Surah Al-Fajr (89) 1/5 - Introduction

Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. Wa alhamdulillah Rabbil 'alameen. Bari' il-khala'iqi ajma'een, ba'ith il-anbiyai wa al-mursaleen. Thumma as-salatu wa as-salamu 'ala ashraf al-anbiya wa sayyid al-mursaleen, habibi ilahi al-'alameen, al-Mustafa Abil Qasimi Muhammad. Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad. Wa 'ala ahli at-tayyibeen, at-tahireen, al-mas'umeen, al-muntajabeen, alladhina adh'aba Allahu 'anhum rijza wa tahharahum tat'heera. Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad. Wa la'natullahi 'ala adaym ajma'in ila qiyam yawm ad-din.

Amma ba'ad faqad qala Allahu tabaraka wa ta'ala fi kitabihi al-Majeed, wa Qur'anihi il-hameed wa qawluh ul-Haqq. 'A'udhu billahi min al-Shaytan al-rajim. Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. "Wa al-Fajr , Wa layalin 'ashr , Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr , Wa al-layli idha yasr , Hal fee dhalika qasamun lidhee hijr" (89:1-5). Sadaqa al-Allahu 'aliyyul 'adheem. Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad wa ajjil farajahum.

Dear brothers and sisters, As-salamu 'alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. The Holy month of Ramadhan is the month in which the Holy Qur'an was revealed. As we read in Surat Al-Baqarah, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, says "Shahru Ramadhan alladhee unzila fihi al-Qur'an" (2:185). 'The month of Ramadhan in which the Holy Qur'an was revealed in'.

And Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, says 'Everything has a season and the season of the Qur'an is the month of Ramadhan.' And we do find a lot of mu'minin inclined towards the Holy Qur'an, reading it in this Holy month of Ramadhan, which is great, and we pray to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala that this reading and the recitation of the Qur'an does not stop with the end of the month of Ramadhan, rather it becomes a habit and we continue with it, Inshallah.

In the aim of developing an association with the Qur'an, especially in this Holy month over the next five nights, if Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, gives us the Tawfiq, we will briefly discuss Surat ul-Fajr. It is Surah number 89 of the Quran, it has about 30 verses and Inshallah, we will be discussing it in five parts if Allah gives us Tawfiq. Tonight, Inshallah, we will begin the series with the first five ayat of Surat al-Fajr.

Before we start, some of the merits of the Surah that are mentioned in the Ahadith. In one hadith by Imam Al-Ja'far Al-Sadiq, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh, he says: "read Surat ul-Fajr in your obligatory and non-obligatory prayers, meaning during the five daily prayers and the other Nafilah Prayers. For it is a Surah for Imam Al-Husayn 'alayhi as-salam, whomever reads it, then he will be with Imam Al-Husayn 'alayhi as-salam, on the Day of Judgment.

And as we go over the ayat of the Surah, the mu'mimin will Inshallah, have an idea as to how is this Surah associated with Imam Al-Husayn, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh. In another hadith, again, from Imam Al-Ja'far Al-Sadiq, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh, or actually narrating from Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam, he says: 'Whomever repeatedly reads Surat al-Fajr, "ja'ala Allahu nooran Yawm al-Qiyamah" - Allah will make his face illuminate with light,' Inshallah, he will have a noor on the Day of Judgement.

And Imam Al-Sadiq 'alayhi as-salam, says in another Hadith 'Whomever reads it at dawn, then he will be safe Inshallah from everything until the next dawn.' So within that 24 hour period, Inshallah, the mu'min will be at safety, at peace Inshallah. It is also to be recited and written down and hanged from the hip of the mu'min if he wants to have a son. When he approaches his wife in halal of course, Inshallah Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala will grant him a son who is Qurattu 'Ayn - blessed to the eye, Inshallah. So these are some of the merits of Surat ul-Fajr.

It's good to recite it, it's also mustahab to recite in Salat ul-Fajr. One of the Surahs to recite in Salat ul-Fajr is Surat ul-Fajr. Now if a mu'min does not have it memorized, you can pick up a copy of the Qur'an in your hand in Surat ul-Fajr for example, after reciting Surat ul- Fatiha, you can have the Qur'an ready and read Surat ul-Fajr from the Qur'an or from the devices that have Qur'an for example or Surat ul-Fajr available in them. So that's available there.

