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['Aalim Network QR] Status of Certain Sahaaba

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|       In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the All-Merciful       |\
|  Greeting of Allah be upon Muhammad and the pure members of his House |\

Salaamun alaykum,

	The following is a supplementary post to the reply issued on
August 6, 1996 titled "Companions Under the Tree".  I would like to extend
my sincere thanks to Mulla Bashir and to Br. Shaun Astarabadi for their help
in locating and analysing the hadith that purports to promise Jannah 
(Heaven) to certain Companions. 

	The two original questions that were received are reproduced
below, followed by the supplementary post.  


Mustafa Rawji
Moderator, 'Aalim Network



I am a Moslem shi'a and I have following question which I most appreciate
if you could help me to find a suitable answer for it: 
I heard that in a naration from Prophet Mohammad (SA) has promised heaven
(janna) to some of companions under a tree. Among these people were Omar,
Zobeyr, and some others who, we believe, acted against Imam Ali (SA). Is
this narration correct? 
Could you please elaborate on this narration whether it is Sahih or not?
and what was the occasion? and what is shi'a's point of view in this


I heard from a Sunni friend that there is an hadith of Rasul (sw)
in which he named 10 people who will go to heaven (those 10 people were
alive at that time). These 10 people includes Imam Ali (as) and the first
3 khalifas. What can you say about this? 


