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Part 2: Unity Of God (Tawhid) توحيد

Islam falls in the category of monotheistic creeds the adherents of which believe in the Oneness of God. This concept is referred to in Islam as Tawhid, and it is so important and so vast that volumes of books have been written about it. ‘Allama al-Majlisi1, for example, dedicates two entire volumes of his encyclopedic work Bihar al-Anwar to this most important tenet of Islam.

Tawhid instructs Muslims that: There is only one God, one truth, one straight line between two points: God and His servants, one family, one pair of parents, Adam (‘a) and Eve, one human race, one heaven (Paradise), and one hell. Had this tenet been practically implemented by the human race, no individual at all would have discriminated against another or thought that he is better than him. It is a universal code of human brotherhood and unity. We all are members of one and the same human family started by our father Adam (‘a) and mother Eve.

Since the space here is limited, we will have to be brief as much as possible. Had we been able to afford the space, we would have refuted the views of dualists and polytheists as well as those who believe in the concept of the Trinity and in God having a son, a daughter, a wife, or any family members or relatives!

Tawhid In The Holy Qur’an

The Holy Qur’an is an inexhaustible source of knowledge for those who seek to discuss this subject. We have preferred here to be very brief in bringing the reader the following aspects relevant to Tawhid as outlined in the Holy Qur’an. Additional interesting and useful information shedding light on Tawhid is included in two chapters to follow.

A) Allah Is Unique, Peerless

Qur’anic verses testifying to the fact that Allah (SwT), Praise to Him, is One and peerless and can never have a partner in His authority, or a similitude, nor can He have a son, a daughter, a mother, an aunt, a grandmother or any kin, are numerous; here are some of them:

(He is) the Originator of the heavens and the earth; He made mates for you from among yourselves, and mates of (and for) the cattle, too, multiplying you (humans and animals) thereby; nothing is like Him; and He is the Hearing, the Seeing. (Qur’an, 42:11)

Say: He, Allah, is One. Allah is He on Whom all (beings and things) depend. He does not beget, nor is He begotten, and none is like Him. (Qur’an, 112:1-4)

He is Allah, the One, the Subduer (of all). (Qur’an, 39:4)

Say: Who is the Lord of the heavens and the earth? Say: Allah. Say: Do you then take besides Him guardians who do not control any benefit or harm for themselves? Say: Are the blind and the seeing alike? Or can the darkness and the light be equal? Or have they set up with Allah associates who have created creation like His, so what is created became confused to them? Say: Allah is the Creator of all, and He is the One, the Supreme. (Qur’an, 13:16)

The command”say” in the verses above refers to a divine order to the Prophet of Islam (S) to put forth these very important questions and answers before those who used to argue with him about the Holy One. All these verses, and many others, testify that Allah (SwT) is the One and Only God, negating the theories of dualists or polytheists.

B) He Is The Only Creator

None besides Allah (SwT) has ever created anything out of nothing. He, and only He, is the Creator, whereas everything besides Him is a creation of His, including prophet whom He sent to mankind to enlighten them. Everything in the cosmos, the stars and constellations, the earth and its mountains, oceans, rivers, vegetation, small or large beings, and the humans who live on it, are all among His creations. Verses stressing this fact abound in the Holy Qur’an; among them are:

(Refer to 13:16 above)

Allah is the Creator of everything and He has authority over everything. His are the treasures of the heavens and the earth; as for those who disbelieve in the communications of Allah, they surely are the losers. (Qur’an, 39:62-63)

Such is Allah, your Lord, the Creator of everything; there is no God but He; whence are you then turned away? (Qur’an, 40:62)

Such is Allah, your Lord; there is no god but He, the Creator of all things; so, worship Him (and Him alone), and He has charge of all things. (Qur’an, 6:102)

He is Allah, the Creator, the Maker, the Fashioner; His are the most beautiful names; whatever in the heavens and on earth declares His glory, and He is the Mighty, the Wise. (Qur’an, 59:24)

(Allah is the) Wonderful Originator of the heavens and the earth! How could He have a son when He has no consort, and He (Himself) created everything? And He knows all things. (Qur’an, 6:101)

O men! Call to mind the favor of Allah on you; is there any creator besides Allah who gives you sustenance from the heavens and the earth? There is no god but He; whence are you then turned away? (Qur’an, 35:3)

Surely your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six days (periods of time, stages, phases), and He is firm in power; He throws the veil of night over the day, which it incessantly pursues, and (He created) the sun and the moon and the stars (and) made them subservient (to you, serving you) by His command; surely His is the creation and the command; blessed is Allah, the Lord of the worlds. (Qur’an, 7:54)

C) The One In Godhead And In Nurturing His Beings

There is only One God for the entire cosmos, existence. He deals with it as He pleases without having anyone to share His authority, or to help Him. He manages the affairs through many agents, the most noteworthy of whom are the angels who outnumber by many, many times, all the residents of earth, and whose duties and ranks vary a great deal. They carry out His orders most efficiently and effectively; He enables them to do so. Consider the following verses:

Surely your Lord is Allah Who created the heavens and the earth in six days (periods), and He is firm in power, regulating the affairs; there is no intercessor except with His permission. Such is Allah, your Lord; so, worship Him; will you not then mind? (Qur’an, 10:3)

Allah raised the heavens without any pillars that you can see, and He is firm in power, and He made the sun and the moon subservient (to you): each pursues its course to an appointed time; He regulates the affairs, making clear the signs so that you may be certain of meeting your Lord. (Qur’an, 13:2)

He is the Supreme above His servants, and He sends keepers (protecting angels) over you until, when death comes to one of you, Our messengers (angels of death) cause him to die, and they are not remiss. (Qur’an, 6:61)

Allah takes the souls away at the time of death (through His agents, the angels of death), and those that do not die during their sleep, He withholds those on whom He has passed the decree of death and sends the others back till an appointed term; most surely there are signs in this for people who reflect. (Qur’an, 39:42)

And seek assistance through patience and prayer, and most surely it is hard except for the humble ones. (Qur’an, 2:45)

Say: Allah’s is the intercession all of it; His is the kingdom of the heavens and the earth, then to Him shall you all be brought back. (Qur’an, 39:44)

And how many an angel is there in the heavens whose intercession does not avail at all except after Allah has given permission to whom He pleases and chooses (to receive His mercy)? (Qur’an, 53:26)

Say: None in the heavens and on earth knows the unseen except Allah, and they do not know when they shall be raised. (Qur’an, 27:65)

On no account will Allah leave the believers in the condition in which you are till He separates the evil from the good, nor is Allah going to make you acquainted with the unseen, but Allah chooses as His prophets whomsoever He pleases; so, believe in Allah and in His prophets, and if you believe and guard (yourselves against evil), you shall then have a great reward. (Qur’an, 3:179)