Now, let's come to the Surah itself. Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala says in the first ayah "Wa al-Fajr" (89:1). That first 'waw' the Wa al-Fajr, it's called 'Waw ul-Qasm' - means the waw of the oath. When we take an oath, as humans, we take an oath with Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, for example, we say 'Wal-Lahi' or we say 'Wa Rabb il-Ka'aba,' like Amir ul-Mu'minin 'alayhi as-salam, said when he was struck with the sword. He said 'Fuztu wa Rabb il-Ka'aba,' that waw, 'Waw ul-Qasm' means 'I have won, I swear by the Lord of the Ka'aba that I have won.' And he's taking an oath 'Wa Rabb il-Ka'aba.'

We swear by Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala swears by His Creation. So several Surahs in the Qur'an start with 'Waw ul-Qasm.' For example, Surat Ash-Shams. Allah says "Wa ash-shamsi wa adh-dhuhaha" (91:1) and then the next ayah "Wa al-qamari idha talaha" (91:2), "Wa an-nahari idha jallaha" (91:3) and so on, so forth. So Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala takes an oath in His Creation.

In Surat udh-Dhuha, Allah says "Wa adh-dhuha" (93:1), Wa al-layli idha saja" (93:2). So Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala is taking an oath. Here as well, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala is taking an oath in Al-Fajr. "Wa al-Fajr" (89:1). What is the meaning of Fajr? The Mufassireen have described several interpretations of Fajr. We will InshaAllah describe six of them, if Subhana wa Ta'ala gives us Tawfiq, for the sake of brevity.

The first is Fajr, the literal meaning of the word, 'Dawn.' The time of dawn, the time when Salat ul-Fajr begins. The time when the fasting begins for the mu'minin. The fast begins from the time of dawn, Fajr, until the time, about 10-15 minutes after maghrib, sunset. You know until Adhan ul-Maghrib. So from Adhan ul-Fajr until Adhan ul-Maghrib. So that is one interpretation of 'Dawn' and this time, is Holy Time. It is narrated that the Angels of the Night are still on earth at dawn, and the Angels of the Day descend to earth at dawn. So the earth is populated with angels at that time, that's why it's a Holy Time. It's mustahab for the mu'minin to wake up to Salat ul-Fajr on time, pray Salat ul-Fajr and then do Taqibat, read Du'as. For example, you can read Du'a Al-Ahad, which according to Imam Al-Sadiq 'alayhi as-salam, whomever needs it for 40 consecutive days, then InshaAllah, he will be among the companions of Imam Al-Mahdi ajj'al Allahu ta'ala farajahu shareef.

A mu'min can read the Du'as, of the Ziyarah of the Ma'sum on that day and all these Du'as are found in Mafatihul Jinan. You can read Du'a al-Sabah, for example, and so on, so forth. You can do Taqibat. Among the Taqibat that are recommended after Salat ul-Fajr, in a Hadith from Imam Al-Baqir, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh, he says anyone who says 70 times after Salat ul-Fajr 'Astaghfiru Allaha Rabbi wa atubu ilayh,' Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala will forgive 70,000 sins for him that day.

And he says, he continues, if anyone commits more than 70,000 sins per day, then there is no hope for that individual. Wa ayyadhu bi-Llah, imagine committing more than 70,000 sins per day, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah. Another Hadith suggests that anyone who wants to be kept away from the Fire of Jahannam on the Day of Judgment, let him recite 100 times Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad. Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad, wa ali Muhammad after Salat ul-Fajr.

So take your Tasbih for example, and 100 times Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad, Allahumma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad and so on and so forth, 100 salawat. And this will InshaAllah keep you away from the Fire of Jahannam on the Day of Judgment. So it's mustahab for the mu'min to recite these Tasbihat, these Du'as and of course, the Holy Qur'an. It's important for the mu'minin to recite the Holy Qur'an.

Imam Al-Ridha 'alayhi as-salam, says the mu'minin should recite at least 50 verses of the Holy Qur'an on a daily basis. Now, of course, this should is not Wajib, it's mustahab. It's good for the mu'minin to be associated with the Qur'an. Amir ul-Mu'minin Ali ibn Abu Talib 'alayhi as-salam, says: whomever recites 100 verses of the Qur'an from anywhere in the Qur'an, if you recite 100 verses, and then you say 7 times 'Ya Allah.' Ya'ni 'Ya Allahu, Ya Allahu, Ya Allahu, Ya Allahu, Ya Allahu, Ya Allahu, Ya Allah.' Then ask for your hajat and InsahAllah Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala will fulfill your hajan for you.