Dear members,
Some few weeks ago a question was posed to me about the status of all 
those sahaaba who had pledged their allegiance to the Holy Prophet (SWA) 
at Hudaibiyya in the light of a hadith that the questioner had heard from 
some one to the effect that all those who had given their bai'ah had been 
promised jannah by the Holy Prophet. As I could not trace the hadith then 
I responded to the question in the light of the Holy Qur'an.
Those of you who do not have a copy of my earlier response should refer to 
the 'Aalim Network archives for a copy.
After posting my response the moderator wrote to me that we should try to 
find the alleged hadith if it existed. I agreed to embark on further 
research as I, like the moderator, felt that every question posed through 
the 'Aalim Network merited an exhaustive response. I was able to trace the 
following ahadeeth.
(1) In hadith 490, Volume V of Bukhari it is reported on the authority of 
Anas bin Malik that the first ayah of Suratul Fath refers to the 
al-Hudaybiyya pledge. The Companions said to the Holy Prophet, 
"Congratulations and happiness to you, but what reward shall we get ?". The 
narrator continues 'So Allah revealed "THAT HE MAY ADMIT YHE BELIEVING MEN 
(2) In Mishkat-ul-Masabih Book IV, Chapter XLVI, Hadith 140 it is reported 
that "Hafsa narrated that the Apostle of Allah said 'I hope surely (Inni 
la arjoo) that none who was present at Badr and Hudaibiyyah shall enter 
the fire if Allah wills.' I asked 'O Apostle of Allah did not the Almighty 
Allah say "There is none amongst you who will not but come to it (the 
bridge of siraat)?" He (the Holy Prophet) said 'Do not you hear it !  He 
(Allah) was saying 'Thereafter We shall deliver those who are pious'. 
Al Mishkat continues under the same Hadith "And in a narration (it is 
reported that)  'None of the companions of the tree who took the oath of 
allegiance under it will enter fire if Allah wills.'
The first hadith is in conformity with the conclusions in my posting. 
Al Mishkat gives only one source, Sahih-e-Muslim. I have traced it in the 
Sahih, Chapter MXXIX Hadith 6090. Hafsa's statement in the first part is 
recorded almost as in Al Mishkat although the narrator mentioned is not 
Hafsa as alleged by al-Mishkat but one Umm Mubashshir who heard the 
conversation between the Holy Prophet and Hafsa. Hafsa was Umar's daughter. 
There are too many imponderable in the narration. It is inconceivable that, 
contrary to the statement in the Holy Qur'an the holy Prophet would have 
accorded a blanket immunity to any one. In any case the second part, 
reported in the al-Mishkat as 'a narration', is not in Muslim. It would 
appear that the second part is totally apocryphal and can not be relied 
It is clear from the verses of the Holy Qur'an, that the reward for being 
a party to the bai'atur ridhwan depends upon the state of the belief of 
that party, as evidenced by his subsequent conduct viz-a-viz acceptance of 
and obedience to the wishes of the Holy Prophet. The Holy Qur'an 
emphasizes this in Surtul Hujuraat, Ayaah 14 and 15 which I reproduce 
14.  The Arabs say: "We believe." Say to them (O Muhammad ) you do not as 
yet believe. You should rather say 'We submit' for the faith (imaan) has 
not yet entered into your hearts. Yet if you obey Allah and His messenger 
He will not withhold from the reward of your deeds. Allah is Forgiving and 
15.  The (true) believers are only those who believe in Allah and His 
messenger and afterwards doubt not, but strive with their wealth and lives 
for the cause of Allah. Such are the sincere. 
The 'Aalim Network solicited the help of brother Shaun Astarabadi to try 
and locate any more ahadeeth in the Sunni books. Brother Shaun applied 
himself rigorously to the assignment and has produced various ahadeeth. 
May Allah reward brother Shaun for his labour. I reproduce below the 
relevant portions of brother Shaun. 
Brother Shaun writes:
A Pledge Under the Tree
By Shaun Astarabadi
August 18, 1996
        Pleasure of Allah (awj)
If one were to assume, for the purpose of argument, that Allah (swt) 
was pleased with all the people under the Tree, this would not 
benefit the position of the Sahabah (companions).  For it is an 
