Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. This is the third lecture in the Tafsir (exegesis) of Surah Al-Fajr series. The wiladat of Imam al-Hasan alayhi assalam, the 15th of the Holy month of Ramadhan.
Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. Alhamdulillah Rabbil 'Aalameen. Bari' il-khalaa'iqi ajma'een, baa'ith il-anbiyaai wa al-mursaleen. Thumma as-salaatu wa as-salaamu 'ala ashraf al-anbiyaa wa sayyid al-mursaleen, habibi ilaahi al-'alameen, al-Mustafa Abil Qasimi Muhammad [Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad]. Wa 'ala ahli at tayyibeen, at-tahireen, al-mas'umeen, al-muntajabeen, alladhina adh'aba Allahu 'anhum rijza wa tahharahum tat'heera. [Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad]. Wa la'natullahi ala adaym ajma'in ila qiyam yawm ad-Din.
Aal un-Nabi', Aal un-Nabi nujoomun fil waraa zuharu. Muhammadun [Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad]. Muhammadun shamsuhumu, wa al-Murtadha qamaru mutaharruna naqiyaatun thiabuhum tajris salatu 'alayhim 'ayna ma dhukiru.[Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad wa ajjil farajahum wa la'n 'ada'ahum.] Amma ba'ad faqad qaala Allahu tabaraka ta'ala fi kitabihil al-Majeed wa qur'ani hil hameed wa qawluhul haqq.
'A'udhu billahi min al-Shaytan al-rajim. Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. "Fa'ammal insanu idha mabtaalahu rabbuhu fa'akramahu wa na'amahu fayaqulu rabbi akraman. Wa amma idha mabtalaahu fa qaddara 'alayhi rizqahu fa yaqulu rabbi ahaanan. Kalla bal la tukrimuna al-yateem wa la tahaadhdhuna 'ala ta'am il-miskeen. Wa ta'kuluna ath-thuraatha aklal lamma, wa tuhibbuna al-maala hubban jamma." (89:15-20). Sadaqa al-Allahu 'aliyyul 'adheem. Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad wa ajjil farajahum wal an'ada' ahum.
Dear brothers and sisters, mu'mineen and mu'minaat. As-salamu 'alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh. The 15th of the Holy month of Ramadhan coincides with the wiladat of our second Imam, Al-Hasan ibn Ali, Al-Mujtaba salawaatullahi wa salaamuhu 'alayhi who was born in the holy city of Madina in the year 3 after hijra. The first grandson to the Prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa 'alihi wa salam who brought a bundle of joy and happiness to the life of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa 'alihi wa salam and to the muslims as well.
Tonight, if Allah gives us Tawfiq, InshaAllah, we will begin our discussion with the continuation of the Tafsir (exegesis) of Surat ul-Fajr. Today In Shas Allah, we will be taking a look at verses 15 to 20, and then, InshaAllah, we will take a look at how al-Imam Al-Hasan al-Mujtaba salawatullahi wa salaamuhu 'alayhi, taught us to implement these verses in our lives, InshaAllah.
So just as a recap, a quick recap. We talked about al-Fajr, the Dawn, and the meanings or some of the meanings associated with it. Then we also spoke about in the second lecture some of the examples Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala has given to us from previous nations, how mighty they were, how powerful they were, yet they disobeyed Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, so Allah destroyed them. Reminding us not to lose our purpose and our goal in dunya and in life, rather in creation and that is to attain the pleasure of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.
The next verses that we just recited from 15 to 20, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala talk about some tests, tribulations that He makes the human being go through. Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala mentions two kinds of examinations. He says in the Surah al-Fajr ayah15 Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim "Fa'ammal insanu idha mabtaalahu rabbuhu fa'akramahu wa na'amahu fayaqulu rabbi akraman."(89:15).
As for the human being, whenever his Lord tests him and grants him honour and blesses him, Allah gives him blessings, na'eem, he gives him dignity, integrity, wealth, maybe power, the human being then takes this, and translates it, says, 'My Lord has honoured me,' in the sense that Allah must be really pleased with me and that's why he's given me so much. And therefore, the human being sometimes takes these blessings as a way that Allah Subhana or interprets them in the means that Allah is happy with me. Allah must be pleased with me. And that's why He has blessed me with so much.