So therefore the time of Fajr is a Holy Time. It is populated with the angels. Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, says in Surat Al-Isra about the times of Salat. Allah refers to Salat ul-Fajr as 'Qur'ana al-Fajr.' "Inna qur'ana al-Fajri kana mash-hooda" (17:78) 'Wa al-qur'ana al-Fajr.' "Aqimi as-salata li dulooki ash-shamsi ila ghasaqi il-layli wa qur'ana al-Fajri. Inna qur'ana al-Fajri kana mash-hooda" (17:78). Establish the Salat from the time of "dulooki ash-shams" which is the time of zawwal, Salat ul-Dhuhr. "ila ghasaqi il-layli" until the time of, when the night falls and that basically is the time of Salat ul-Maghrib.

And interestingly, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala mentions 3 times for the Salat, although there are five daily prayers, but this asserts the methodology of the prayers in the Shi'i School of Thought, which is also coupled by Ahadith from Ahlul Bayt 'alayhim us-salam, that are narrated in both Schools of Thought, Shi'i and Sunni, where the Prophet, salla Allahu alayhi wa alih, used to sometimes used to combine his Salat ul-Dhuhr and 'Asr, even when he was not traveling or there was no rain.

So 3 times. Salat ul-Dhuhr, the minute you pray Salat ul-Dhuhr, the time of Salat ul-Asr commences and therefore mu'minin can pray Salat ul-Asr immediately after Dhuhr. And when a mu'min prays Salat ul-Maghrib, the time of Salat ul-'Isha' also commences after Salat ul-Maghrib. So one can pray 'Isha' immediately after Salat ul-Maghrib. And then Allah says "Wa qur'ana al-Fajr", and the Qur'an of Fajr. Allah refers to Salat ul-Fajr as 'Qur'ana al-Fajr.' "Inna qur'ana al-Fajri kana mash-hooda" (17:78). Indeed the Qur'an of Fajr, of dawn, is witnessed, it's being witnessed.

And some of the mufassireen say it's being witnessed by those angels who are populating the earth. So this is InshaAllah something important. "Wa al-Fajr" (89:1) and one interpretation is the time of Fajr, the time of dawn, which is the time when Salat ul-Fajr becomes wajib. It is the time when a mu'min begins his fast or her fast from Fajr until Adhan ul-maghrib, the Adhan of Maghrib.

Here it is also noteworthy to mention the following: the Fuqaha and the Shi'i School of Thought have differed in the opinion, as when does the day begin. So, for example, does the day begin with dawn? Ya'ni, when the Fajr is there, khalas, after Fajr it is day? Or does it begin with sunrise? There is differences of opinion, for example, Al-Marhum Ayatollah Al-Khu'i, ridhwanu-Llah Ta'ala 'alayhi, he was of the opinion that the day begins after sunrise. Whereas Ayatollah Sistani, may Allah prolong his life, he states that the day begins after Fajr. What difference does that make?

It makes a difference, for example, if someone goes to the Ziyarah of Imam Al-Husayn 'alayhi as-salam, and he wants to do Ziyarah on the Day of Arbaeen, on the 40th day. If he is doing the taqleed of Ayatollah Al-Khu'i, for example, he has to wait until sunrise and then recite Ziyarat ul-Arbaeen so that it counts for him that he's done Ziyarah on the day of Arbaeen to Imam Al-Husayn 'alayhi as-salam. Whereas a follower of Ayatullah Sistani can wait until Fajr and then after Fajr immediately, perform the Ziyarah of Imam Al-Husayn on the day of Arbaeen and it would count for him as the Day of Arbaeen Ziyarah.

Also, it makes a difference if someone makes a Nadhr, a vow, say, for example, somebody makes a Nadhr, that I make a Nadhr to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, Lillahi Nadhrun alayh, that on the day of Ghadir, on the day of Ghadir, I will give Sadaqa of, let's say for example, 10 pounds. On the day of Ghadir, I give a 10 pound Sadaqa, charity. If he's a muqallid of Ayatollah Al-Khu'i, he has to wait until after sunrise and then he goes and gives that 10 pounds in charity for some individual.

