Allamah Suyuti, Shah Abdul Haqq, Qastalani and Nawawi have included Bani Abbas Caliphs in the tradition of the twelve Imams. Apart from this, we find great praise and respect to Bani Abbas Caliphs among Ahlul Sunnat. Thus, when these Caliphs are such, how could their actions and words be not labeled as goodly innovation (Bidat Hasana)? But some Caliphs seem to be openly Shiite! For example Saffah, the founder of the Abbasid Kingdom, Nasiruddin Billah, Qahirbillah, Qaim Billah, Mutee Billah and Taalebillah; all of them were Shias, without dissimulation.
In such circumstances, it is necessary that their acts and words would also be considered ‘goodly innovation’ (Bidat Hasana). These Caliphs were such that scholars and rich people were supporting them, judges were giving them oaths of allegiance and sermon reciters prayed for them in their sermons. They were reciting Friday and Eid prayers behind them. And in the words of Khatib Baghdadi, the scholars of that time considered them honest, trustworthy and jurisprudents (Faqih). Then the acts and deeds of these Shia Caliphs must also be considered ‘goodly innovation’.
In such a situation, Ahlul Sunnat will have to do many things against their beliefs, which they could not have done, if they followed their religion properly. And they would have to accept many things that those people could not have accepted while properly following their religion. Here, I will quote from Tarikhul Khulafa1 some innovative affairs of the period of Muizuddaulah.
Ahlul Sunnat cannot avoid them. They are: On the gates of the Shia Mosque in Baghdad curses were written on Muawiyah, Abu Bakr, Umar, ‘A’ysha, Uthman. One night someone erased these inscriptions. The chief officer of Muiyiddaula decided to have them re-written. The prime minister advised him that instead of those inscriptions, the following should be written: Curse be on those who did injustice on the Progeny of the Prophet, and curse be on Muawiyah.
Apart from this, Muyiuddaula made such an arrangement that on Ashura Day (10th of Muharram), all the shops and business establishments should be closed and nothing should be cooked. The Caliph also constructed domes and ordered women to come out wailing and mourning for Imam Husayn (a.s.).
We should know that this was the first mourning program (Azadari) of Imam Husayn (a.s.) in Baghdad and this continued for some years. Muyiduddaula also performed the recommended worship acts (Aamal) of Eid Ghadeer on 18th of Zilhajj. Muibillah instructed the religious speakers to invoke blessings (Durood) on the Holy Prophet (S), Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn (a.s.) and their forefathers.
Now, Ahlul Sunnat should check whether they can follow such Imams or not? But when such Imams are included among the twelve Imams of Ahlul Sunnat, they must not turn away from them. There is no doubt that there are as many Shia Caliphs as there are non-Shia Caliphs in Bani Abbas. Then we must know that no one from Ahlul Sunnat does so much research, which they must do if they intend to defend their claim. That is, they must say that only those Bani Abbas Caliphs are included in the twelve Caliphs who are not Shias. But they never claim as such. Generally, all Bani Abbas Caliphs are said be among the twelve Imams.
- 1. Pg. 411