The blessings Allah gives us in dunya, they are to test us. Through these blessings, Allah would see who is a true mu'min, muttaqi, versus no, the one who pretends to be a muttaqi. For example Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, gives us the example of Prophet Sulayman a'laa nabiyyina wa alihi wa alyhi assalam. When he saw the power and the blessings of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala upon him, as discussed in Surat an-Naml (27), The Ant, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala enabled him to understand the conversation of the ant. Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala provided him with blessing of people or individuals, whether jinn or human.
In this case it was the human Asif bin Barkhiya, who was able to get the throne of Bilqis to him within a split of a second, a blink of an eye. When he sees all these blessings upon him, he turns to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, and he says, "Hadha min fadhli rabbi." This is out of the Honour or the Grace of my Lord, "Liyab luwani," to test me, to examine me "a'ashkuru am akfur"(27:40). Am I going to be grateful or ungrateful?
So, here is a test from Allah where he shows his submission and devotion to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. He uses these blessings in the obedience of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala and recognises that this is a test from his Lord. So he has to be careful as to how he uses these blessings from Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala upon him.
Another example Allah gives us in Surah al-Kahf. In Surah al-Kahf, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala in ayah number 32 says "Wadh rib lahum mathalan rajulain." And give them an example two men. "Ja'alna li ahadihimaa jannatain." We gave to one of them two gardens of vine and grapes, and We put a lot of palm trees or date trees around them, "Wa hafafnaa humaa bi nakhlin" and between them was a river "waja 'alna baynahuma zar'aa."(18:32) Between all this dates, trees and all these grapevines and the blessings of Allah, so many fruit and so many trees and so many blessings.
And then Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala says "Kiltal jannataini aatat ukulahaa." Both of the gardens give fruit and give MashaAllah so much blessings. "Walam tadh lim minhu shay'aa." He was not oppressed in any way. In addition, "Wa fajjarnaa khilaa lahumaa naharaa." (18:33) And we made a river run between them. So you see how much Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala had blessed him.
And then "Wa kana lahu thamar," and he had so much fruit. Ya'ni, these gardens were giving so much wealth, so his friend, his companion told him "Fa qaala li sahibihi," so he said to his companion "Wa huwa yuhaawiruhu." So he said to his companion while he is talking to them, "Ana aktharu minka maalaw wa a'azzu nafaraa."(18:34). I have greater money from you, than you and I have more power. I have, you know, servants and maids and children.
And then later on, He says, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala says "Wa dakhala jannatahu wa huwa dhaalimu li nafsihi." And he entered his garden and he was oppressing himself. He said, "I don't think this will ever go away." Subhana Allah. He's thinking, he's forgetting about the Power of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Allah has blessed him. And then look at the next verse. Allah says, this is now verse thirty-six. "Wama adhannus saa'ata qaa'ima," I don't think there is a Day of Judgement. However, even if there is "Wa la'ir rudittu ilaa rabbi la ajidanna khairam minhaa munqalabaa."(18:35) And if I am returned to my Lord, I will see even better than this in my return. What does that mean? He is thinking that because Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala blessed him with all these gardens and all this fruit and all this power, Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala has prepared better things for him in the akhirah.
So one should not be fooled with the blessings of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. All this blessings does not necessarily mean that Allah is pleased with someone. That's why Zainab al-Kubra 'alayha assalam, when she stood in the court of Yazid ibn Muawiya told him 'Do you think that with Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala enabling you to, bring us as prisoners from one town to another town, exposing us in such manner that Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala has favoured you over us? Haven't you read in the Qur'an where Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala says And let those disbelievers, "Wa laa yahsaban alladhina kafaru" (3:178), the disbelievers, the kuffaar, that We grant them, We give them which is good for them, rather We give them so that they increase in their disobedience and sins and they will have a humiliating punishment for them in the hereafter. So you see, sometimes Allah gives power to people in dunya, but to test them and sometimes, even Allah gives the kuffaar the disbelievers, so that they would increase in their disobedience to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala.