If he gives it after Fajr, so if, for example, he goes to the Masjid, prays Salat ul-Fajr and he comes out, he finds a poor person, he says, 'Oh, perfect, I have made the Nadhr to pay 10 pounds. This is a good opportunity for me to pay for me to pay the 10 pounds.' So he comes and pays the 10 pounds. For someone who os muqallid of Ayatollah Al-Khu'i, for example, or of another Marja' who is of that opinion, that the day begins after sunrise, he has not yet fulfilled his Nadhr. He has to wait until after sunrise to fulfil his Nadhr. Whereas if he is follower of a Marja' of Taqleed who says the day begins at Fajr, yes, he can give the Sadaqa after Fajr.

So you see, it does have some Fiqhi consequence. I just wanted to mention this for the Mu'minin as well, to have some clarification. So the first meaning of Fajr, according to the Qur'an or according to some of mufassireen of the Qur'an, it is what? It is the time of Fajr, the time of dawn. And why is that important? Because it is a Holy Time, a Great Time, a time witnessed by angels, many angels. That's one meaning of Al-Fajr.

Second meaning of Al-Fajr, it's a specific time of dawn. For example, some of the mufassireen say it is the dawn of the Day of Eid ul-Adha. The Day of Eid ul-Adha, when the Fajr comes, that is a specific time, that's when, "Wa al-Fajr" (89:1) is referring to that specific time.

Because the next ayah Allah says, "Wa layalin 'ashr " (89:2), and the 10 nights. So some of the mufassireen as we will come to InshaAllah, when we discuss the 10 nights and the interpretation of the 10 nights, some of the mufassireen, say the 10 nights refer to the first 10 nights of Dhul Hijjah, of the Holy month of Dhul Hijjah. Because these are Holy Times, the mu'minin who go to Hajj for example, they perform their 'Amal, during these 10 nights, then they go to Arafah for example, on the ninth day.

They spent the ninth day in Arafa, then the eve of the 10th, they spend in Muzdalifah and that's all in Dhikr ul-Llahi, Subhana wa Ta'ala. Allah refers to Muzdalifah as 'Al-Mash-arul Haram' - the sacred Mash-ar. The sacred guide to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. That's a place where mu'minin get guided to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. And the Day of Eid, of course, with all the 'Amal, the rumi of the Jamarat for example, the slaughtering of the sheep, the shaving of the head for example, or the taqseer and so on and so forth. So it's all times of Ibadah, times of Dhikr ul-Llahi, Subhana wa Ta'ala. So the second definition of Al-Fajr is a specifically the Fajr, the dawn of the Day of Eid ul-Adha.

The third interpretation of dawn, "Wa al-Fajr" (89:1) it's the dawn of the Day of Ashura, the Day of Ashura. And hence you can see, when we said that in the Hadith of Imam Al-Sadiq 'alayhi as-salam, the Surah is for Imam Al-Husayn 'alayhi as-salam, it has a link to Imam Al-Husayn, as-salamu Allahi 'alayhi. So some Ahadith suggest or some interpretations suggest that that day it's referring to the dawn of the Day of Ashura, because that is a day when the religion of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala was kept, as taught by Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alih. It was restored from being deviated, it was kept. And that's why we read in the Ziyarah of Imam Al-Husayn 'alayhi as-salam, Ziyarat Warith, we say 'Ash-hadu' - I bear witness, 'Annaka qad aqamtu as-Salah' - that you have established Salat. 'Wa atayta az-Zakat' - and you gave the Zakat and so on, so forth.

That's why one of the Maraja, one of the Ulema, may allah bless his soul. Whenever he used to stand for Salat, to pray, just about, before he does Takbirat ul-Ihram, you know, before he says Allahu Akbar, just before saying Allahu Akbar, he says 'As-salamu 'alayka Ya Aba Abdillah al-Husayn, wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.' And then he says 'Allahu Akbar.' So one day he was asked, 'Why do you do that? Why do you say, give salam to Imam Al-Husayn 'alayhi as-salam, before starting your Salat?'

He says 'Because we read in the Ziyarah, I bear witness that you established Salat. If it weren't for the sacrifice of Imam Al-Husayn, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh, on the Day of Ashura, we may not have been praying anymore. Our religion may have become, some like some of those religions where once a week you go to the place of worship and do some singing or do some rituals and then leave. Khalas, and then you can do whatever you want for the rest of the week, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah.

Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, saved the religion through Imam Al-Husayn, salamu Allahi 'alayh, and the sacrifice of Imam Al-Husayn, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh. And that's one of the interpretations of the Hadith that says, from Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alih, where he says 'Husayn is of me and I am of Husayn.' I am of Husayn. Ya'ni, my religion is going to be restored, my religion is going to be saved through my son Al-Husayn, salamu Allahi 'alayh.

So the dawn of the Day of Ashura, specifically that Day of Ashura, it's a Holy Day. And that's why the mu'minin from all over the world come commemorate Ashura. They remember Imam Al-Husayn as-salamullahi 'alayhi. It is one of the areas of strength of the Shia. And therefore we need to hold on and adhere to Imam Al-Husayn 'alayhi as-salam, and keep his traditions alive and revive his sacrifice and his martyrdom and those of his family and companions 'alayhimu as-salam. So the dawn is specifically now, according to the third interpretation is the dawn of the Day of Ashura.

The fourth interpretation of the dawn, according to some of the mufassireen, they say it is the spark of life. Not necessarily life, like, you know, for example, life, life like a birth, but rather the spark of life, of repentance, of Iman, of Ibadah, because that brings life to the human being. Sometimes you have an individual who, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah, maybe at a distance away from Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, away from Ibadah, Dhikr ul-Llahi Subhana wa Ta'ala, but then life is sparked back into him and he becomes a mu'min, muttaqi, 'abid, zahid and he ask Allah for forgiveness, for Tawfiq, for maghfirah, tawbah.

And in fact one of the things we do in the month of Ramadhan, one of the aims of the month of Ramadhan is for us to turn to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, and to return to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, asking Him for forgiveness, asking Him for repentance so that Inshallah, He forgives us and He accepts our deeds. So that is the fourth meaning.

The fifth meaning of Fajr, the end of oppression. You know, we sometimes, even in English we say this expression, we say 'It's the dawn of a new age, the dawn of a new era.' What do they mean the dawn of a new era? What! A new dawn has come? No, it's not physically a dawn, but rather it's the rise of a new era and it's the era of oppression.

So that's why, for example, there's an expression about Fajr ul-Islam, meaning that the dawn of Islam, when Islam came and started to eradicate oppression, eradicate for example ignorance and so on, so forth. So basically it is referring to the dawn where the oppression is over, is ended. And this reminds us, as we will read also in the third ayah today "Wa al-layli idha yasr" (89:4). When the night is moved or moving away. So as the night moves away, meaning one interpretation of that is oppression is never going to be everlasting. There will be a day when there will be peace, justice.

And that takes us to the sixth meaning of Fajr. Some refer to it as Imam Al-Mahdi Al-Muntadhar, ajal Allahu ta'ala farajahu ash-Sharif. In one Hadith by Imam Al-Sadiq, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh, from Jabir Ibn Yazid Al-Ju'fi, he says Al-Fajr, 'Wa al-Fajr' is Imam Al-Mahdi, ajal Allahu ta'ala farajahu ash-Sharif, but he uses a different word for the Imam. But I'll use this one here because the other one, it is mustahab if I say it, everyone to stand up, ok so I'll use this one.

"Wa layalin 'ashr" (89:2), he says and 10 nights, he's referring to the Al-A'imma, the Imams from Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba to Al-Hasan Al-Askari, those 10 Imams, from Al-Mujtaba to Al-Askari 'alayhim as-salam, are the 10 nights. "Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr" (89:3). "Wa ash-shaf'i" means Amir ul-Mu'minin wa Fatimah 'alayhum as-salam. "Wa al-watr" Allahu, la ilaha illa Huwa, wahdahu la sharika la,Allahu wahdahu la sharika la. "Wa al-layli idha yasr" (89:4), and when the night moves away, it is the dynasty of oppression that will be abolished InshaAllah, until the Imam Al-Mahdi, 'alayhi as-salam, comes back.

