________________________________________________________________________ | w w w |\ | || || | || |\ | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |\ | ( : / (_) / ( . |\ | |\ | || || | || |T | | || | |\ | . _, _8 |_D_|| . _,_,_,_D_|| 4_|| q ]_o_7_o _|_c 4_|_|| _|,_p q |\ | (_): / (_): . : / (_S (_S / |\ | |\ | In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the All-Merciful |\ | Greeting of Allah be upon Muhammad and the pure members of his House |\ |_______________________________________________________________________|\ Salamun alaykum, With Muharram fast approaching, the following question and answer, which was posted a while back, about Zanjeer Mat'am and other aspects of the Azadari of Imam Hussein (AS), is reposted for the benefit of our new members. Wasalaam, Mustafa Rawji Acting Moderator, ABDG-A ---------- Forwarded message ---------- Date: 29 Dec 95 19:44:57 EST From: Maqbul Rahim <firstname.lastname@example.org> To: ABDG-A <ABDG-A@lists.Stanford.EDU> Subject: ['Aalim Network QR] Matam and Aza-e-Imam Hussein a.s. ________________________________________________________________________ | w w w |\ | || || | || |\ | o_,_7 _|| . _o_7 _|| 4_|_|| o_w_, |\ | ( : / (_) / ( . |\ | |\ | || || | || |T | | || | |\ | . _, _8 |_D_|| . _,_,_,_D_|| 4_|| q ]_o_7_o _|_c 4_|_|| _|,_p q |\ | (_): / (_): . : / (_S (_S / |\ | |\ | In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the All-Merciful |\ | Greeting of Allah be upon Muhammad and the pure members of his House |\ |_______________________________________________________________________|\ Salamun Alaykum Please find below questions on matam and Aza-e-Imam Hussein a.s. to which the reply was kindly provided by Ma'alim Hamid Mavani. Jazakallah With Duas and Salaams Maqbul Rahim Acting Moderator for ABDG-A ................................................................................ . Questions: It is my understanding that the act of beating one's self in mourning for Imam Husayn a.s. with blades or otherwise, is allowed in Islam. QUESTION(a) But when this type of behavior leads non-muslims to believe that the Shi'ah are barbarious and that their religion is based more on emotion than reason, and it confirms their misconception about us that we are fanatics and zealots, can it still be considered allowed? ANSWER: A(a) The ritual of self-flagellation as part of the Muharram observances has generated heated discussion amongst the scholars and laity. For instance, around mid 1920's Sayyid Abu-l-Hasan Isfahani in Najaf and Sayyid Muhammad Qazwini in Basra issued legal opinions against this practise. A similar position was taken by Muhsin al-Amin. They were rebutted by Abd-ul-Husayn al-Hilli and members of the Kashif al-Ghita family. Two issues were of concern for the jurists - one is that this ritual at times led to the loss of human life and second, public perception of Shi'ism. Ayatullah Sayyid Ali Khamena'i made this ritual of qame zadan (hitting the head with a knife) haram by virtue of the harm it does to public image of Shi'ism. Also, Shaykh Shamsuddin and most probably even Ayat. Fadlullah have issued legal opinions similar to Ayat. Khamena'i. However, most of the prominent jurists have a different opinion. For instance, Ayat. Gulpaygani and Ayat. Araki allow the ritual of self-flagellation so long as there is no fear of loss of life or causing injury to any organ of the body. However, Ayat. Gulpaygani states that it is better to avoid this practise based on precaution (ihtiyat). They all emphasize that the commemmorative mourning ceremonies, that take different forms, must be kept alive to preserve the vitality of the symbol of Imam Husayn (a.s.). In all probability the legal opinions of Ayat. Khui and Seestani on this would be the same as Ayats. Araki and Gulpaygani. QUESTION(b) Doesn't this type of behavior misguide people from the school of Ahlul-Bayt? If it does, are we responsible for that? ANSWER: A(b) If it can be demonstrated to the jurists that it misguides people, then perhaps they would prohibit it. QUESTION(c) What are the guidelines of Azaa that the Imams (as) have given us? Have they instructed us to beat ourselves or have they condoned this? ANSWER: A(c) The Imams (a.s.) have given very general guidelines to us and that is to mourn for them and show sorrow and grief. These different rituals are human expression of public display of the grief. However, Imam Husayn (a.s.) gave a clear instruction to his sister not to scratch her face or tear apart her clothes. QUESTION(d) Have any leading mujtahideen ruled on this matter so far. ANSWER: A(d) The answer to this question can be obtained from above -A (a). wa bi-l-laahi-t-tawfiq, Hamid Mavani SOURCES: Ayats. Khumayni, Gulpaygani, Khamena'i, Araki "Jadidtarin Istifta'at ..." Ja'far al-Khalili, "Hakadha 'araftuhum," 2 vols. Abu Mikhnaf, "Maqtal al-Husayn." ................................................................................ .