So having power in dunya does not mean or having good blessings in dunya, does not mean that you have attained the pleasure of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. And hence Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala says in the next ayah, "Wa ammaa idha mabtaalahu faqadara 'alaihi rizqahu fa yaqulu rabbi ahaanan." (89:16) And if Allah Subahan wa Ta'ala tests him and tightens his provisions for him, his sustenance, his rizq, gets restricted a little bit, he says, "My Lord has humiliated me, Qul Rabbi ahanan." So that's what people try to think that if Allah takes my wealth away, maybe Allah doesn't love me anymore, Allah doesn't like me. That's not the case brothers and sisters.
Take a look at the cases of the companions of Ahlul Bayt 'alayhim-us-salaam. Think of Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari ridhwan ul-Lahi Ta'ala alaihi, how he was sent in an exile. First of all to Sham, where he spent some time there. Later on, he was sent to Rabadha, where he died there out of hunger and thirst. You think Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala did not love Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari? About whom Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa-assallam, says that the ground has not seen nor has the green shaded a man who is more truthful than Abu Dharr Al-Ghifari ridhwan ul-Lahi Ta'ala alaihi. He is Sadiq. The Prophet established his truthfulness because the Prophet knew that one day he will be accused of lying by the people who will come later on, by certain individuals. The third Khalifa accused him of lying. The Prophet's hadith asserts his truthfulness ridhwan ul-Lahi Ta'ala alaihi and other people.
The companions of Amir al-Mu'minin alayhi assalam. How many of them have been persecuted? Have been killed? In fact, if you think of the close companions of Amir al-Mu'minin alayhi assalam, think about them. Just think for a second, if you close for your eyes for ten seconds or five seconds, and think which names of the companions of Amir al-Mu'minin alayhi assalam, reflect and flash in your mind. If you just close your eyes, what names do you think about? Malik al Ashtar, he was killed. Qambar, the servant of Amir al-Mu'minin alayhi assalam, he was killed. Hujr ibn Adi [Al-Kindi] was killed. Kumayl ibn Ziyad an-Nakha'i ridhwan ul-Lahi Ta'ala alaihi ajma'een was killed. Maytham at-Tammar killed. Uwais al-Qarani killed. Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr ridhwan ul-Lahi Ta'ala alaihi, killed.
So if you really think about all the close companions of Amir al-Mu'minin alayhi assalam, the close circle, all of them were killed As-salam ul-Allah alaihi. Ya'ni, hardly you will find someone of them who died naturally. So you see, that does not mean Allah doesn't love them. These are the greatest of the companions ridhwan ul-Lahi Ta'ala alaihi ajma'een. So when Allah takes money away from us does not mean that Allah doesn't love us, Allah is testing us.
So Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala says. "Kalla!." No, that is not how things work. "Bal la tukrimuna al-yateem"(89:17). You do not honour the orphans, so you have to take care of the orphans, especially in this month of Ramadhan, take care of the orphans. "Bal la tukrimuna al-yateem". Try to sponsor one, try to get food to one with as little as you can even, if you can't afford much, ya'ni, as much as you can, even if it's little. Amir ul-Mu'minin alayhi assalam says, "Don't be ashamed of giving little because depriving is even less."
That's one, "Bal la tukrimuna al-yateem," you don't honour the orphans. Second, "Wa la tahaadhuna 'ala ta'aam il-miskeen" (89:18) and you do not encourage people to spend for the orphans, for the destitute, for the poor. Miskeen is the destitute, the poor. You don't encourage people to spend.
Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, in Suratul Ma'un, the last ayah, He says "Wa yamna'oona al-ma'oon" (107:7). They deprive the plate, means they don't, they tell people, "Don't give to the poor, don't give them." Some people, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah have some psychological problems. They have some problems inside. And the reason I called them psychological, because they need to really get rid of these issues that they have on the inside. Some people think if I give you, then you will have as much as I have. And that's not good, I don't want to give you, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah. That's some illness that people need to grow out, give to others, share wisdom with people, give to people. And Allah will bless you in dunya and in akhirah InshaAllah.