And when I am sick, He restores health to me. (Qur’an, 26:80)

And We reveal of the Qur’an that wherein there is healing and mercy to the believers, and it adds only perdition to the unjust ones. (Qur’an, 17:82)

Surely Allah bestows sustenance, the Lord of Power, the Strong One. (Qur’an, 51:58)

... And maintain them out of (the benefits thereof), and clothe them and speak to them words of honest advice. (Qur’an, 4:5)

Have you considered what you sow? Is it you that cause it to grow, or do We not cause its growth?! (Qur’an, 56:63-64)

... It delights the one that sows it, so that He may enrage the unbelievers on their account; Allah has promised those who believe and do good from among them forgiveness and a great reward. (Qur’an, 48:29)

... Allah writes down (through His agents, the angels) what they decide by night; therefore, turn aside from them and trust in Allah, and Allah suffices as the Protector. (Qur’an, 4:81)

Aye! And Our messengers (angels) are with them writing down (whatever they say and do)2. (Qur’an, 43:80)

As for those who do not believe in the hereafter, We have surely made their deeds fair-seeming to them, so they blindly wander on. (Qur’an, 27:4)

And Satan made their deeds fair-seeming to them and said: No one can overcome you this day, and surely I am your protector. But when the two parties came in sight of each other, he turned on his heels and said: Surely I am clear of you; surely I see what you do not see; surely I fear Allah. And Allah is severe in requiting (evil). (Qur’an, 8:48)

And We have appointed for them comrades, so they have made fair-seeming to them what is before them and what is behind them. (Qur’an, 41:25)

Say: Who gives you sustenance from the heavens and the earth? Or Who controls the hearing and the sight? And Who brings forth the living from the dead and the dead from the living? And Who regulates the affairs? They will then say: Allah. Say: Will you not then guard (yourselves against evil)? (Qur’an, 20:31)

Then those that regulate the affair (on behalf of and according to the instructions of Allah)... (Qur’an, 79:5)

... And you did not smite them when you smote (them, the enemy), but it was Allah Who smote (them). (Qur’an, 8:17)

Had there been in them any gods other than Allah, they would have both been in a state of disorder; therefore, glory to Allah, the Lord of the dominion, above what they attribute (to Him). (Qur’an, 21:22)

Neither did Allah take to Himself a son, and never was there with Him any (other) god; inthat case, each god would certainly have taken away what he created, and some of them would certainly have overpowered others; glory to Allah above what they describe! (Qur’an, 23:91)

D) Allah Is The Only Source Of Legislation

For the Muslims, Allah (SwT) is the only One Who legislates every rule of their lives. Such a code of legislation, i.e. the Shari’a, regulates everyone’s relationship with all others as well as with his/her Lord and Maker. The Holy Qur’an clearly indicates that no manmade law or constitution is acceptable, that the only canon is the Holy Qur’an. Verses requiring the believers to obey only Allah (SwT) are numerous; here are some of them:

You do not worship besides Him except names which you yourselves and your fathers have named; Allah has not sent down any authority for them; judgment is only Allah’s; He has commanded that you should worship none but Him; this is the right religion, but most people do not know. (Qur’an, 12:40)

Is it then the judgment of (the times of) ignorance (jahiliyya) that they desire? And who is better than Allah to judge for people who are sure? (Qur’an, 5:50)

Surely We revealed the Torah in which there was guidance and light. With it, the prophets who submitted themselves (to Allah) judged (matters) for those who were Jews, and the masters of Divine knowledge and the doctors, because they were required to guard (part) of the Book of Allah, and they were witnesses thereof; therefore, do not fear the people but fear Me, and do not take a small price for My communications. Whoever does not judge by what Allah has revealed, they are the unbelievers. And We prescribed to them in it that: a life for a life, an eye for an eye, a nose for a nose, an ear for an ear, a tooth for a tooth, and (that there is) reprisal in wounds. But whoever forgoes it, it shall be an expiation for him, and whoever does not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the unjust. And We sent after them in their footsteps Jesus (‘a) son of Mary testifying to what was before him of the Torah, and We gave him the Gospel wherein there was guidance and light and testifying to what was before it of the Torah, and a guidance, and an admonition for those who guard (themselves against evil). And the People of the Book should have judged by what Allah revealed in it, and whoever does not judge by what Allah revealed, those are they that are the transgressors. (Qur’an, 5:44-47)

The questions that force themselves on us here are: Are Muslims really following the Islamic Shari’a? Are they deriving their laws from the Holy Qur’an? Do their legal, social, and economic systems adhere to the Holy Qur’an? What about their blind imitating of the un-Islamic and anti-Islamic Western way of life? Why do they brag about following the so-called”international law” while knowing that it is neither the law of the Holy Qur’an, nor of the Bible, nor of the Torah…, that the Islamic Shari’a makes no room for any manmade code of any kind whatsoever? Will they ever wake up?

But they have first of all to purge their countries of corrupt rulers who fear nothing more than the Islamic Shari’a and who derive their strength not from public support but from the enemies of the Islamic Shari’a.

E) The Only One To Be Obeyed

Only Allah (SwT) should be obeyed. Obedience of His commandments manifests one’s submission to Him. A Muslim is required to do only what pleases Allah (SwT) and what He has decreed as permissible. Anything besides that is apostasy:

Be careful of (your duty to) Allah as much as you can, and hear and obey (Him), and spend (of what He bestows on you); it is better for your souls (that you do so), and whoever is saved from the greediness of his soul, these it is that are the successful ones. (Qur’an, 64:16)

And We did not send any prophet except that he should be obeyed by Allah’s permission. (Qur’an, 4:64)

F) Allah Is The Only Judge

Allah (SwT) is the only Judge, the Judge of Judges, the One Whose authority is above that of anyone else’s. His Word is the Law, His injunctions are binding on everyone. To accept anyone else’s judgment in preference to Allah (SwT)’s is to commit shirk; we seek refuge with Him against doing so. Consider the following verses:

(Refer to 12:40 above)

Say: Surely I have a manifest proof from my Lord but you call it a lie; I have not with me (to bring about) that which you hasten; judgment is only Allah’s; He relates the truth and He is the best of those who decide. (Qur’an, 6:57)

Then they are sent back to Allah, their Master, the True One; surely His is the judgment, and He is the swiftest in taking account. (Qur’an, 6:62)

O David! Surely We have made you a ruler in the land; so judge between men with justice and do not follow (your own personal) desire lest it should lead you astray from the path of Allah. (Qur’an, 38:26)

G) Rewards For Testifying That”There Is No God But Allah”