Now some people will ask, 'What about Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam ? Why isn't he mentioned in here? There is another Hadith which suggests that "Ash-Shafi" is referring to Muhammadin wa 'Aliyyin, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayhum ajma'in. But even, we can combine both of those Hadith because Fatima 'alayha as-salam, is the link between Nubuwa - Prophethood and Imamah. And that's why in Hadith ul-Kisa, when Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala wants to identify the People under the Cloak, what does Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala say? As we read in the Hadith, when Jibra'il asks him 'Oh Lord, who is under the Cloak? He said 'They are the People of Nubuwa, wa ma'dinu ar-Risalah.' They are Fatimah, wa Abuha - and her father and her husband and her children.

So Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad. Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala identifies the Prophet and Amir ul-Mu'minin and the Imams of the progeny of Amir ul-Mu'minin and Fatima tu-Zahra 'alayha as-salam , those ones, all through her, Fatimah, 'alayha as-salam. She's the link between Nubuwa and Imamah, which is basically what keeps the religion of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala alive and complete.

As stated in Surat ul- Maidah after Eid ul-Ghadir, 'Today, I have completed your religion for you and have bestowed my favours upon you and accepted Islam as a religion for you.' (5:3). With the Imamah, so Imamah and Nubuwa. Nubuwa, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala introduced the religion to us through Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alih, introduced the Qur'an to us through Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayh, gave us the Ahkam. But these Ahkam were established, this foundation that was built by Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alih, and the Qur'an and the Ahkam of Allah, this completed religion were established by the Imams 'alayhimu as-salam. So Fatimah, 'alayha as-salam, is the link between Nubuwa and Imamah.

So that is a Hadith from Imam As-Sadiq, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh, as well. So the Fajr refers to Imam al-Mahdi al-Muntadhar, ajal Allahu ta'ala farajahu ash-Sharif, who will bring the Dawn of Peace, the Dawn of Justice and end the oppression. OK, so that's Al-Fajr now, we have come with six meanings.

Again, just a quick review. The first meaning of Al-Fajr, it is the Time of Dawn. The second meaning is the Dawn of Eid ul-Adha. The third is the Dawn of the Day of Ashura. The fourth is the Dawn which brings the spark of life and that life, we refer to the repentance to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, going back to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, so the life of Iman - faith into the heart of the individual. The fifth is the end of oppression, and the sixth is Imam al-Mahdi, ajal Allahu ta'ala farajahu ash-Sharif. Ok that's Wa al-Fajr.

What about "Wa layalin 'ashr " (89:2)? 'And the ten nights.' Allah also swears here. One opinion, it is the first ten nights of Muharram. As we mentioned, this Surah has some link to Imam Al-Husayn, 'alayhi as-salam. One of the interpretations of Al-Fajr is the Dawn of the Day of Ashura and therefore the ten nights would be the ten nights of Muharram. That's one interpretation.

The second interpretation, it is the first ten nights of the month of Dhul Hijjah. The first ten nights of the month of Dhul Hijjah, and as we said, if it is the Dawn of the Day of the Hijjah, then it is the ten nights of the month of Dhul Hijjah. The third interpretation of 10 nights is the last ten nights of the Holy month of Ramadhan because Layali al-Qadr fall on these nights when the Qur'an was revealed in these last ten nights of the Holy month of Ramadhan.

So they're very holy nights. And some people think that with the last Laylat ul-Qadr, khalas, the month of Ramadan is finished, I can relax now. Rather, these last ten nights are Holy nights, so one should continue with the Ibadah and the recitation of the Qur'an, even after the twenty third night of the Holy month of Ramadhan. So that is something important. These three definitions.

The fourth definition of the "Layalin 'ashr " (89:2) is as I mentioned, the Imams from Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba to Al-Hasan Al-Askari 'alayhim as-salam. From Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba to Al-Hasan Al-Askari, these are, the ten Imams 'alayhim-us salam. So Al-Fajr is the Imam Al-Mahdi, ajal Allahu ta'ala farajahu ash-Sharif, according to one Hadith that we read from Imam Ja'far Al-Sadiq, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alayh. Ten Imams from Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba to Al-Hasan Al-Askari 'alayhim as-salam, and 'As-Shaf' is Amir ul-Mu'minin and Fatimatu az-Zahra, so this completes all 13 of the Ma'sumeen 'alayhimu as-salam. And we said in that Rasul Allah is included because Fatimah is the link.

