Lexicon Of Proper Names And Arabic Terms

Abdul Malik ibn Marwan: Umayyad Caliph, son of Marwan ibn Hakam who reigned from 65 to 86 Hijrah.
Abu Ali ibn Sina: Avicenna, Iranian physician, writer, philosopher (980-1037).

Abu Bakr: First of four caliphs who are called 'the rightly guided caliphs'.

Abu Dharr: A close companion of the Prophet (S).

Abu Hanifa: Theologian, jurisprudent, born in Kufah (696-767). The Hanafi School refers to him.
Abu Talib: Uncle of the Holy Prophet (S), Imam Ali’s (‘a) father, died three years before Hijrah.
Ahlul Bayt: ‘The people of house’, the Prophet’s family.

Ahmad ibn Hanbal: Theologian, jurisprudent (780-855). Hanbali school refers to him.
A’ishah: The Holy Prophet’s (S) wife, the daughter of Abu Bakr.

Ali ibn Abi Talib: First Imam, the Prophet’s cousin and son-in-law; the first who embraced Islam after the Prophet; the fourth Caliph of those who were named ‘the rightly guided caliphs’; martyred in 40 Hijrah at Kufah Mosque.
Ali ibn ul-Husayn Zainul Abidin: The fourth Imam (37-95 H).

Al-Muatazid: Abbasid Caliph.

Amir ul-Mu’minin: ‘Commander of the Faithful’; title attributed to Imam Ali (‘a) (and at times given to the other Caliphs).
Ansar: ‘The Helpers’; the inhabitants of Madinah who helped the Holy Prophet (S) ever since the emigration from Makkah to Madinah.
Asr: The afternoon; The Asr prayer is the third of five daily prayers.

Baqir: Title of the fifth Imam Muhammad ibn Ali (‘a).

Bilal: A black slave emancipated by the Holy Prophet (S). He was one of the first Muslims and the first Mu’azin (the one who calls to prayer).
Dawud: Prophet David.

Demosthenes: The greatest Athenian orator. His political speeches are largely taken up with the cause of Greek liberty against the pretensions of Philip II of Macedon, whom he attacked in the Philippi. (384-322 BC)
Du’a: Prayer, supplication

Eid: Festival of Islamic calendar

Ibn Ishaq: Son of Isaac

Fatimah: The Holy Prophet’s (S) daughter from Khadijah; wife of Imam Ali (‘a); mother of Imam Hasan and Husayn (‘a)
Fatwa: Religious decree passed by Islamic jurisprudent.

Ghazali: One of the greatest Islamic scholars, originally from Tus in Iran (1058-1111 H).
Ghusl: Major ritual bathing.

Hadi: ‘The Guide’; title of Imam Ali al-Naqi, the tenth Imam.

Hadith: The traditions of the Prophet and Imams.

Haram: Sanctuary (in this context, the Sanctuary of Makkah).

Hasan: The second Imam, son of Ali (‘a) and Fatimah (‘a).

Hisham ibn Abdul Malik: Umayyad Caliph, died in 125 H.

Hijaz: Region of Arabia, along the Red sea where Makkah and Madinah are situated.
Husayn ibn Ali: The third Imam, son of Ali (‘a) and Fatimah (‘a).

Ihram: State of ritual consecration; pilgrim’s garment.

Isa: Prophet Jesus Christ, son of Mary.

Isha: Evening; the prayer of Isha is the last prayer of five daily prayers.
Imam: Leader, guide, custodian

Jabir: Close companion of the prophet.

Ja’far ibn Muhammad: The sixth Imam; title: al-Sadiq (83-148 H).

Jahiliyah: Ignorance; this term refers to the social culture of pre-Islamic Arabia, the period of paganism.
Jihad: Holy struggle; war in the way of Allah.

Ka’bah: The House of Allah; situated in Makkah; called ‘Baytullah al-Haram’; constructed by Prophet Ibrahim (‘a).
Kaffarah: Religious expiation.

Katib: Scribe

Kazim: Title of Musa ibn Ja’far, the seventh Imam (128-183 H).

Khadijah: The wife of the Holy Prophet (S); the first woman to accept Islam; died three years before Hijrah.