Then what else? That's two. Three, "Ta'kuluna at-turathaa aklan lamma" (89:19). And you eat the inheritance. In ways that, like, you know, as someone who is en-devouring in, somebody who was really wants to eat it, and eat as much as he can. This, of course, is talking about unlawful eating of inheritance, lawful no, this is what Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala has decreed. But some people, for example, you might have one of the siblings who will take the majority of the inheritance to himself. He's not being fair to the others. Or sometimes they would deprive others from their haqq or they would take the right of others.
For example, if a brother, one like, for example, siblings. And one of them dies. And let's say they had partnership, and they had wealth established, for example. He has orphans, he has children young at the time, they're still young, they are unable to attain the or argue for the inheritance of their father. You'll find those guys, for example, will take that inheritance, those partners would take, for example, the inheritance of this man, and the inheritance of these orphans, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah. So in ways that are haraam. They don't distribute, they don't give. And even when they attain sometimes lawfully the inheritance, they don't share sometimes with anybody, they just keep it all to themselves. Sometimes you might have some poor kin to the best of your ability, you might be able to help somehow, in some ways. So one should try to invest as much as he can, try to help as much as he can.
And fourth, "Wa tuhibunna al-maala hubban jammaa." (89:20) 'And you love money dearly, you love money dearly.' And this what the ayah is referring to when people love money dearly, sometimes they don't care how they earn their income, halal, haraam, doesn't matter. They say business is business. And sometimes people think that if I fool you, then that is smart. If I lie to you, and they call it like a white lie, white lie, it's OK, it's not a big deal. I can earn a little bit more money from you. I can gain more from you. That's smart, some people think. But, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah, this is not smart.
Amir al-Mu'minin alayhi assalam, says, remember these words. In Nahjul Balagha, he says "Wama Muawiyatu bi adha minni". Muawiya does not have better tricks than I do. He said, in other words, he says, " If I wanted to be somebody who tricks people, I can do so. I can trick people, and they can, I can become, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah, have better tricks, than Muawiya. However, he continues on and I'm paraphrasing the words of the Imam salamullahi alaiha, not word by word, but he's basically saying that Muawiya does not worry about the akhirah. He does not think of the akhirah. His goal is just dunya and to have power in dunya. So therefore he doesn't care about cheating and lying and betraying another.
He, however, Amir ul-Mu'minin alayhi assalam, says we fear Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. Again I'm paraphrasing the words of the Imam salamullahi alaihi in this khutbah, in Nahjul Balagha. When you fear Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala you act by the boundaries within the boundaries of Allah subhana wa Ta'ala. Some people might accuse you of being naive, but you're not. So these verses teach us that in dunya, we need to really always think about Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala. In this dunya, we need to think about our akhirah. In this dunya, let's make the pleasure of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala our goal, not running after this dunya and trying to gain and attain as much as we can in this dunya.
And this here we come to al-Imam al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba salawaatullahi wa salaamuhu 'alayhi. This great Imam, the second Imam after Amir ul-Mu'minin salawaatullahi wa salaamuhu 'alayhi. He was born in the city of Medina. His father is Amir ul-Mu'minin Ali ibn Abu Talib salawaatullahi wa salaamuhu 'alayhi. His mother is Fatima-tu-Zahra salawaatullahi wa salaamuhu 'alayha. His grandfather is Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wasallam, and his grandmother is Khadijah al-Kubra as-salaamullahi 'alayha. And from his father side, his grandfather is Abu Taalib and Fatima bint Asad is his grandmother. What an honourable family, indeed, what a great family, what a great honour to be this child and the son of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi.
He was born in the city of Madina in the year three after Hijrah. This is the time when Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi, was not only the religious leader, he was also the political leader. So imagine being the grandchild of the ruler, the political leader of the society. Ya'ni, a person would have some sometimes develop some pride. And indeed, Imam Al Hasan was proud, but he was not arrogant wa ayyadhu bi-Llah. He did not have arrogance in him. But yes, he is the son of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi, the son of Amir ul-Mu'minin alayhi assalam. And the Prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam demonstrated his love to his family repeatedly, so much, reminding the people of their significance, of their greatness.
