Table of Contents

The Greater Jihad

The Greater Jihad الجِهادُ الأكبَر

Forms of Jihad

أنواعُ الجِهادِ

1ـ الإمامُ الحسينُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ سُـئِـلَ عَنِ الـجَهادِ: سُـنَّةٌ أو فَـرِيضةٌ؟ فقالَ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ : الجِهادُ على أرْبَعَةِ أوْجُهٍ : فجِهادانِ فَرْضٌ وجِهادُ سُنَّةٍ لا يُقامُ إلّا مَعَ فَرْضٍ وجِهادُ سُنَّةٍ ، فأمّا أحَدُ الفَرْضَيْنِ فجِهادُ الرَّجُلِ نَفْسَهُ عن مَعاصِي اللّه‏ِ وهو مِنْ أعْظَمِ اجِهادِ وَمُجاهَدَةُ الّذين يَلُونَكُمْ مِنَ الكُفّارِ فَرْضٌ . وأمّا الجِهادُ الّذي هو سُنّة لا يُقامُ إلّا مَعَ فَرْض فَإِنَّ مجاهَدَةَ العَدُوِّ فرضٌ على جميع الاُمّة لو تركوا الجهاد لَأتاهم العَذابُ وهذا هو مِنْ عذابِ الاُمَّةِ وهُوَ سُنَّةٌ عَلَى الإمامِ وحَدُّهُ أنْ يَأتِيَ العَدُوَّ مَعَ الاُمَّةِ فيجاهِدَهم .

وأمّا الجِهادُ الذي هُوَ سُنّةٌ فكُلُّ سُنّةٍ أقامَها الرَّجُلُ وجاهدَ في إقامَتِها وبُلُوغِها وإحيائِها فَالعَمَلُ والسَّعْيُ فيها مِنْ أفضلِ الأَعْمال لِأنَّها إحياءُ سُنَّةٍ وقَدْ قالَ رسولُ اللّه‏ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : «مَنْ سَنَّ سُنَّةً حَسَنَةً ‏فَلَهُ أجْرُها وأجْرُ مَنْ عَمِلَ بِها إلى يَوْمِ القِيامَةِ مِنْ غَيْرِ أن يَنْقُصَ مِنْ أجُورِهِم شَيْئا».

1– Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) was asked about jihad, as to whether it was a recommended act or an obligatory one, to which he replied, ‘Jihad comes in four forms, two of which are obligatory, one of which is recommended but can only be undertaken with an obligation, and one which is recommended. The first obligatory jihad is that which a man wages against his own self in keeping away from acts of disobedience to Allah. This is one of the greatest forms of jihad. Waging jihad against those disbelievers who persecute you is also an obligation. As for the jihad which is recommended but can only be undertaken with an obligation is to fight the enemy, which is an obligation upon the whole community, and which if they abandon, they are all punishable for it. It is a recommendation upon an Imam, the limit of which is to come and face the enemy and fight them with his community. As for the jihad which is recommended, it is [embodied in] every recommended practice which a person performs and strives in its performance, its completion and its revival. Such an act, and the striving to perform it is one of the best deeds because it is a revival of the Prophetic practice, and the Prophet (S) has said, ‘Whoever establishes a good habitual practice, he will get his own reward for it as well as the reward of whoever performs it after him until the Day of Resurrection, without any decrease in their reward thereof.’[Tuhaf al-’Uqul, no. 243]

2ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : جِهادُ المَرأةِ حُسْنُ‏التَّبَعُّلِ.

2- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘The jihad of a woman is being a good wife to her husband.’[al-Khisal, p. 620, no. 10]

Enjoinment of Combatting the Self

الحَثُّ عَلى جِهادِ النَّفسِ

3ـ رسولُ اللهِ‏ِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : المُجاهِدُ مَن جَاهَدَ نَفْسَهُ في اللّه‏ِ.

3- The Prophet (S) said, ‘The one who truly wages jihad is the one who combats his self for the sake of Allah.’[Kanz al-’Ummal, no. 11261]

4ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : جِهادُ النَّفْسِ مَهْرُ الجَنّةِ.

4- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Jihad of the self is the dowry for Paradise.’[Ghurar al-Hikam, no. 4755]

5ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : رُدَّ عَن نَفْسِكَ عِند الشَّهَواتِ ، وأقِمْها على كِتابِ اللّه‏ِ عِند الشُّبُهاتِ.

5- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Prevent your self from fulfilling its desires, and make it hold fast to the Book of Allah during misgivings.’[Ibid. no. 5406]

6ـ الإمامُ الكاظمُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : جاهِدْ نَفْسَكَ لِتَرُدَّها عَن هَواها ، فإنَّهُ واجِبٌ علَيكَ كجِهادِ عَدُوِّكَ.