Luqman: A sage whose name is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an; chapter 32 is named after him.
Madinat ul-Nabi: The Prophet’s city, Madinah.

Maghrib: Dusk; the prayer of Maghrib is the fourth of five daily prayers.

Mahdi ibn Mansur: Abbasid Caliph; father of Harun al-Rashid (158-169 H).

Malik ibn Anas: Theologian, jurisprudent (714-798 CE); Maliki school refers to him.
Malik Ashtar Nakhai: Close companion of Imam Ali (‘a); well-known for his courage; he was poisoned on the way to Egypt by Mu’awiyah.
Ma’mun: Abbasid Caliph who reigned from 198-218 H.

Mansur Dawaniqi: Abbasid Caliph; reigned from 136-158 H.

Maryam: Mary, mother of Jesus Christ (‘a).

Mina: Valley near Makkah; pilgrims have to perform certain rites of the pilgrimage in the plain of Mina.
Minbar: Pulpit; mosque pulpit.

Miqdad: A companion of the Holy Prophet (S).

Mu’awiyah: A bloodthirsty Umayyad Caliph; founder of the Umayyad dynasty; he waged war against the fourth Caliph, Ali (‘a), and poisoned Imam Hasan (‘a); his son is responsible for the massacre of Karbala.
Muhammad ibn Ali ibn Husayn: The fifth Imam; his title is ‘al-Baqir’ (57-114 H).

Al-Mutawakkil: Abbasid Caliph; he reigned from 233-247 H.

Negus: Also called Najashi; King of Abyssinia at the time of the Holy Prophet (S).
Nahrawan: Battle provoked by the Khawarij (Seceders) in 38 H against Imam Ali (‘a).
Naynawa: Nineveh, located east of the Tigris, opposite Mosul.

Naishabur: City in north-east of Iran, 120 km from Mashhad.

Qibla: The direction faced in prayer, towards Makkah.

Quraysh: Aristocratic tribe in Makkah to which the Holy Prophet (S) belonged; the violently opposed the Holy Prophet (S) and persecuted his companions.
Rak’at: Bowing; part of the sequence of prayer.

Rastan: Plural of ‘rast’ which means true, right, verity, just, but also loyal, veracious.

Al-Ridha’: Title of Musa ibn Ja’far, the eighth Imam.

Salman: One of the closest companions of the Holy Prophet (S) called Salman Al-Farsi (The Persian) because of his origin.
Shafi’i: Theologian jurisprudent (767-820CE) to whom the school of Shafi’i refers.
Siffin: Battle imposed on Imam Ali (‘a) by Mu’awiyah; occurred in the frontier between Iraq and Syria; lasted one and half years.
Sulayman: Prophet Solomon (‘a), son of Prophet David (‘a).

Talhah: Companion of the Prophet who revolted against Imam Ali (‘a).

Ta’qib: Zikr or du’a (supplications) following the prayer.

Uhud: Battle between Muslims and pagans of Makkah; occurred in the 3rd Hijrah.
Umar ibn Abdul Aziz: Umayyad Caliph, who reigned from 99-101 H.

Umar ibn Khattab: Second Caliph of ‘the rightly guided Caliphs’.

Uthman: Third Caliph of ‘the rightly guided Caliphs’.

Umm Salamah: One of the wives of the Holy Prophet (S).

Wuqyeh: A measure equal to 213 grams

Wajeb: Religious obligation

Walid: Umayyad Caliph; son of Abdul Malik ibn Marwan.

Wudhu': Ritual ablution done before performing the daily prayers.

Yahya: John (the Baptist)

Yunus ibn Mata: Prophet Jonah (‘a), Hebrew Prophet.

Yusuf: Prophet Joseph (‘a), son of Prophet Jacob (‘a).

Zakat: Alms tax, almsgiving, poor-due

Zakaria: Prophet Zachariah, Hebrew prophet (6 BC).

Zain ul-Abidin: Title of the fourth Imam.

Zikr: Liturgical glorification of Allah.

Zubair: Companion of the Holy Prophet (S); he revolted against Imam Ali (‘a) with Talhah and A’ishah and imposed the battle of Jamal on him (‘a).
Zuhr: Noon, mid-day; the prayer of zuhr is the second prayer of the five daily prayers.