Table of Contents

Man

Man الإنسان

The Dignity of Man

كَرامةُ بَني آدَمَ

1ـ رسولِ اللّه‏ِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : ما شَيءٌ أكرمُ علَى اللّه‏ِ مِن ابنِ آدمَ . قيلَ : يا رسولَ اللّه‏ِ ، ولا الملائكةُ؟! قالَ: الملائكةُ مَجْبورونَ ، بمنزلةِ الشّمسِ والقمرِ.

1- The Prophet (S) said, ‘Nothing is more honored by Allah than the son of Adam.’ He was asked, ‘Not even the angels, O Messenger of Allah?’ He said, ‘The angels are compelled [by predestination] like the sun and the moon.’[Kanz al-’Ummal, no. 34621]

2ـ رسولِ اللّه (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : لَيس شَيءٌ خَيراً مِن ألْفٍ مِثلِهِ إلّا الإنسانَ.

2– The Prophet (S) said, ‘Nothing is better than a thousand of its like, except for man.’[Ibid. no. 34615]

3ـ الإمامُ الصّادقُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ وقد سألَهُ عبدُ اللّه‏ِ بنُ سِنانٍ : الملائكةُ أفضلُ أمْ بَنو آدمَ ؟ ـ : قالَ أميرُ المؤمنينَ عليُّ بنُ أبي طالبٍ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : إنّ اللّه‏َ عزّ وجلّ ركّبَ في الملائكةِ عقلاً بلا شَهوةٍ ، وركّبَ في البهائمِ شَهوةً بلا عقلٍ، وركّبَ في بني آدمَ كِلْتَيْهما ، فمَنْ غلَبَ عقلُهُ شهوتَهُ فَهُو خيرٌ مِن الملائكةِ ، ومَن غلَبتْ شَهوتُهُ عقلَهُ فهُو شَرٌّ مِن البهائمِ.

3- Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.), when 'Abdullah b. Sinan asked him, ‘Is man better or the angels?’, replied, ‘The Commander of the Faithful (a.s.) said, ‘Allah, the Exalted, gave the angels intellect without desire, He gave the beasts desire without intellect, and He gave both to the sons of Adam. So a man whose intellect prevails over his desire is better than the angels whilst a man whose desire prevails over his intellect is worse that the beasts.’[Bihar al-Anwar, v. 60, p. 299, no. 5]

The Reason For Man’s Creation

عِلَّةُ خَلقِ الإنسانِ

4ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : بتقوَى اللّه‏ِ اُمِرْتُم ، وللإحسانِ والطّاعةِ خُلِقْتُم.

4- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘You were ordered to fear Allah and you were created for obedience and good deeds.’[Sharh Nahjul Balaghah li Ibn Abi al-Hadid, v. 3, no. 108]

5ـ الإمام الصّادق (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : خَرجَ الحسينُ بنُ عَليٍ على أصحابِهِ فَقالَ : أيّها النّاسُ ، إنّ اللّه‏َ ـ عزّ وجلّ ذِكْرُهُ ـ ما خَلقَ العِبادَ إلّا لِيَعرِفوهُ ، فإذا عَرفُوهُ عَبَدوهُ ، فإذا عَبَدوهُ اسْتَغنَوا بعِبادتِهِ عن عبادةِ ما سِواهُ . فقالَ لَه رجلٌ : يابنَ رسولِ اللّه‏ِ ، بأبي أنتَ واُمّي فما معرفةُ اللّه‏ِ؟ قالَ : معرفةُ أهلِ كلِّ زمانٍ إمامَهُمُ الّذي يَجبُ علَيهِم طاعتُهُ.

5- Imam al-Husayn (a.s.) said, ‘O People! Allah, exalted be His remembrance, has only created people so that they might know Him; and when they know Him they worship Him; and when they worship Him they become needless of worshipping others by His worship.’ A man asked him, ‘O son of the Prophet! May my parents be your ransom, what is meant by knowing Allah?’ He replied, ‘It is that the people of each era must know their Imam, to whom obedience is mandatory.’[Bihar al-Anwar, v. 23, p. 83, no. 22]

6ـ الإمامُ الصّادقُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ في جَوابِ زِنديقٍ سألَهُ : فَلِأيِّ عِلّةٍ خَلقَ الخَلقَ وهُو غيرُ مُحتاجٍ إليهِم ولا مُضْطرٍّ إلى خَلْقِهِم ، ولا يَليقُ بهِ التَّعَبُّثُ بِنا ؟ ـ : خلَقَهُم لإظهارِ حِكمتِهِ ، وإنْفاذِ علمِهِ ، وإمْضاءِ تَدبيرِهِ.

6- Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.), when an atheist asked him, ‘For what purpose did He create humanity if He had no need for them and neither was he compelled to create them, and nor would it be proper for Him to create us in vain?’, replied, ‘He created them to reveal [to them] His wisdom, to execute His knowledge, and to carry out His plan.’[Ibid. v. 10, p. 167, no. 2]

7ـ الإمامُ الصّادقُ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ في قولهِ تعالى : «ولا يَزالونَ مُختلفينَ إلّا مَن رَحِمَ ربُّكَ ولذلكَ خَلَقهم» ـ: خَلقَهُم لِيَفعَلوا ما يَسْتَوجِبونَ بهِ رَحمتَه فيَرْحَمَهُم.

7- Imam al-Sadiq (a.s.) said, regarding the verse, but they continue to differ, except those on whom your Lord has mercy —and that is why He created them”, ‘He created them so that they may perform that which will render them deserving of the mercy of Allah, so that He may confer his mercy upon them.’[Nur al-Thaqalayn, v. 2, p. 404, no. 250]

Man’s Weakness

ضَعفُ الإنسانِ

8ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : مِسكينٌ ابنُ آدمَ ! مَكْتومُ الأجَلِ ، مَكْنونُ العِلَلِ ، مَحْفوظُ العَملِ ، تُؤْلِمُهُ البَقَّةُ ، وتَقتُلُهُ الشَّرْقَةُ ، وتُنْتِنُهُ العَرْقَةُ.

8- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Pitiable is the son of Adam! His death is hidden [from him], his illnesses are invisible, and his actions are recorded. A mosquito causes him pain, a gasp can kill him, and a little sweat makes him stink.’[Sharh Nahjul Balaghah li Ibn Abi al-Hadid, v. 20, p. 62]

قيمَةُ الإنسانِ

Measuring Man’s Value

9ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : المرءُ بأصغَرَيْهِ : بقلبِهِ ولسانِهِ ، إنْ قاتَلَ قاتَلَ بجَنانٍ ، وإن نَطقَ نَطقَ ببَيانٍ.

9- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Man [‘s worth] is measured according to his two little organs – his heart and his tongue – so that when he fights, he should do so with a firm heart, and when he speaks, he should do so with eloquence.’[Ghurar al-Hikam, no. 2089]