He was raised by the Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam. Fatima alayha assalam, would send him to the masjid of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi. He would listen to the khutba of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi, then he would come back home, and he would tell his mother everything the Prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam said in his khutbah, including if there was sometimes a new revelation from the Qur'an. He would memorise it and come back and tell as-Sayyida Zahra alayha assalam. So when Amir ul-Mu'minin salawaatullahi wa salaamuhu 'alayhi, used to come back home sometimes. And he would say to Fatima alayha assalam, that today, a new verse has been revealed to Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi. She says yes, and she would recite the verse to Amir ul-Mu'minein alayhi assalam. Amir ul-Mu'minin salaamullahi alayhi would be surprised and he would say, "How did you know ya Fatima?" And she would say, "Your son Al-Hasan told me." alayhi assalam.
This is building this character of this leader of the ummah. This leader of the nation. Abu Hurairah says, 'I saw Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam, hugging Al-Imam Al-Hasan salaamullahi alayhi and saying, 'Oh Allah bear witness that I love him and I love those who love him.' So this is how he was raised salaamullahi alayhi. In addition, the Prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam, included him, and then Imam Al-Husayn salaamullahi alahhi in important events, in defending Islam.
For example, the event of Mubahila. The event of Mibahila which happened on the 24th of the month of Dhul Hijjah or the 26th of the month of Dhul Hijjah. So this event on the 24th of the month of Dhul Hijjah, of Mubahila, in the year nine after Hijrah, that's when it happened. When the Christians of Najran came to discuss with Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi, and the Prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi, after discussing with them, told them, 'How about we do an invocation where we pray to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala and you pray to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala that he blesses the truthful and sends his punishment against the liars.'
Initially they agreed, but then they pulled out when they saw the family of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi coming with him. So the Prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi brought al-Imam Al-Hasan wa al-Husayn alayhim us-salaam in this important event, he included them, he made them participate. This adds to their strength and Iman and character. Even though they are Imams, the Prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi is teaching them, is preparing them, is helping them. So that they can become the leaders that they became salaamullahi alayhima. Ya'ni, these events increased the strength of these young individuals.
Amir al-Mu'minin alayhi assalam says, 'The Prophet sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi taught me 1000 doors of knowledge. Every door opens to a thousand doors.' Ya'ni, despite the 'ilm and the knowledge of Amir ul-Mu'minin alayhi assalam, he learnt from Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi. Same thing, Imam Al-Hasan, although he is an Imam un-ma'sum, and we believe in the Shi'i School of Thought that the Imam is born as an Imam. He's born as a ma'sum. Yet he can learn, they learnt from Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam.
So Imam Al-Hasan al-Mujtaba followed the teachings of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam, implemented the teachings of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam. And he saw what happened to his father and to his mother after Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi. He remained with his father, gaining knowledge from him.
At the time of the Khilafah of Amir ul-Mu'minin alayhi assalam, we talking about the Khilafah means the time of the political leadership. Otherwise Amir ul-Mu'minin alayhi assalam is Khalifat ul-Allah. He is the Khalifah, he is the true Khalifah of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi wa sallam. But when he took the political power, which happened for four years and eight months. At that time, Imam al-Hasan alayhi assalam worked with his father diligently.
His father had sent him to Kufa to garner some support, to gain some support. So he went to the people of Kufa, gave khutbah to the people of Kufa to support Amir ul-Mu'minin salawaatullahi wa salaamuhu 'alayhi, and then he brought that support with him to Amir ul-Mu'minin in the battle of Al-Jamal, the Camel. He fought there bravely in the Battle of al-Jamal. Then in the Battle of Siffin, he was with Amir ul-Mu'minin, in the Battle of Nahrawan, he was with Amir ul-Mu'minin salaamullahi alayhi.
So he fought bravely, then after his father, in fact, in Nahjul Balagha, there is very nice sermon or letter that Amir ul-Mu'minin alayhi assalam wrote after the battle of Siffin to al-Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba salaamullahi alayhi, in which he gives him so much admonishment about Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, the remembrance of the akhirah, how to treat the people, etc. It's a beautiful sermon, beautiful letter, beautiful letter written by Amir ul-Mu'minin in Nahjul Balagha.
After the martyrdom of Amir ul-Mu'minin salaamullahi alayhi, Al-Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba takes the responsibilities, the political responsibilities. People pledged their allegiance to Al-Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba alayhi assalam. In fact, a few years ago I was in Mecca and I came across a bookstore in Mecca. They had a book, in Mecca, in Saudi Arabia being sold. The title of the book was Al-Imam Al-Hasan, Khaamis al-Khulafa al-Rashideen, Imam Al-Hasan, the 5th of the rightly guided leaders, caliphs.