And another Hadith states that Shaf'a is Muhammadun wa Ali, Muhammad wa Ali, salawat Allahi wa as-salamu alihima, and "Al-Watr" (89:3) is Allah. So the ten nights is referring to possibly the Imams. Ayatullah Sheikh Nasir Makarim Shirazi, in his Tafsir ul-Amthal or Tafsir Namoona, he says all these meanings are possible. We don't have to exclusively say it is this or this. The Qur'an could have several meanings and therefore all these meanings that we are given, we are giving right now are possible, are possibilities.

Ok, so ""Wa al-Fajri" (89:1), "Wa layalin 'ashr" (89:2) we know now what those means. "Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr " (89:3). What is the meaning of Shaf'i and Watr? As I mentioned, it is either Imam Ali and Fatima 'alayhimu as-salam, or Imam Ali and Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alihi wa sallam. Or it is referring to, Shaf'i and Watr is referring to the creation. What do we mean by creation? Shaf literally means even, two things, Watr means one. The whole creation is created in pairs.

Allah says in Surat Yaseen: Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. "Wa ayatun lahum al-ardu ul-maitatu ahyainaha wa akhrajna minha habban faminhu yakuloon." (36:33). "Wa ja'alna feeha jannatin min nakheelin wa a'nabin wa fajjarna feeha minal 'uyoon" (36:34). "Li ya'kuloo min thamarihee wa ma 'amilat-hu aideehim; afala yashkuroon" (36:35). "Subhana alladhee khalaqa al-azwaja kullaha mimma tumbitu al-ardu wa min anfusihim wa mimma la ya'lamoon" (36:36). Glorified be He, the One who created the pairs of everything from what they know and what they, from themselves and from what they don't even know. In other words everything is created in pairs. And this ayah confused a lot of interpreters of the Qur'an in the early days. How could be everything is made up of pairs?

For example, a wall. Is a wall made up of pairs? Ok, when you come to for example, humans, we know ok, male, female. Some of the animals ok, we know there's male, female. Plants, later on it was discovered there are some male plants and female plants and the whole process of pollination, for example that takes place. But what about things like a rock? Does a rock have male and female? Chair - does a chair have male and female?

Until physicists in the late 19th, early 20th century discovered the atom and discovered the electrons and the protons. Protons are positively charged, electrons are negatively charged, and everything is made up of atoms. Therefore, everything is made up of this pair of positive and negative. Without it, the atom would not be stable. And therefore, then some of the contemporary scientists, interpreters of the Qur'an said 'Subhana Allah, now we understand why Allah is mentioning that they're everything is in pair that it's created and you don't even know about it'. Now we know, we understand because of the scientific discoveries, but He alone stands as One.

La ilaha illa Huw - He is The One. Watr, "Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr" (89:3). I swear by the even and the odd, ya'ni by Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Allah swear by Himself. So that's one interpretation of Shaf'i wa al-watr. So in addition to meaning, for example, that it means the Imam Ali and Fatimah or Rasul Allah, salla Allahu alayhi wa alih, and Amir ul-Mu'minin , it could possibly mean, refer to the creation - how everything is created as pairs, but He alone stands as One.

"Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr" (89:3). Another meaning of Shaf'i wa al-watr could be referring to even and odd in numbers. Numbers are either even or odd. Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala is trying to point out to the significance of numbers. Indeed, numbers are so important. We use them in mathematics, in construction, in engineering, in building, even in our bodies. You have certain for example, chemicals in your body that have a specific amount. Scientists have come with a specific amount. If there's chemicals or compounds, they go above a specific amount, they could cause problems in your system. Glucose for example, if it goes beyond a specific value in your body, seven millimoles, then a person could become diabetic, wa ayyadhu bil-Lah, if they find too much sugar in the blood.

So these numbers not only affect engineering and astronomy and, for example, mathematics and so on and so forth, they affect us and they have a Fiqhi component as well. For example, when it comes to inheritance, it is all numbers. How much does a father get, how much a wife gets, how much the mother gets, how much do the children get? And so on, so forth. All are numbers. So numbers are extremely important. Allah is trying to point these numbers out to us.

"Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr" (89:3). Also they could refer to prayers, prayers. Prayers in general, because the prayers, the mandatory prayers that we pray they are either even or odd. Ya'ni all the prayers are even except for Salat ul-Maghrib, which is an odd, three numbers. So Allah could be referring to the value and significance of Salat. Or some of the mufassireen, they say that "Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr" (89:3), could specifically refer to the Day of Arafat and the Day of Eid ul-Adha. Why? Because it's the Day when you stand before Allah to be forgiven and then Insahallah on the Day of Eid, you are forgiven Inshallah. So specifically, it could be the Day of Arafat and the Day of Eid.