To articulate the testimony of La ilaha illa-Allah لا اله الا الله (There is no god but Allah) is regarded in Islam as an act of worship for which the believer will be richly rewarded. Such rewards are recorded starting from p. 20 of Thawab al-A’mal wa Iqab al-A’mal ثواب الأعمال و عقاب الأعمال by the great mentor Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ali ibn al-Husayn ibn Babawayh al-Saduq al-Qummi (d. 381 A.H./991 A.D.) and published in 1410 A.H./1989 A.D. by al-A’lami Establishment for Publications (Beirut, Lebanon). We would like to quote some of the very interesting and enlightening texts on those pages for the benefit of the dear reader:

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri3 quotes the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”Allah (SwT), the most Exalted and Sublime, said once to Moses (‘a) son of ‘Imran (Amram), ‘O Moses (‘a)! Had the heavens and all those who reside therein, as well as those of the seven (layers) of earth, been placed on one scale and La ilaha illa-Allah on the other, the scale containing La ilaha illa-Allah would surely have weighed more.”

The great sahabi Jabir ibn Abdullah‎ al-Ansari quotes the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”Two most sure things are: 1) Whoever dies testifying that There is no god except Allah (SwT) will enter Paradise and, 2) Whoever dies associating anything with Allah (SwT) will enter the fire (of hell).”

Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (‘a) quotes his great grandfather the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”Teach your dying persons to say: La ilaha illa-Allah, for it will smash their sins all of them.” He was asked,”O Messenger of Allah (S)! What about one who says so while enjoying good health?” He said,”That is more smashing to them, more so, and still more! Indeed, La ilaha illa-Allah is the best companion of anyone during his lifetime, when he dies, and when he is brought back to life again... Gabriel has said (to me): ‘O Muhammad! Were you only to see them when they are brought back to life again! Some are raised with white faces calling out: La ilaha illa-Allah! Allahu Akbar! And the faces of others will be black, and they will be crying out: Ya Waylah! Ya Thuburah! يا ويلاه! يا ثبوراه! (O woe unto me! O what a calamity!)’”

The Messenger of Allah (S) has said,”Whoever says: La ilaha illa-Allah will have a tree planted for him in Paradise of red sapphire; it is planted in white musk, is sweeter than honey and is more white than snow; its fragrance is better than musk, its fruit looks like virgins’ breasts, and it opens up for seventy outfits.”

Jabir ibn Yazid al-Ju’fi4 quotes Imam”Abu Ja’far” al-Baqir (‘a) who quotes the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”For everything there is something else equal to it except Allah (SwT), the Exalted, the Sublime, for nothing at all equals Him, and so is La ilaha illa-Allah: nothing equals it. Nothing can weigh heavier than one’s tear shed out of fear of Allah (SwT). If it trickles down his face, neither exhaustion nor humiliation shall ever touch it (his face) thereafter.”

The Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (‘a) has said,”Whenever a servant of Allah (SwT) says: La ilaha illa-Allah, it (the statement) ascends piercing every ceiling, wiping out his sins as it passes by them till it reaches its equivalent in good deeds. It is only there that it will stop.”

Abu Ja’far, Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (‘a), has said,”Nothing is more rewardable than testifying that There is no god except Allah (SwT), for nothing equates Allah (SwT), the most Exalted One, nor is there any partner with him.”

Abu Sa’id al-Khudri quotes the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”I have not said anything, nor has anyone else before me, like: La ilaha illa-Allah.”

“Abu Abdullah”‎ Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (‘a) has said,”The testimony of La ilaha illa-Allah is the price of Paradise.”

The Messenger of Allah (S) is quoted as saying,”Repeat La ilaha illa-Allah and Allah u Akbar as often as you can, for Allah (SwT) loves nothing more than them both.”

Of course the more you pronounce this short but very weighty statement, the more rewards you will earn. Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (‘a) has said,”Whoever repeats the testimony of La ilaha illa-Allah a hundred times is better than all other people that day except one who has repeated it more often than him.”

Imam al-Sadiq (‘a) has also said,”If one says La ilaha illa-Allah a hundred times prior to going to bed, Allah (SwT) builds him a mansion in Paradise, and whoever seeks Allah (SwT)’s forgiveness a hundred times before going to bed, his sins will fall down as leaves fall down from the trees.”

How Some Muslims View Allah

First of all, the references cited in this part are all written by some well known Sunni Muslim scholars of hadith. The numbers of their books’ volumes and pages reflect those of their original Arabic texts. Many of these books are yet to be translated into English. The translated ones, on the other hand, are quite often edited, and the editing includes the deliberate deletion of a good deal of the original text: the later the edition, the more the deletion.

Like Jews and Christians, some Muslims unfortunately view Allah (SwT) as having literally created Adam (‘a)”in His own image”. Reference to the Almighty creating Adam (‘a) in His image exists in the Book of Genesis of the Old Testament, and some people take it literally rather than metaphorically, symbolically.

On p. 1481, Vol. 4, of the English translation of Muslim’s Sahih (published in New Delhi, India, in 1977 by Nusrat Ali Nasri for Kitab Bhavan), Abu Hurayra purportedly quotes the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, created Adam in His own image with His length of sixty cubits...”5 Astaghfirullah (I seek forgiveness of Allah)…! In Bukhari, we read how Allah (SwT) is described as having the same physical appearance given to man. Read Bukhari’s Sahih, particularly the chapter on seeking permission to enter, p. 122, Vol. 2, where Surah az-Zumar is explained, p. 184, Vol. 6,”Kitab at-Tawhid” (Book of the Unity of Allah), where the verse saying,”... I created in My own hand,” p. 192, Vol. 6, where the verse saying, “[Some faces] on that Day shall be pleased,” in his explanation of the verse saying,”On the Day when a leg shall be uncovered” which exists in Surah Noon (i.e. 68:42), in his exegesis of Surah Qaf (Ch. 50 of the Holy Qur’an), in a chapter explaining the verse saying,”The mercy of Allah (SwT) is near to the doers of good” on p. 191 of Vol. 4, in his”Kitab al-Tahajjud”, in a chapter dealing with supplications and prayers at the end of the night… and elsewhere. Other references are indicated in the footnotes below.

