problems in returning to the Masjid al-Haram. Then he should offer his prayer. If he has gone far away from Makkah and if returning to the Masjid al-Haram causes him trouble, he should offer his prayer wherever he realises that he has not already performed it.

The same prayer precepts mentioned for forgetfulness apply to those ignorant of the rites of tawaf prayer.

Tawaf prayer should be performed behind the Maqam Ibrahim and not on both sides of it.

Deliberate abandoning tawaf prayer invalidates the Hajj.

Question 1: Is it possible to perform other mustahabb prayer or acts of worship between tawaf and its prayer? What about congregation prayer?

Answer: It is obligatory to perform tawaf and it’s prayer consecutively. But an interval is to be taken as commonly understood such as the interval for nafelah prayers after offering the daily prayers.

Question 2: Could one perform the obligatory prayer of the tawaf simultaneous with the daily congregation prayer?

Answer: The legitimacy of reciting the tawaf prayer in congregation has not been prescribed.

Question 3: Can ghayr ul-mahram men and women stand behind Maqam Ibrahim to perform the tawaf prayer?

Answer: There is no problem if there is one wajib space between them or if the men stand a little ahead of the women.

Chapter 6: Say and Some of Its Ahkam

After performing the tawaf prayer, the muhrim should embark upon say between the two famous hills of Safa and Marwah.

Say refers to beginning at Safa going towards Marwah, and returning again to Safa.

The say between Safa and Marwah should be performed seven times, each of which is called shawt. That is to say, going from Safa to Marwah is one shawt, while returning from Marwah to Safa is another.

It is obligatory to begin the say, at Safa and end the seventh shawt at Marwah.

It is obligatory to perform the say after tawaf and its prayer.

If the distance between Safa and Marwah is made into two or several layers or strata, all of which are between the two hills, the pilgrim can engage in say from each layer or stratum.

It is obligatory to turn the face toward Marwah while going and to turn the face toward Safa while returning.

Say can be delayed after tawaf and its prayer to rest or proceed when the weather gets cool. Say can be delayed until the night without any excuse.

Say cannot be delayed until next day, unless there is a valid excuse.

Say is an act of worship and should be performed with pure niyyah for the satisfaction of Almighty Allah (SwT). If due to the forgetfulness of Hajj pilgrim increases the number of ashwat of the say by one shawt or more, his say is valid.

If he mistakenly performs less ashwat than required, he has to complete it whenever he recalls his mistake. In case he has gone to his homeland, he should return and perform it, if this does not cause him distress. If he cannot return or if returning involves distress, he should hire a naib.

If he forgets to perform the say in Umrah Tamattu, conceives that his Umrah rites have been completed, removes ihram, and then has intercourse with his wife, he should return and complete the say. Based on necessary precaution, he should offer a cow as kaffarah.

Secondary Issues Related To The Say

In case the pilgrim knows he should perform the say between Safa and Marwah seven times and begins from Safa with this intention but regards each instance of going and returning as one shawt, consequently performing fourteen ashwat, his say is acceptable, based on the aqwa.

If while performing the say he doubts the number of the shawt but continues the say and then comes to certainty and completes it, his say will be correct.

Haidh women who hire a naib for tawaf should personally perform the say, as the site of the say is not a mosque. They should also observe the order of tawaf and say.

The precept for mistakenly increasing the number of ashwat in say also applies to unknowingly performing more ashwat than required in say.

Question 1: A person was performing say. Suddenly he realized that the section marked for harwalah had been passed at normal speed. He conceived that harwalah was imperative and thus returned and assumed harwalah to go through those parts he had passed at normal speed. Is his say correct?

Answer: This should not be done with ikhtiyari. But in the aforementioned case, his say is correct, and he shoulders no obligation. Nevertheless, based on precaution, he should complete the say.

Question 2: A person performed say between Safa and Marwah five times, comprising a total of ten ashwat. When he realized what he had done, he stopped his say right there and then. He subsequently performed taqsir. Is his say correct or not?

