Table of Contents


Assurance الأمان


وُجوبُ رِعايَةِ الأمانِ

1ـ رسولُ اللهِ‏ِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : إذا أمِنَكَ الرّجُلُ على دمِهِ فلا تَقْتُلْهُ.

1- The Prophet (S) said, ‘If a man trusts you with his blood [i.e. that you will spare his life] then do not kill him.’[Kanz al-’Ummal, no. 10909]

2ـ رسولُ اللهِ‏ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : مَن أمَّنَ رَجُلاً على دَمِهِ فقَتلَهُ فأنا بَريءٌ مِن القاتل ، وإنْ كانَ المَقتولُ كافراً.

2– The Prophet (S) said, ‘When a man assures another of sparing his life and then kills him, [know that] I renounce the killer, even if the victim is an unbeliever.’[Ibid. no. 10930]

Adhering To Sureties

الاعتِصامُ بِالذِّمَمِ

3ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) : اعتَصِموا (استَعصِموا) بالذِّمَمِ في أوْتادِها.

3- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, ‘Adhere to sureties [that you are liable for] in all firmness.’[Nahjul Balaghah, Saying 155]

4ـ الإمامُ عليٌّ (عَلَيهِ الّسَلامُ) ـ في عَهدهِ للأشتَرِ ـ : وإنْ عَقَدتَ بينَكَ وبينَ عدُوِّكَ عُقْدةً أو ألْبَسْتَهُ مِنكَ ذِمّةً فَحُطْ عهدَكَ بالوفاءِ وَارعَ‏ ذمَّتَك بالأمانَةِ، واجعَلْ نفسَكَ جُنّةً دُونَ ما أعطَيتَ، فإنّهُ ليسَ مِن فرائضِ اللّه‏ِ شَيءٌ النّاسُ أشَدُّ علَيهِ ‏اجْتِماعاً مَع‏تَفرُّقِ أهوائِهم وتَشتُّتِ آرائهِم مِن تعظيمِ الوفاءِ بالعُهودِ.

4- Imam Ali (a.s.) said, in his epistle to Malik al-Ashtar: ‘And if you make a covenant between yourself and your enemy or give him a surety [against life or property], then stand by your pact with loyalty and observe your liability with trustworthiness. Make yourself the shield for your word, for there is nothing from Allah’s mandates that all people agree upon, despite their diverse opinions on everything else, as much as they do with regards to respecting the fulfilment of covenants.’[Ibid. Letter 53]

Respecting Covenants of Protection

احتِرامُ الذِّمَمِ

5ـ رسولُ اللهِ‏ِ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : يُجِيرُ على اُمَّتي أدْناهُم .

5- The Prophet (S) said, ‘It is up to my community to protect those who are under them [i.e. non-Muslims living in Muslim lands][This refers to the free non-Muslim subjects living in Muslim lands who, in return for paying the capital tax, enjoyed protection and safety therein (ed.)].’[Kanz al-’Ummal, no. 10932]

6ـ رسولُ اللهِ‏ (صَلَّيَ اللهُ عَلَيهِ وَ آلِهِ) : المسلِمونَ إخْوةٌ ، تَتَكافَأُ دِماؤهُم ، يَسْعى بذِمَّتهِم أدْناهُم ، وهُم يَدٌ على مَن سِواهُم.

6– The Prophet (S) said, ‘The Muslims are brothers, their blood is co-equal, those under them strive to secure their protection, and they are like one hand against their enemy.’[Bihar al-Anwar, v. 100, p. 46, no. 6]