However, as we mentioned earlier, Ayatullah Sheikh Nasir Makarim Shirazi says it's possible that all these meanings are inclusive, ya'ni they are not independent. You can have all these meanings in the Ayat. Ok, so now InshaAllah, we understand the meaning of "Wa al-Fajr" (89:1) - The Dawn. "Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr" (89:3), "Wa al-layli idha yasr" (89:4). Sorry, "Wa al-Fajr , Wa layalin 'ashr, Wa ash-shaf'i wa al-watr, Wa al-layli idha yasr"(89:1-4). 'When the night moves away'.

And this night moving away again, could be referring to the actual night, how it disappears when the Dawn comes, how the day, for example, becomes the King of the Night and the people start to wake up. It's like a new resurrection, a new Qiyamah every single day. People are asleep and then they wake up from their sleep and you see people going to work and everybody is, when you go to the Metro, for example, especially InshaAllah, once this COVID era is finished, you see so many people, everyone is running after his own, you know, affair. Subhana Allah, just like a micro resurrection, a micro day of... When you look at, next time think about it this way. How many people in the Metro? This person is going this way, this person is going that way, this person has to go here and everybody is busy, busy, busy, buzzing in their own affairs.

That's an example where Allah is waking us up, Wake up, think of the Akhirah, think of the Day of Judgment. Think that oppression is not going to last. Think that problems in this dunya will not last. There will be a Dawn, there will be a Fajr. So that's why Allah says 'Is there an oath in all of this for those who have an intellect?' ""Hal fi dhaalika qasamu lidhee hijr?" (89:5) in the fifth ayah of the Surah. So a human being has to reflect upon the ayat of the Qur'an and remembers Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala and thinks of the Akhirah.

We ask Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala to grant us the greater understanding of the Qur'an so that InshaAllah we become among those who carry the Qur'an in our spirit, in our heart, in our mind, in our actions, in our faith and InshaAllah, we achieve the pleasure of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala through the actions of the enactment of the Holy Qur'an in our lives.

'A'udhu billahi min al-Shaytan al-rajim. Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. “Amman yujibu al-mudtarra idha da‘ahu wa yakshifu us-su’u”. “Amman yujibu al-mudtarra idha da‘ahu wa yakshifu us-su’u”. “Amman yujibu al-mudtarra idha da‘ahu wa yakshifu us-su’u”. “Amman yujibu al-mudtarra idha da‘ahu wa yakshifu us-su’u”. “Amman yujibu al-mudtarra idha da‘ahu wa yakshifu us-su’u” (27:62).

Oh Allah, forgive all of our sins. On this Holy month, Ya Allah, make us among the sincere followers of Muhammad wa 'aali Muhammad. Grant us their intercession and Shafa'a in this world, in the qabr [tomb], and in the Akhirah. We ask Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, to forgive all our sins past, present and future, accept our humble efforts and deeds, and grant us the ability to complete our fast. May Allah hasten the reappearance of our Imam Al-Mahdi Al-Mundhazar, ajal Allahu ta'ala farajahu ash-Sharif.

Allahumma kulli waliyyika al-Hujjat ibni al-Hasan, salawatuka 'alayhi wa 'ala aba'ih. Fi hadhihi as-sa'ati, wa fi kulli sa’ah. Waliyyan wa hafidhan, wa qa'idan, wa nasiran, wa daleelan, wa 'aynah, hatta tuskinahu ardhaka tau'a, wa tumattiahu fiha, tawilah. Bi rahmatika ya Arham ur-Rahimeen. [Du'a al-Faraj].

For the arwha of all marhumeen, mu'minin and mu'minat, for the arwah of the Ulema and the Shuhada', for the fulfillment of all the hajat, for the quick and complete recovery of all mu'minin and mu'minat who are ill, and to hasten the reappearance of our Imam Al-Mahdi, ajal Allahu ta'ala farajahu ash-Sharif. May Allah have mercy on those who recite Surah al Mubaraka al-Fatiha, with salawat 'ala Muhammad wa 'aali Muhammad. Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa 'aali Muhammad. Wa as-salamu alaykum, wa rahmat Ullahi, wa barakatuh.