So, he's considered as the 5th rightly guided after the first four, he is the fifth. To us of course, in the School of Ahlul Bayt, he is the second after Amir ul-Mu'minin salaamullahi alayhi. Nonetheless, people pledged allegiance to Al-Imam Al-Hasan alayhi assalam, and he became the Khalifa. He took the responsibilities of power. His time, however, did not last for too long. His political leadership only lasted for six months, and that's due to setbacks.
While he was the Khalifa, when he was in that position of political leadership, he treated people with fairness. He treated people with justice. He respected the dignity of human beings, and that's something important, brothers and sisters. As a leader, one has to respect the dignity of others, has to respect others. And therefore he teaches us, "Bismillah, Al-Rahman, Al-Rahim, "Fa'ammal insanu idha mabtalaahu rabbuhu fa akramahu wa na'amahu fa yaqulu rabbi akraman." (89:15). Surely the human being, so for the human being, when Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala tests him and He grants him His honour and blesses him. Imam Al-Hasan alayhi assalam, told us and taught us, when you are at such position, you need to be submissive to Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala, and indeed he was salaamullahi alayhi.
Because of betrayals, because of setbacks, because of people turning against Al-Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba alayhi assalaam, including some of his close people, for example, his cousin, Ubaidillah Ibn Al-Abbas ibn Al-Muttalib. Ya'ni, Al-Abbas is the Prophet's uncle. He had a son by the name of Ubaidillah. Ubaidillah ibn Al-Abbas, not to be confused with Abdullah ibn Al-Abbas, no, he was ok. Ubaidillah ibn Al-Abbas. He was the Imam Ali's alayhi assalam governor in Yemen. Then Muawiya sent a commander by the name of Bisr ibn Urtat to Yemen. He attacked Yemen. Ubaidillah ibn Al-Abbas then ran away. He ran away. Bisr ibn Urtat came to his two children, he had two young children, Ubaidillah's children, and killed them in front of their mother. So he had two children killed by the commander of Muawiya's army. Now think for a second. See, if you had, God forbid, two people, two children killed by an individual, how would you feel towards that individual? When that individual is tyrannic, oppressive?
Time comes, at the time of Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba alayhi assalam. One day Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba alayhi assalam, sends him in the commandership of an army. Ubaidillah ibn Al-Abbas receives some money from Muawiya ibn Abi Sufiyan and promises that if you leave Al-Hasan, we'll give you money, we'll give you power, we'll give you authority, you'll be close to us, we will take care of you and and and and all these promises, so long and behold.
The army wakes up in the morning, and they find their commander has run away, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah. SubhanaAllah. This is what these ayaat are telling, teaching us. Allah says "You do not honour the orphan. You do not encourage people to give to the poor. You eat the inheritance so much, and you love wealth dearly." This is an example of loving wealth dearly, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah, to the point that he leaves the Imam of his time and turns to Muawiya ibn Abi Sufiyan who was responsible for the killing of his children.
See how sometimes the love of this dunya, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah, deviates us from the truth. That's why we read in a dua, there was a dua in which we say, 'Allahumma,' you can repeat after me. 'Allahumma arini, show me, al-haqqa haqqan, the truth, truthfully, fa'attabi'a, so I follow it, wal baatila baatilan fa'ajtaniba.' And the baatil, the falsehood as falsehood so I refrain from it. So you can repeat this dua.
'Allahumma arini al-haqqa haqqan fa'attabi'a wal baatila baatilan fa'ajtaniba.' That's one of the dua. We read also in the ayat, sometimes it's mustahab in the qunut to read this ayah, "Bismillah al-Rahman al-Rahim. Rabbanaa laa tuzigh qulubanaa ba'da idhadaitanaa wahab lanaa mil ladunka rahmah. Innaka anta al-wahhaab." (3:8). Oh Allah do not deviate our heart after you have guided us, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah. After guidance, achieving guidance, hidayah, we don't want to be misguided wa ayyadhu bi-Llah.