Some Sunni Muslims, as indicated above, claim that Allah (SwT) literally created Adam (‘a) in His image6, that He has fingers7, legs8 and feet9. As for Allah (SwT) having fingers, readers who are not fluent in Arabic are referred to p. 1461, Vol. 4, of the English translation of Muslim’s Sahih where they will be reading about Allah (SwT)’s alleged fingers in the following”tradition” narrated by Abdullah‎ ibn Mas’ud10, by Mansur, and by al-A’mash. Both latter narrators narrate it in slightly different variations. Its unedited, hence the weak English, text is as follows:

A Jew scholar came to Allah’s Prophet (peace with him) and said:”Muhammad, or Abu al-Qasim, verily, Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, would carry the Heavens on the Day of Judgment on one finger and earths on one finger and the mountains and trees on one finger and the ocean and moist earth on one finger, in fact the whole of the creation on one finger, and then He would stir them and say: I am your Lord, I am your Lord.” Thereon Allah’s Messenger (peace with him) smiled testifying what that scholar had said.11

The same”tradition” is recorded in both its Arabic text and English translation on p. 113 of The Divine Traditions. In another”tradition” on the following page (p. 1462 of the English translation of Muslim’s Sahih), we are told that Allah (SwT) has hands. It is narrated by none other than Abu Hurayra who quotes the Messenger of Allah as saying,”Allah, the Exalted and Glorious, will take in His grip the earth on the Day of Judgment and He would roll up the sky in His right hand and would say: I am the Lord; where are the sovereigns of the world?”

With slightly different wording, the same”tradition” is narrated by Abdullah‎ ibn Umar, son of second caliph Umar ibn al-Khattab, and it is also reported by Abu Bakr ibn Abu Shaybah and is published in both languages on p. 114 of The Divine Traditions. Reference to Allah’s alleged hands exists in the following page (p. 1463 of the English translation of Muslim’s Sahih); here is its unedited text:

Abu al-Sa’id (Sa’id) al-Khudri12 reported Allah’s Messenger (peace with him) as saying that the earth would turn to be one single bread on the Day of Resurrection and the Almighty would turn it in His hand as one of you turns a loaf while on a journey. It would be a feast arranged in the honor of the people of Paradise. He (the narrator) further narrated that a person from among the Jews came and he said: Abu al-Qasim, may the Compassionate Lord be pleased with you! May I inform you about the feast arranged in honor of the people of Paradise on the Day of Resurrection? He said: Do it, of course.

He said: The earth would become one single bread. Then Allah’s Messenger (peace with him) looked towards us and laughed until his molar teeth became visible13. He then again said: May I inform you about that with which they would season it? He said: Do it, of course. He said: Their seasoning would be balam and fish. The Companions of the Holy Prophet said: What is this balam? He said: Ox and fish from whose excessive livers seventy thousand people would be able to eat.

Since when did the Prophet of Allah (S) need the Jews to tell him about the Hereafter?! Could the Jews have told him better than arch-angel Gabriel? This is how Judaica crept into Islamic literature, thanks to Abu Hurayra and his likes, wreaking havoc in and corrupting the Islamic faith. Laughter is not at all dignifying.

Whenever a Muslim laughs, he/she is supposed to seek Allah’s forgiveness and say,”Allahomma La tamqutni اللهم لا تمقتني (O Allah! Do not despise me!)” One can and should always smile and be optimistic, but he/she should not audibly laugh. Such is the Islamic code of etiquette. Yet there are numerous references to the Prophet laughing in ahadith the authenticity of which leaves much to be desired. Whenever you laugh, you ought to remember verse 82 of Surah Bara’a:

“So they shall laugh a little and weep a lot as a recompense for what they earned” (Qur’an, 9:82).

Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (‘a) quotes his forefathers citing the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”A good deal of jesting is not at all dignifying, while a good deal of laughter wipes out ‘iman (conviction).”14 Imam al-Sadiq has also quoted his father Imam Muhammad al-Baqir (‘a) as saying,” (Prophet) David (‘a) said to (his son, later Prophet) Solomon (‘a):

‘O son! Beware of laughing a lot, for a good deal of laughter leaves a servant of Allah (SwT) very poor on the Day of Judgment.’”15 Abu Abdullah‎, Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (‘a), has also said,”Three things invoke Allah (SwT)’s contempt: one sleeps without having kept a vigil, laughs without having witnessed something extraordinary, and one who eats though his stomach is already full.”16

One of the pieces of advice given by the Messenger of Allah (S) to Abu Dharr al-Ghifari was this one which is recorded in ‘Uyoon Akhbar ar-Ridha:”Strange it is how one who knows that there is the fire (of hell) and who still laughs.” He has also said,”Beware of much laughter, for it causes the death of the heart.”17

The Messenger of Allah (S) always smiled but never laughed. As a matter of fact, to smile in the face of your Muslim brother is equivalent to paying charity, according to one hadith. One day the Messenger of Allah (S) passed by a band of young Ansaris who were talking and laughing heartily, so he said to them,”O folks! Anyone among you who is deceived by his hopes and is short of doing good deeds should look at the graves and be admonished about the life to come. And remember death, for it shall put an end to each and every enjoyment.”18

The readers may tolerate reading about the Prophet laughing, but what is their conclusion when they come across the claim that our Maker and Creator, too, laughs?! References to Allah laughing exist in lengthy”traditions” narrated supposedly by Mu’ath ibn Fudalah معاذ بن فضاله who quotes Hisham quoting Qatadah19 quoting Anas ibn Malik as recorded on pp. 119-120 of The Divine Traditions. It depicts one of the scenes on the Day of Judgment.

A variation of it is narrated by Abd al-’Aziz ibn Abdullah‎ who quotes Ibrahim ibn Sa’d quoting Ibn Shihab quoting ‘Ata ibn Yazid al-Laythi quoting Abu Hurayra, and it is recorded by al-Bukhari and cited on pp. 121-122 of The Divine Traditions. We do not think it is worth quoting here…

Some Muslims, due to their limited knowledge, unfortunately also claim that Allah (SwT) occupies a certain space and travels from one place to another, building their argument not on any Qur’anic verse but on a tradition wherein the Messenger of Allah (S) supposedly said,”Our Lord, before creating His creation, did not have anything with Him; underneath Him was air; above Him was air, then He created His throne on water.”20

They also quote the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”His ‘Arsh was over His heavens like this (then he demonstrated with his finger the shape of a dome), and He mounted it as a rider mounts over the saddle of his beast of burden.”21 They also quote him as saying,”Allah (SwT) descends at the last part of the night from the heavens to the lower earth and says, ‘Who is there to ask Me, so I may respond to him, and who is there to ask Me, so I may give him?’22

They also quote him as saying,”Allah (SwT) descends during the night of the middle of the month of Sha’ban to the lower heavens where He forgives...”23 They also quote him as saying the following about the Day of Judgment:”It will be said to hell: ‘Are you filled up?’ It will say, ‘Is there any more?’