6– Imam al-Kazim (a.s.) said, ‘Combat your self to avert it against its desires, for this as incumbent upon you as fighting your enemy.’[Tuhaf al-’Uqul, no. 399]

The Greater Jihad

الجِهادُ الأكبَرُ

7ـ الإمامِ عليٍّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : إنَّ رسولَ اللّه‏ِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) بَعثَ سَرِيّةً ، فلَمّا رَجَعوا قالَ: مَرْحَبا بقَومٍ قَضَوُا الجِهادَ الأصْغَرَ وبَقِيَ علَيهِمُ الجِهادُ الأكْبَرُ . قيلَ: يا رسولَ اللّه‏ِ ، وما الجِهادُ الأكْبَرُ؟ قالَ: جِهادُ النَّفْس . وقالَ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : أفْضَلُ الجِهادِ مَن جَاهَدَ نَفْسَهُ الّتي بينَ جَنْبَيهِ.

7- Imam Ali (a.s.) relates, ‘The Prophet (S) dispatched troops [to a mission]. On seeing the returning armies from the battlefront, he said, ‘Blessed are those who have performed the lesser jihad, and have yet to perform the greater one.’ When asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah, what is the greater jihad?’ the Prophet replied, ‘The jihad of the self’, and added, ‘The best jihad is that of one who combats his own self that is between his two sides.’[Ma’ani al-Akhbar, p. 160, no. 1]

8ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : أفْضَلُ الجِهادِ جِهادُ النَّفْسِ عنِ الهَوى ، وفِطامُها عَن لَذّاتِ الدُّنيا.

8- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘The best jihad is combatting one’s self against its desires, and weaning it from the pleasures of this world.’[Ghurar al-Hikam, no. 3232]

9ـ الإمامُ الباقرُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : لا فَضيلةَ كالجِهادِ ، ولاجِهادَ كمُجاهَدةِ الهوى .

9– Imam al-Baqir (a.s.) said, ‘There is no greater distinction than jihad, and no jihad like combatting one’s self.’[Tuhaf al-’Uqul, no. 286]

What is Necessary for Combatting the Self

ما يَنبَغي في مُجاهَدَةِ النَّفسِ

10ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : جاهِدْ نَفْسَكَ عَلى طاعةِ‏اللّه‏ِ مُجاهَدةَ العَدُوِّ عَدُوَّهُ ، وغالِبْها مُغالبةَ الضِّدِّ ضِدَّهُ ؛ فإنّ أقْوى النّاسِ مَن قَوِيَ على نَفْسِهِ.

10– Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Struggle against your self in Allah’s worship just as one fights one’s enemy, and overcome it just as one overcomes one’s opponent, for the strongest of people is he who has triumphed over his self.’[Ghurar al-Hikam, no. 4761]

11ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : امْلِكُوا أنفسَكُم بدوامِ جِهادِها .

11– Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Gain control of your souls through constant self-struggle.’[Ibid. no. 2489]

The Fruit of Struggle

ثَمَرَةُ المُجاهَدَةِ

12ـ رسولُ اللهِ‏ِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : بالمُجاهَدَةِ يُغلَبُ سُوءُ العادَةِ.

12– The Prophet (S) said, ‘Through constant self-struggle are bad habits overcome.’[Tanbih al-Khawatir, v. 2, p. 119]

13ـ رسولُ اللهِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : جاهِدوا أنفسَكُم على شَهَواتِكُم‏تَحِلَّ قلوبَكُم الحِكمَةُ.

13– The Prophet (S) said, ‘Struggle against the desires of your self and wisdom will enter your hearts.’[Ibid. v. 2, p. 122]

14ـ رسولُ اللهِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : جاهِدوا أنفسَكُم بقِلَّةِ الطَّعامِ والشَّرابِ ، تُظِلَّكُمُ المَلائكةُ ويَفِرَّ عَنكُمُ الشَّيطانُ.

14– The Prophet (S) said, ‘Struggle against your selves through reducing food and drink, and the angels will protect you and Satan will flee from you.’[Ibid.]

15ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : جاهِدْ شَهْوَتَكَ وغالِبْ غَضَبكَ ‏وخالِفْ سُوءَ عادَتِكَ ، تَزْكُ نَفْسُكَ ، ويَكْمُلْ عَقلُكَ ، وتَسْتَكمِلْ ثَوابَ ربِّكَ.

15– Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Struggle against your lower desires, overcome your anger, oppose your bad habits, purify your self, perfect your intellect, and bring to completion the reward that is with your Lord.’[Ghurar al-Hikam, no. 4760]

16ـ رسولُ اللهِ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : رَدْعُ النَّفْسِ وجهادُها عن أهْوِيَتِها يَرفَعُ الدَّرَجاتِ ويُضاعِفُ الحَسَناتِ .

16– Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Controlling the self and combatting with it against its lower desires raises one’s stations and multiplies one’s rewards.’[Ibid. no. 5407]

17ـ رسولُ اللهِ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : بالمُجاهَدَةِ صَلاحُ النَّفْسِ .

17– Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Salvation for the soul is [attained] through self-struggle.’[Ibid. no. 4319]