indication that Allah (swt) was pleased with their past actions and 
not necessarily their future, because prior action is not a guarantee 
of future behavior to anyone who is fallible.  
        The Prophet's (s) Prophecies about his Companions 
Allah (swt) informed the prophet (s) of the deviation of some of his 
companions.  So the prophet addressed them directly, as is clear from 
these traditions.  Here are some of these traditions in Bukhari's 
collection, volume 9, pp503-506 (the full chain was eliminated for 
#1435 - Narrated by Abdullah and Huthaifa, the prophet (s) said: "I 
am ahead of you at the pool.  From amongst you are men who will be 
raised with me then taken away from me, then I will say: O' my God: 
my companions! It will be said: you do not know what innovation they 
made after you."
#1441 - Narrated by Anas that  "The prophet (s) said:  People from my 
companions will come to me at the Pool, until they are near enough to 
know them, they drop away from me. I say: My companions?! He will 
say: You do not know what they invented after you."
#1442 - Narrated Sahl bin Saad "The prophet (s) said: I am ahead of 
you at the Pool, whomever passes by me drinks, and one who drinks 
will never (feel) thirst ever.  There will be peoples, I know them 
and they know me, then they will be separated from me."
Abu Hazim said that al-Nu'man bin Abi-'Ayyash said that he heard it 
from Sahl like this. He then said: I bear witness that I (also) heard 
Abi Saeed al- Khudri say it and he added to it "So I say they are 
mine! It will be said: you do not know what they innovated after
you.  So I say: crushed, crushed (or far away from me) to any (one) 
who changed (things) after me."
Abu Hurairah used to say: "The prophet (s) said: On the Day of 
Judgment, a number of my companions will be brought to me. They will 
be taken from the Pool. So I say: O' God! My companions? He will say: 
You have no knowledge of what they innovated after you - they became 
apostates and retreated backwards."
#1443 - Shihab bin al-Musayyab told: "The prophet (s) said: Certain 
men from my companions will come to me at the Pool. Then they will be 
prevented ("removed" per Abu Hurairah) from it, so I say: O' my God! 
My companions? He says: You have no knowledge what they innovated 
after you. They have retreated backwards, apostates."
#1444 - Abu Hurairah narrated "The prophet (s) said: While I am 
standing, a group (comes), when I recognize them, a man appears from 
between us and them; he says: Come along! I say: Where to?  He says: 
To Hell Fire, by Allah! I say: What is their problem?  He says: They 
became apostates after you (left them, they) retreated backwards.  
Then a group (comes), when I recognize them, a man appears from 
between us and them; he says: Come along! I say: Where to?  He says: 
To Hell Fire, by Allah! I say: What is their problem?  He says: They 
became apostates after you (left them) retreated backwards.  So I do 
not see but a few survive from amongst them."
#1449 - Asmaa bint Abi Bakr said: "The prophet (s) said: I am at the 
Pool to see who comes to me from among you.  A people will be taken 
away from me, so I say: O' my God, from me and my nation! So it will 
be said: Did you sense what they did after you (departed)?  By 
Allah, they did not stop retreating backwards." Ibn Abi Malika used 
to say: "Allahumma we beseech you that we don't retreat backwards or 
be mislead away from our religion, the way they retreated on their 
        A Companion Admits to Innovations
The companion al-'Alaa bin al-Musayyab said his father met al-Buraa 
bin `Azib (ra) and said to him: "Good for you! You accompanied the 
prophet (s) and pledged allegiance to him under the Tree.  So he 
said: O' son of my brother, you do not know what we innovated after 
Sunni Reference: al-Bukhari, v5, p234, #645.
General References:
1. The Quran, Translation by Abdullah Yusuf  Ali 
2. The Quran, Trasnlation by S.V. Mir Ahmad Ali
3. Sahih al-Bukhari, Muhammad bin Ismaeel al-Bukhari
4. Munadharat `Aqaediyya, S. Muhammad Kadhimi al-Qazwini
In another posting brother Shaun writes as follows:
      The Promised Ten
      By Shaun Astarabadi
      August 19, 1996
Ten of the companions are claimed to have been promised Paradise 
during their lives.  They are: 