So the Lord, Blessed and Exalted is He, will put His leg into it, whereupon it will say, ‘Now I am full!’” In another version of this so-called”tradition”, Prophet Muhammad (S) is quoted as supposedly saying,”As to the fire (of hell), it will not be filled up until He puts His foot (this time it is not the whole leg but only the foot!) in it, whereupon it will say, ‘Now, only now, am I full!’ It is then that it will be full, and each of its parts will close in on the other.”24 Similar variations of this”tradition” are narrated by Qatadah who quotes Anas ibn Malik.

Some Sunni Muslims claim that Allah (SwT) will be seen by Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah (S), who will have audience with Him, as well as by everyone else on the Day of Judgment. They quote the Messenger of Allah (S) as saying,”The believers will come to Me for intercession after all prophets refuse to intercede on their behalf, so I will set out and seek audience with my Lord [make an appointment?!], and I will be granted audience with Him. Once I see my Lord, I shall fall down prostrating... Then I shall seek His intercession, and He will draw a line for me, so I shall let them enter Paradise. Then I shall go back to my Lord. Once I see Him, I shall fall prostrating..., etc.”25

According to this so-called”tradition”,26 the Almighty is confined to a specific place where He is visited by the Messenger of Allah (S) who recognizes Him on seeing Him... Imagine! An entire chapter in The Divine Traditions is dedicated to the believers allegedly seeing their Lord. It starts on p. 157.

The narrators who narrate such”traditions” include: Ubaydullah ibn Umar ibn Maysarah, Abd al-Rahman ibn Mahdi, Hammad ibn Salamah, Thabit al-Bunani, Abd al-Rahman ibn Abu Layla, Shuhayb, Jabir ibn Abdullah‎, Saheeb, and others. They are recorded in the hadith and sunan books of Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, al-Tirmidhi, and al-Nisa’i.

Some Muslims also quote the Messenger of Allah (S) as supposedly saying,”Allah (SwT), Blessed and Exalted is He, will descend on the Day of Judgment to His servants in order to judge between them.”27 They claim that he said,”You shall see your God with your own eyes.”28 They claim that Muslims will see their God on the Day of Judgment just as they see the moon without suffering any pain while looking at Him.29 They go beyond that to cite the Almighty saying,”Whoever worships something, let him follow it.” So, they proceed to say,”Some people will follow the sun while others will follow the moon, while still others will follow the tyrants, and this nation shall stay including its hypocrites. Allah (SwT) will then come to them not in the shape whereby they know Him, and He will say, ‘I am your God.’

They will say, ‘We seek refuge with Allah (SwT) against you. We shall stay here till our God comes to us. So once our God comes to us, we shall recognize Him.’” It is then that Allah (SwT) will go to them in the shape whereby they know Him, and He will say, ‘I am your God.’ They will say, ‘You are our Lord,’ and they shall follow Him... etc.”30 Another”tradition” states the following:

So when nobody remains except the righteous and the libertine who worshipped Allah (SwT), the Lord of the Worlds will come to them in the form wherein they saw Him, and He will ask them,”What are you waiting for? Each nation should follow what it used to worship.” They will say,”We are waiting for our Lord Whom we worshipped.”“I am your Lord,” He will say. They will twice or thrice respond by saying,”We do not associate any with Allah (SwT)...” He will ask them,”Is there any [distinguishing] mark whereby you can recognize Him?”

They will say,”Yes, the leg.” So He will uncover His leg, whereupon they will fall prostrating. Then they will raise their heads and see Him in the form whereby they saw Him the first time. It is then that He will say,”I am your Lord.” They will say,”You are our Lord.”31

And Allah (SwT) supposedly speaks to His servants on the Day of Judgment and those near and far will hear His voice as we are told in the following”tradition” compiled and published in The Divine Traditions (Al-Ahadith al-Qudsiyya); its text here exists on p. 226 and is unedited, hence its pathetic English:

Jabir (ra)32 narrated on the authority of Abdullah‎ bin Unais (ra) who said,”Allah (SwT) will gather the people and call them with a Voice which will be heard by those who will be far away and those who will be near, bysaying, ‘I am the King; I am the Daiyan (The one who Judges people on their deeds after calling them to account).” Bukhari transmitted it. (The Book [of] Monotheism; chapter: The statement of Allah (SwT),

“No intercession avails with Him except for him whom He permits” (Qur’an, 34:23).

Some misled and misleading Muslims, therefore, believe that Allah (SwT) will speak to His servants who will be permitted to enter into His Paradise as the above cited quotation implies. There is another lengthy”tradition” on pp. 160-161 of The Divine Traditions transmitted by Sa’id ibn al-Musayyab who met Abu Hurayra who informed him of it. A portion of it states, as the poorly translated text, which is cited here without being edited, reads, as follows:

Abu Huraira told that he asked,”O Allah’s Messenger, shall we see our Lord?” To which he replied,”Yes, are you in doubt about seeing the sun and the moon on the night when it is full?”

On receiving the reply that they were not, he said,”Similarly you will have no doubts about the vision of your Lord, and no man will remain in that assembly without Allah (SwT) conversing with him, till he says to one of them, ‘So and so son of so and so, do you remember the day you said such-and-such?’ And He will remind him of one of the dishonest things he did in the world. He will say, ‘O my Lord, hast Thou not forgiven me?’ And He will reply, ‘Yes; by the widness33 of my forgiveness you have reached this station of yours.’”34

This”tradition” is included in al-Tirmidhi’s Sahih, Vol. 2, pp. 89-90. There are many such”traditions” (ahadith) which the reader can review in Bukhari, Muslim, Ibn Majah, and other recorders of hadith who are regarded as being”reliable” by the vast majority of Muslims. Is the majority always right? We do not think so.

Probably the most evident of the belief of some Muslims that Allah (SwT) has the same human physical attributes is what is recorded by their”imam of imams”, namely the great hafiz and mentor, namely Muhammad ibn Ishaq ibn Khuzaymah (d. 311 A.H./923 A.D.), who taught hadith to both Bukhari and Muslim, being their mentor. He wrote a book with a rather lengthy title: At-Tawhid wa ithbat sifat ar-rabb ‘azza wa jall allati wasafa biha nafsah fi tanzeelih wa ‘ala lisan nabiyyih

التوحيد و اثبات صفات الرب عز و جل اللتي وصف بها نفسه في تنزيله و على لسان نبيه

(The Unity of God and the proof about the characteristics of the Lord, the Unique and the Exalted One, whereby He described Himself in His Book and through His Prophet). This book was published in 1378 A.H./1958 A.D. by Maktabat al-Kulliyyat al-Azhariyya (Library of al-Azhar’s Colleges) at Maydan al-Azhar (Al-Azhar Square), Cairo, Egypt.