So when he experienced such setbacks, such problems, such betrayals, several attempts to kill him by some of his people who had been paid off by Muawiya, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah, to betray the Imam and kill, assassinate the Imam salaamullahi alayhi. But Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala protected him. He then saw that it was in the best interest of Islam and the pleasure of Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala and to prepare for the revolution of Al-Imam Al-Husayn alayhi assalam, that he holds a peace treaty with Muawiya ibn Abi Sufiyan. Because he was left with no supports. He wants, the final time he gave a khutbah to the people. He said, 'I am going to go camp at so-and-so place. Those of you who want to fight with me, come with me and we will fight Muawiya. But I need support. Otherwise, this power will be taken away from you and will be given to Muawiya.'
He goes and few people showed up, about 4000 people showed up. Muawiya had an army of over a hundred thousand people. Imam realized that if he fights Muawiya in this manner, he will be killed. He does not have enough people or Muawiya would try to humiliate, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah, the Imam, when he is the Khalifah of the Muslims, he is the Khalifa of the Muslims. Political leader. Muawiya would tell the Imam, 'Just like your grandfather had forgave my father and myself when he came to Mecca, I'm going to return the favour and forgive you.' So he would want to humiliate the Imam, wa ayyadhu bi-Llah .
Imam Al-Hasan knew of this. He had to expose Muawiya. So he then resorted to the peace treaty in which he listed several conditions, amongst them, one, for example, amongst them, he will not call Muawiya Amir ul-Mu'minin. So if Muawiya is not Amir ul-Mu'minin, he's not the Commander of the Faithful, then who is he Commander of? You know that tells you.
Second, Muawiya should stop killing the companions of Amir ul-Mu'minin alayhi assalam. Stop killing those companions. Muawiya should judge by the Sunnah of the Holy Qur'an and the Sunnah of Rasul Allah sallalahu 'alayhi wa'alihi. Among several, others, the last one was that if Muawiya dies, and Imam Al-Hasan is still alive, then the khilafah would go to Imam Al-Hasan. And if Imam Al-Hasan had died, then it would go to Imam Al-Husayn alahi assalam. Muwaiya agreed to all these conditions. Interestingly, when he agreed to the condition that he will stop murdering the companions of the Imam Amir ul-Mu'minin, it means is a confession. He's confessing that he's killing the companions of Amir ul Mu'minin salaamullahi alayhi.
So Imam Al-Hasan managed to expose him. And when he died, Muawiya died and he put his son Yazid, so he betrayed the last condition of that treatment, of that treaty, sorry, of the treaty, and therefore Imam Al-Husayn alayhi assalam now had all the ability to rise against Yazid ibn Muawiya, la'anatu al-Allah Ta'ala alayhi. So, see how he laid the foundation. Then, he lived for 10 years after that.
Imam Al-Hasan lived for 10 years. During these 10 years. He tried to show the greatness of Islam and Iman. He tried to demonstrate to the people how much they've lost in putting Muawiya as their leader, choosing him as the leader and letting him down. Letting Imam Al-Hasan down. For example, he would walk by the poor people one day. He would walk by the poor people, and he would sit down with them on the ground. They invite him for lunch, he sits down on the ground with them and he eats food with them. He accepts their invitation.
And he used to ride horses, and he used to really show the 'izzah, the honour of Islam. He wanted to remind people how much they've lost. Ya'ni, if you had supported us Ahlul Bayt, you would have gained dunya and akhirah. And this is an important lesson for us brothers and sisters. Whether we experience ease or difficulty, the true honour and integrity come from the obedience of Allah and Ahlul-Bayt alayhim us-salaam. Always adhere to them, stick to them, follow them, obey them, show your devotion to them. You will succeed in dunya and in akhirah.
After he had the meal with them, he tells them, 'I invite you now to my house. I accepted your invitation. I would like you to accept my invitation.' And he takes them home and he feeds them and takes care of them. One of the mu'minin, who were confused by the peace treaty of the Imam, came to him and told him. ''Ya mudhillal al-Mu'minin. Salaam, peace be upon you, Oh one who humiliated the mu'minin." He was confused. Imam Al-Hasan recognized this man was confused. So look at that respect and the high dignity of Imam's speech, the level of integrity in his speech.