Answer: His say is correct.

Question 3: While engaged in say a pilgrim doubts the number of the ashwat but nevertheless continues his say, trying to record the ashwat. After pondering and engaging in say for 100 meters or proceeding with the next shawt, he gains certitude about the number of the shawt. He completes the rest of the say with certitude. Is his say correct or not?

Answer: Yes, his say is correct and valid.

Chapter 7: Taqsir

Taqsir becomes wajib upon completion of say. Taqsir refers to clipping the nails or shortening the hair, mustachio, or beard. Shaving the hair (on the head) is forbidden and not required in taqsir.

Taqsir is also an act of worship and should thus be performed with pure niyyah for the satisfaction of Almighty Allah (SwT).

If a pilgrim forgets to perform taqsir until he gets into the state of ihram for Hajj, his Umrah will be correct. It is mustahabb (for him) to offer a sheep as sacrifice. Based on the ahwat, he should not abstain from offering this sacrifice.

If he intentionally or unknowingly abstains from taqsir until the time of getting into the state of ihram for Hajj, his Umrah will be null and void based on the aqwa. His Hajj will become the Hajj al-Ifrad. Based on necessary precaution, he should perform Umrah Mufradah after completing the Hajj al-Ifrad and carry out the Hajj the following year.

Tawaf an-nisa is not wajib in Umrah Tamattu. But based on precaution, tawaf and its prayer should be performed.

After the muhrim engages in taqsir, everything which had become forbidden to him due to ihram becomes halal, even intercourse with his wife. The only exception is shaving the head, which remains Haram.

Secondary Issues Related To Taqsir

Pulling out the hair is not sufficient for taqsir. Rather the hair should be shortened with whatever instrument.

In Umrah Tamattu, halq could not be substituted for taqsir. If halq is knowingly and intentionally substituted for taqsir, it would be a Haram act, and a sheep should be offered as sacrifice.

Question 1: A person performed Umrah Tamattu but instead of taqsir pulled out some hair, being certain that this would suffice. He has now completed the Hajj. Is pulling out the hair permissible? What should this person do?

Answer: Pulling out the hair cannot substitute for taqsir. If it is done knowingly and intentionally, kaffarah should be given. But if it is done unknowingly, it invalidates the Umrah, turning the person's Hajj into Hajj al-Ifrad. If Hajj was obligatory for this person, he should, based on necessary precaution, perform Umrah Mufradah after the Hajj rites. He should embark upon Umrah Tamattu and Hajj the following year.

Ahkam Related To Umrah And Hajj at-Tamattu

Based on necessary precaution, Umrah Mufradah should not be performed after Umrah Tamattu and before Hajj at-Tamattu. But it would bear no problem for Umrah and Hajj at-Tamattu.

The pilgrim is not allowed to leave the Holy Makkah after Umrah Tamattu and before completion of the Hajj, unless there is an exigency. In this case, based on precaution, he should first become muhrim for Hajj and then leave Makkah. But if becoming muhrim causes him distress, he can leave without getting into the state of ihram.

People such as caravan attendants who have to enter and leave Makkah several times should perform Umrah Mufradah the first time they arrive in Makkah. They should perform Umrah Tamattu the last time they enter Makkah and go to Arafat to perform Hajj and wuquf after Umrah.

The impermissibility of leaving Makkah between Umrah and Hajj applies to the precincts of the present day Makkah. As a result, the pilgrim can go to any area that is presently part of the Makkah, though it was previously considered as being outside Makkah.

Turning Hajj At-Tamattu Into Hajj Al-Ifrad

If for no good reason and intentionally he has not got into the state of ihram and invalidated his Umrah, he should, if time is short for Umrah Tamattu, perform the Hajj al-Ifrad, based on necessary precaution. Then he should engage in Umrah Mufradah and carry out the Hajj the following year.

A person who becomes muhrim for Tamattu in the obligatory Hajj but who deliberately delays it until he runs out of time should act in accordance with the precept put forward in item above.