The titles of some of these books sound like a piece-by-piece list of the Almighty’s alleged bodily parts: His face, shape, eyes, hearing, vision, hands, leg [just one leg?!]..., especially the leg, and a chapter on how all the believers will see Allah (SwT) on the Day of Judgment and will be able to recognize Him.

Another hafiz imam, namely Othman ibn Sa’id al-Darmi (d. 280 A.H./893 A.D.), wrote a book as a rebuttal to the views of the Jahmites (Jahmis الجهمية)35. Among its chapters are these: how the Lord seats Himself on the Throne and ascends to heavens, how He is different from His creation, how He descends on the night of the middle of Sha’ban, how He descends on the Day of ‘Arafat, how He descends on the Day of Judgment for the great trial, how He descends to the residents of Paradise, and how He is seen…

This much should suffice to demonstrate to the discreet reader how some of our Muslim brethren, who look down at and discriminate against others who disagree with them, consider the Almighty as having a physical body quite like ours, how He comes and goes, ascends and descends, walks, talks, laughs and does I do not know what else...!

How Shi’as View Allah

The above views are adopted and recorded by some, mind you, not all, Sunni Muslims, and they are not at all endorsed by Shi’a Muslims who refute them by quoting verse 103 of Surah al-An’am that states the following:

Vision does not comprehend Him, while He comprehends all vision, and He knows all the subtleties, (He is) the Aware One. (Qur’an, 6:103)

In their view, the Almighty is not a physical form, hence, He does not occupy a space, nor does He move from one place to another, nor can He be seen by anyone. They contend that their Sunni brethren simply do not have the proper tafsir (exegesis) of certain Qur’anic verses such as the following:

Some faces will on that Day be bright, looking to their Lord. (Qur’an, 75:22)

“Looking to their Lord” does not mean”looking at their Lord”; it means: they are waiting in optimistic anticipation for His rewards, prizes, forgiveness and a spacious Paradise, Insha Allah (SwT), may both ourselves and the kind reader be among its residents, Allahomma Ameen اللهم آمين. As regarding the Almighty seating Himself on the ‘Arsh, the Throne of Authority, Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (‘a) (peace with him), from whose fiqh Ithna-’Asheri (Twelver) Ja’fari Shi’as derive their beliefs and ahkam, says the following:

Whoever claims that Allah (SwT) sits on the ‘Arsh considers Allah (SwT) as being conveyed (or mounted on something), implying that what conveys Him has to be stronger than Him (so it could carry His weight). And whoever claims that Allah (SwT) is present somewhere, or is on top of something, or there is a place where He is not there, or that He occupies a space..., would be attributing to Him characteristics which are strictly relevant to those whom He creates, whereas Allah (SwT) is the Creator of everything. He cannot be measured or compared by anything; He cannot be like people; He is not absent from anywhere, and He does not occupy a specific space.36

Shi’as also refute this claim by citing Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib (‘a) as saying,

Allah (SwT) does not descend, nor does He need to descend. Such is claimed by those who attribute to Him an increase or a decrease. Everything mobile needs what mobilizes it or what means whereby it moves. Beware, then, when you discuss His characteristics lest you should imply any increase or decrease to Him, any movement or mobilization, any departure or descending, any sitting or standing.37

This is the view held by all other Imams from Ahl al-Bayt; none of them contradicts the other; such is the true creed, one wherein there is no contradiction at all.

Allah As Viewed By The Commander Of The Faithful Imam Ali

Two narrators, Muhammad ibn Abi Abdillah and Muhammad ibn Yahya, narrate a tradition related by”Abu Abdullah”‎ Imam Ja’far al-Sadiq (‘a) citing the Commander of the Faithful Imam Ali ibn Abu  Talib delivering a sermon once in order to solicit people’s support in his second war against Mu’awiyah ibn Abu Sufyan. In it, the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) says,

All praise is due to Allah (SwT), the One and Only God Who is sought by all, the Unique One Who is neither created out of anything pre-existing, nor has He created anything out of something. Through His Might does He manifest Himself, and it is through His Might that anything manifests itself. None of His attributes can be fully comprehended, nor does He have any measure whereby He is compared.

The tongue in any language is too crippled to describe His attributes, and the circumlocution of His attributes leads into nowhere but a blind alley. The sharpest of intellects are too puzzled to comprehend His kingdom; all comprehensive explanations are rendered short of delving into His kingdom. Unknown curtains obstruct the understanding of the lowest levels of His hidden knowledge, and the keenest insights are totally lost in comprehending the most (seemingly) superficial of His subtleties.

So Glorified is Allah (SwT) Who cannot be reached by the most ambitious of wills, nor can He be grasped by the deepest of insights. Exalted is He for Whom there is no measure of time, nor any fixed duration, nor any limited description. Praised is He Who has no beginning at all nor any end, nor any extinction. Glorified is He as He has described and Glorified Himself.

Those who attempt to describe Him can never do so. He delineated the boundaries of all things when He created them without having modelled them after any pre-existing models, thus distinguishing Himself from their similitude. Never has He resided in them, so it could be said that He is contained therein, nor has He been apart from them, so a place outside them could be sought for Him. Rather, He, all Praise is due to Him, encompasses them in His knowledge and perfects their design and computes them.

Even things beyond the curtains of the atmosphere are never hidden from His knowledge, nor are those obscurities within the depth of the dark, nor are those in the high heavens, nor are those in the lowest layers of the earth: For each and every thing in them there is a custodian and a keeper, each one of them surrounds the others, while His knowledge encompasses them all.

He is the One and Only God on Whom all depend for their existence and subsistence, the One Whom the passage of time never alters, nor does the creation of things tire Him. Whatever He wills, He says to it,”Be!” and it is. He created everything without following a pre-existing model or a precedent, and without encountering any fatigue or a prior planning. Whoever makes something makes it out of something else, whereas Allah (SwT) created everything out of nothing.

Every scholar acquires knowledge after being ignorant, while Allah (SwT) is never ignorant, nor has He ever acquired knowledge out of what He creates. He encompasses all things in His knowledge before creating them. Nothing is added to His knowledge because of their coming into existence: His knowledge is the same before and after He brought them into existence.

He never created what He created in order to enhance His control, nor out of fear of its decay or loss, nor to seek help out of it against His adversary, nor to seek the upper hand over a progressive competitor, nor seeking to be the equal of a dominating partner; all creation is nurtured by Him; everyone and everything are humbled slaves before Him.

Glorified is He Who never feels weary on account of creating what He creates, nor in nurturing whatever He creates, nor does He, out of inability or slackness, terminate what He creates. He knows what He creates and creates what He knows. Whatever He creates He creates neither out of deliberating on any new knowledge, nor does any doubt entertain Him on account of what He creates. Rather, He creates out of His inviolable decision, firm knowledge, and exact command. He made Himself unique in His Mastership, peerless in unity, grandeur and sublimity.