He does not call him a name. He does not humiliate him. Imagine how painful it is when you go to someone who is knowledgeable, and you tell them you're ignorant. You're going to an Imam, ma'sum, and you tell him. 'You humiliated the Muslims.' Imam looked at him and he said, 'Your similitude is like that of al-Khidhr and Musa alayhim us-salaam.' When Musa alayhi assalam, did not understand the wisdom behind the actions of al-Khidhr, he objected. But then he realised. When he realised the wisdom, he realised the value of the actions of al-Khidhr alayhi assalam. And now you people don't recognize the value of my action. Later, when you recognise the value, you will realize how important it was.
Salaamullahi 'alayka ayyuhal Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba. As-salamu alayka yawm walitta, wa yawma stush hitta, wa yawma tub 'athu hayya. May Allah Subhana wa Ta'ala grant us Ziyarah in Baqiy' soon. The oppression against al-Imam Al-Hasan salaamullahi alayhi continues until this day and age where at the day of his wiladat, mu'minin are not allowed to go to his baqiya and read a majlis there and hold the celebrations there. They are not allowed to do Ziyarah peacefully and his Holy Shrine has been demolished salaamullahi alayhi. May Allah gives us the tawfiq to see the rebuilding of the shrines of baqiya soon InshaAllah.
Raise your hands in the dua, brothers and sisters. It's a holy day, a blessed day. May Allah accepts our 'amaal and deeds and all our actions and give us the shafaa of Al- Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba alayhi assalam.
'A'udhu billahi min al-Shaytan al-rajim. Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. Ammay yujeebul mudh tarra idha da'aahu wa yakshifus su'. Ammay yujeebul mudh tarra idha da'aahu wa yakshifus su'. Ammay yujeebul mudh tarra idha da'aahu wa yakshifus su'. Ammay yujeebul mudh tarra idha da'aahu wa yakshifus su'. Ammay yujeebul mudh tarra idha da'aahu wa yakshifus su' (27:62).
Oh Allah, we ask you by the great gate of hajaat al-Imam Al-Hasan Al-Mujtaba alyhi assalam, that you shower us with your blessings, make us and our children and progeny until the Day of Judgement among his sincere shi'a and followers. And grant us his shafaa' and intercession in this dunya, in the qabr and in the hereafter. Ya Allah, fulfil the needs of all mu'minin and mu'minaat . Grant quick and complete recoveries to all those mu'minin and mu'minaat who are suffering from illnesses and health problems. Oh Allah forgive our parents, have mercy on our children. Oh Allah, hasten the reappearance of our Imam ajj'alallahu ta'ala farajahu shareef and make us among his shi'a and his companions and supporters.
Everyone recite with me: Allahumma kulli waliyyikkal Hujjat ibnil Hasan, salawaatuka 'alayhi wa ala aabaih fi haadhi his sa'ati wa fi kulli saa’ah waliyyan wa haafidhan wa qa'idan wa naasiran wa daleelan wa aynah, hatta tuskinahu ardhaka tau'aa wa tumattiahu fiha tawilah bi rahmatika ya arhamu ar-rahimeen. (Dua Faraj).
For the arwha of all marhumeen, mu'minin and mu'minaat, your marhumeen, our marhumeen, the shuhada, the ulama, those who are contributing to these majaalis. May Allah bless them all. For the quick reappearance of our Imam alayhi assalam. For the quick recovery of all those who are ill. For the fulfilment of the hajaat of those who are in need and InshaAllah for this pandemic to end soon and for the people to get reunited together again, InshaAllah. May Allah have mercy on those who recite Surah al mubaraka al-Fatiha, with salawaat 'ala Muhammad wa'ali Muhammad. Allahuma salli 'ala Muhammad wa ali Muhammad wa ajjil farajahum wal l-an'adahum.
Wa s-salamu alaykum wa rahmatullahi wa barakatuh.
Bismillah Al-Rahman Al-Rahim. This is the third lecture in the Tafsir (exegesis) of Surah Al-Fajr series. The wiladat of Imam al-Hasan alayhi assalam, the 15th of the Holy month of Ramadhan.