He remains peerless in praise and exalted in glory. He is far above parenthood, purified from and sanctified against any cohabitation.

He is too Great and too Mighty to seek any partners. Thus, none among what He creates opposes Him, nor is there any equal peer like Him from among His possessions, nor is there any partner in His Kingdom. He is the One, the Unique, the One sought by all, the Eternal, the Everlasting, the Lord of the cosmos Who has always been and shall always be, the eternally all alone before the beginning of time and after the end of all affairs. He will never terminate nor expire.

Thus do I describe my Lord, the ignorant and the sinner that I may be and the weakling, so bear witness to it, O Reader, as I have stated it; there is no god except Allah (SwT); Great is He and how Great! Glorified is He and how Glorified! Almighty is He and how Almighty! He is far above what the unjust ones say about Him, far, far above that!

  • 1. His full name is Muhammad Baqir ibn Muhammad Taqi al-Majlisi. He was born in 1037 A.H./1628 A.D. and died in Isfahan, Iran, in 1111 A.H./1699 A.D. He was the greatest writer in the 10th Hijri century, author of 25 titles in Arabic and 53 in Persian, his mother tongue. Many of these titles are in severl volumes each. For example, one edition of Bihar al-Anwar runs in 111 (one hundred and eleven) volumes. His proficiency and prolific pen are truly baffling, unsurpassed.
  • 2. One may wonder whether the angels write down our innermost thoughts, too. I have read somewhere that they do not, but they can tell when someone is entertaining good or bad thoughts. The good thoughts are those to which the Almighty does not object or condemn. How do they do that? It is said that when someone is entertaining good thoughts, such as helping someone who is in dire need for help or visiting an ailing person, etc. a fragrant smell emanates from his head and spirals above it, shrouding and blessing him/her entirely. Likewise, if he/she entertains bad, evil, illicit, unlawful…, thoughts, stink comes out of his head that turns the angels off, offending them and prompting some of them to plead to the Almighty to protect and forgive him/her. This makes an interesting research, folks! Although this book contains a chapter about the angels, this subject is truly vast and very, very interesting. Unfortunately, the books I consulted for more material about angels seem to be too simplistic and shallow.
  • 3. His name is Sa’d ibn Malik ibn Sinan al-al-Khudri al-Ansari al-Khazraji,”Abu Sa’id". He was a great sahabi who for many years kept the Prophet company and participated in twelve of his military campaigns. He died in 74 A.H./693 A.D.
  • 4. He is”Abu Muhammad” or”Abu Abdullah” (or both) Jabir ibn Yazid ibn al-Harith ibn Yaghuth al-Ju’fi of the Azd Arab tribe, a tabi’i (one who learned directly from sahabis or sahaba, companions of the Prophet) and a contemporary of both Imams Muhammad al-Baqir and Ja’far al-Sadiq , peace with them, whom he quotes, according to the genealogist al-Najjashi. In his book titled Ar-Risala al-Adadiyya الرسالة العددية, Al-Mufid lists him among few the hadith they narrate has no room for doubt, nor is there anyone to find any fault with their characters or the knowledge they relay. Ibn Uqdah narrates saying that Imam as-Sadiq used to say,”May Allah have mercy on Jabir; he used to tell the truth about us (Ahl al-Bayt), and may He curse al-Mughirah ibn who used to tell lies about us.” Sufyan al-Thawri says,”Jabir al-Ju’fi is truthful when narrating hadith, but he used to incline towards Shi’ism.” Notice the sick and contagious prejudice! There are many narratives and traditions which all indicate the depth of his knowledge and future predictions. He was a very highly spiritual and a most pious man. Among his works are: the Fada’il الفضائل (virtues) book, a book about the Battle of the Camel, another about the Battle of Siffeen, another about the Battle of Nahrawan, another about the martyrdom of the Commander of the Faithful, Imam Ali ibn Abu Talib , and one about the martyrdom of Imam al-Husayn . These books are detailed by al-Husayn ibn al-Haseen al-Qummi. Jabir al-Ju’fi is regarded as an authority on hadith by an-Nisa’i and Abu Dawud, and he is quoted by Shu’bah and Abu ‘Awanah. Al-Dhahbi marks his name with the symbols of Abu Dawud and Abu ‘Awanah as an indication that they both quote his ahadith. The date of birth of Jabir al-Ju’fi is unknown, but he is said as having died in the year 132 A.H./750 A.D.
  • 5. The maximum length of a cubit is 21 inches; hence, they claim that Adam (‘a) and the Almighty are each 15 feet tall... Astaghfirullah…!
  • 6. al-Bukhari, Sahih,”Kitab al-Isti'than كتاب الاستئذان” (Book of seeking permission to enter), in a chapter titled”Bab Bid' as-Salam باب بديء السلام (a chapter dealing with initiating a greeting). Muslim, Sahih, صحيح مسلم، كتاب الجنة و صفة نعيمها”Kitab al-Jannah wa sifat na’eemiha” (Book of Paradise and the description of its bliss), في باب يدخل الجنة أقوام أفئدتهم مثل أفئدة الطير in a chapter titled”Bab yadkhul al-jannah aqwam af'idatuhum mithl af'idat at-tayr” (a chapter about Paradise being entered by people whose hearts are like those of birds'), Vol. 28; see also Vol. 115, كتاب البر، باب النهي عن ضرب الوجه”Kitab al-birr: Bab an-nahi ‘an arb al-wajh” (Book of kindness: a chapter dealing with the prohibition of hitting the face. Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Musnad, مسند أحمد ابن حنبل Vol. 2, pp. 244, 251, 323, 365, 424, and 569.
  • 7. al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 2, p. 122, where Surah az-Zumar is explained. It is also stated in Vol. 4, p. 186, where the verse”What stopped you (O Iblis) from prostrating to what I created with My own hand?” is explained. It is also stated in Vol. 4, p. 192, where the verse saying,”Some faces will on that Day be pleased” is discussed. Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 19, pp. 21-22, where a description of the Day of Judgment, of Paradise, and of Hell, is given.
  • 8. al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 189, where verse 43 of Surah Noon (also called Chapter of the Qalam, i.e. 68 of the Holy Qur’an) is explained in”Kitab at-Tawhid” (Book of the Unity of God).
  • 9. al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 191, where Surah Qaf (Ch. 50 of the Holy Qur’an) is explained. At-Tirmidhi, Sahih, صحيح الترمذي Vols. 35-38, where a discussion exists about Hell being entered by the tyrants and Paradise by the weaklings.
  • 10. His name is Abdullah ibn Mas’ud ibn Khafil ibn Habib al-Hathli,”Abu Abd al-Rahman,” one of the foremost sahaba in Islamic history. He was the very first person in Mecca to openly recite the Holy Qur’an. He spent years serving and accompanying the Messenger of Allah, being one of his confidants. Ibn Mas’ud died in 32 A.H./652 A.D.
  • 11. This quotation is cited without any editing at all, hence its broken English! We wonder, since Allah, according to this”tradition”, has fingers, whether He also has toes!
  • 12. The correct spelling of his name is: Abu Sa’id al-al-Khudri.
  • 13. The Messenger of Allah was never reported as laughing; instead, he always smiled. He never audibly laughed.
  • 14. al-Saduq, Amali, p. 324.
  • 15. al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 73, p. 58, citing Qurb al-Isnad.
  • 16. Ibid.
  • 17. Ibid., p. 59.
  • 18. al-Tusi, Al-Amali, Vol. 2, p. 136.
  • 19. Qatadah ibn al-Nu'man قتادة بن النعمان‎ was one of the sahaba (com-panions)  of Prophet Muhammad from among the Ansar. He had a famous grandson named Asim ibn Umar ibn Qatada ibn al-Nu’man al-Ansari (d. 120 or 129 A.H./738 or 747 A.D.). Qatada’s kunya, surname, was”Abdul Khatib", and he was a hafiz; he learned the entire text of the Holy Qur'an by heart and transmitted many ahadith. During the battle of UHud (‘a) in 625 A.D., Qatadah was struck in his eye and his eyeball was hanging down onto his cheek. The sahaba wanted to cut it off, but first they solicited the Prophet's opinion. Prophet Muhammad told them not to do so. He then supplicated for Qatadah and placed his eyeball back in its place. Qatadah died in 11 A.H./632 A.D.
  • 20. Ibn Majah, Sunan, Introduction. Al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, where Surah Hud (‘a) is explained.Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 4, pp. 11-12.
  • 21. Abu Dawud, Sunan,”Kitab al-Sunnah”. Ibn Majah, Sunan, Introduction. Muhammad ibn Abd al-Wahhab, Kitab al-Tawhid. Ibn Taymiyyah, Minhaj al-Sunnah.
  • 22. al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 2, pp. 233-235. Ibn Majah, Sunan,”Kitab al-Salah”. Ibn Malik, Mawta',”Kitab al-Qur’an”, Chapter 30. Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 2, pp. 264, 267, 282, 419, 433, 487, 504, and 521.
  • 23. al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, where he discusses the fast and the night of the middle of Sha’ban. Ibn Majah, Sunan, in a volume dealing with the prayers and with the night of the middle of Sha’ban.Ahmed ibn Hanbal, Musnad, Vol. 2, p. 433.
  • 24. Both”traditions” are narrated on the authority of the”sahabi” Abu Hurayra when al-Bukhari, in Vol. 3, p. 128, of his Sahih, explains Surah Qaf. They are repeated in Vol. 4, p. 191 of the same book in Kitab at-Tawhid. The”tradition” referring to Allah's foot is narrated by Anas and is detailed in Vol. 4, p. 129, of the same Sahih. To review more of such so-called”traditions” which most likely crept into Islam from Judaica through the Jew Ka’b al-Ahbar, refer to”Kitab al-Jannah كتاب الجنة” in al-Tirmidhi's Sunan, Vol. 10, p. 29, where the eternity of the residents of Paradise and those of hell is discussed. See also Ahmed ibn Hanbal's Musnad, Vol. 2, p. 396. Readers who are not well versed in Arabic may read the texts of these”traditions” together with their English translations in The Divine Traditions, especially on p. 149 where the verbatim and unedited text reads as follows:”As for Paradise, (it will be filled with good people) because Allah does not wrong any of His created beings, and He created for Hell whomever He will, and they will be thrown into it, and it will say thrice, ‘Is there any more?' Till Allah will put His Foot over it, and it will become full and its sides will come close to each other and it will say, ‘Enough! Enough! Enough!' Bukhari transmitted it.”
  • 25. al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 185,”Kitab at-Tawhid”. See also Vol. 4, p. 190 of the same reference.
  • 26. This”tradition” is cited on pp. 115-116 of The Divine Traditions.
  • 27. al-Tirmidhi, Sunan, Vol. 9, p. 229,”Kitab al-Zuhd”.
  • 28. al-Bukhari, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 188,”Kitab at-Tawhid”.
  • 29. Ibid., Vol. 10, pp. 18 and 20.
  • 30. Muslim, Sahih, Vol. 4, p. 188,”Kitab al-’Iman”.
  • 31. Ibid., p. 229,”Kitab al-’Iman,” in a chapter about how to see. Al-Bukhari words this”tradition” slightly differently in Vol. 4, p. 189 in his”Kitab at-Tawhid”. We wish those who saw their Lord and His leg would tell us all about it! They will then be doing us a great favor, indeed! Astaghfirullah...
  • 32. These acronyms, ra, stand for Radiya Allahu ‘Anhu, may Allah be pleased with him .
  • 33. This is how the text reads... The translator should have used ”expanse”,”spaciousness”,”extent”,”breadth”, or the like in order to make more sense.
  • 34. The Divine Traditions, Tr. Dr. Ibrahim al-Selek, Dar el-Fikr (Beirut, Lebanon, 1994), p. 160.
  • 35. The Jahmi, or Jahmite, group (firqa فرقة) is named after its founder, Jahm ibn Safwan al-Tirmidhi جهم بن صفوان الترمذي, who was killed in 128 A.H./746 A.D. at the hands of an Umayyad leader, namely Salam ibn Ahwaz. Jahm ibn Safwan appeared publicly in Kufa, Iraq, for the first time to declare his own personal beliefs about Allah, the Qur’an, ‘iman (conviction), Paradise and Hell and about seeing Allah in the Hereafter, then he moved to Khurasan, Iran, to spread his beliefs. The Jahmi group claims to follow Islam, but it has violated the commonly agreed on principles of the Islamic creed in many of its beliefs; therefore, both Sunnis and Shi’ites regard it as being outside the folds of Islam. This group is now extinct, but its views unfortunately seem to have reflected themselves on the beliefs of some Muslims…
  • 36. al-Kulayni, Usool al-Kafi, Vol. 1, pp. 3, 7, and 9,”Kitab at-Tawhid”. Shaikh al-Saduq‎, At-Tawhid, pp. 9-10, p. 12.al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 3, p. 311,”Kitab at-Tawhid”.
  • 37. Ibid., Vol. 1, p. 18. al-Majlisi, Bihar al-Anwar, Vol. 3, p. 311.