 1) Abu Bakr 
 2) Omar
 3) `Uthman 
 4) Ali
 5) Talha
 6) al-Zubair 
 7) Saad bin Abi Waqqass 
 8) Saeed bin Zaid
 9) Abdulrahman bin `Awf and 
 10) Abu `Ubaida binal-Jarrah
Note the placement of the Imam Ali is, conveniently, the fourth in a group 
which does not contain a single supporter of the Imam from among the 
companions of the prophet (s).  Accordingly, the people of the Sunna
have agreed on holding these ten in high regard.  Clearly, the nine 
mentioned with the Imam are his adversaries and none were on his 
This suspicious hadeeth was not even mentioned by Bukhari or Muslim, 
but it was narrated within al-Tirmithi's, abu- Daoud's, and Ibn 
Maja's collections in two flavors.  Let's take a look at the hadeeth 
to see the extent of amplifying selected personalities.
1. Abu Daoud in his book ,  narrates from "Saeed bin Zaid said: I bear 
witness, I heard the messenger of Allah (s) say:  Ten are in Paradise: 
The prophet is in Paradise, Abu Bakr in Paradise, Talha in Paradise, 
Omar in Paradise, 'Uthman in Paradise,  Saad bin Malik in Paradise, 
and AbdulRahman bin `Awf in Paradise. If you wish I could tell you the 
tenth? He said. They said: Who is he? He said: Saeed bin Zaid."  (The 
same hadeeth but a variation in wording #3748 in al-Tirmith, but 
different people!)
2. al-Tirmithi in his book under #3747**,  narrates from "AbdulRahman 
bin `Awf said: The prophet  (s) said: Abu Bakr in Paradise, Omar in 
Paradise, 'Uthman in Paradise, Ali in Paradise, Talha in Paradise, al- 
Zubair (bin al-'Awwam) in Paradise, AbdulRahman bin `Awf in Paradise, 
Saad (bin Abi Waqqass) in Paradise, Saeed (bin Zaid), and abu 'Ubaida 
bin al- Jarrah in Paradise."  (Saad is not in Abu Daoud's book.)
3. al-Tirmithi , under #3748**, narration by "Saeed bin Zaid, that the 
prophet (s) said in a number of people, ten are in Paradise: Abu Bakr 
in Paradise, Omar in Paradise,  'Uthman, Ali, al-Zubair, Talha, 
AbdulRahman, Abu 'Ubaida, and Saad bin Abi Waqqass. He counted these 
nine and was quite about the tenth. They said: By Allah, abu-alAawar 
(i.e. Saeed), who is the tenth? He said: You swore by Allah - 
abu-alAawar is in Paradise."  al-Tirmithi commented that abu-alAawar 
is Saeed bin Zaid bin Amr bin Nawfal.
  al-Tirmithi, v5, p605, #3747 and #3748 
  abu Daoud, #4649 and #4650
Several things raise the doubts about these traditions and supports 
the belief that they were fabricated forgeries for political reasons 
to elevate the adversaries of the Imam Ali and the remainder Family 
of the Household of the prophet (s), as follows.
*  They struggle in narrowing down who the ten are.  One time they 
insert Saad bin Abi Waqqass and another they put Saad bin Malik in 
his place.
*  The first of the hadeeths did not mention Imam Ali, nor Ibn 
al-Jarrah; yielding only seven promised Paradise, of course, not 
counting the prophet (s).
*  The first and  third are essentially the same hadeeth, by the same 
person, but the order of those in Paradise is different, one person 
added and another dropped, and only seven people are listed in Abu 
*  Listing of the prophet (s) among those promised Paradise is 
something that confirms forgery!  Does anyone really believe that his 
companions enter Paradise and he will be left behind? He need not 
advertise that - it is a given!
*  Both narrators are telling the hadeeth about themselves!  See 
praising one's self, below.
*  The history of the so called ten does not mandate this great 
reward, at the expense of exclusion of other pious companions, who in 
fact remained unblemished till their demise.
*  The narrator of the tradition is one of those promised Paradise, 
this way he is bringing good tidings to himself!
*  Bukhari and Muslim did not even set aside a virtues section on 
neither Saad bin Zaid nor AbdulRahman bin `Awf, while Bukhari has a 
sections for Mu'awiya, one hadeeth for Khalid bin al-Waleed and just 
a section heading for Mus'ab bin `Umair  (see volume 5, Book of 
*  Saad bin Malik, in fact, is not among the 10 highly regarded by 
the people of the Sunna.
*  The second narration only named nine persons in addition to 
dropping out Saad bin Abi Waqqass.
*  Bukhari adds to the suspicion, by considering only three to have 
been promised paradise by the prophet (s): Abu Bakr, Omar and `Uthman 
(see Bukhari, v5, p68, #194).  Nevertheless, the narrator "Mohammed 
bin Miskeen is weak, not well known," ..etc. (Lisan al-Mizan, al- 
'Asqalani, v5, p380, #1233).
    Praising One's Self
According to Islamic law, when someone praises others by praising 
himself, it is disregarded altogether.  The same is true if someone 
bears witness for someone else, while at the same time, even 
partially selfserving, his testimony is rejected.
"Therefore justify not yourselves; He knows best who it is that 
guards against evil." [53:53]
      Logic and Reason
A reasonable person can not judge, unconditionally, that an ordinary 
fallible human being is guaranteed paradise, therefore, is immune 
from Hell Fire.  One who is open to the possibility of committing 
sinful acts, by his nature, can not be predictable.  Especially, if 
promised paradise while not infallible, he would have the tendency to 
act freely due to his feeling of assurance that his acts will have no 
bearing on his outcome.
It is, therefore, not logical nor reasonable that the prophet (s) 
would promise such an outcome early on to people of an unknown 
If this hadeeth were indeed true, then how come one did not see the 
khalifa `Uthman use it in protest against those who found it lawful 
to murder him.  Nor did any of his companions come to his aid, 
protesting the unlawfulness of killing someone who is guaranteed 
paradise.  Actually, it would have been unlawful for them to stay 
silent in this matter.  The fact of the matter is: the hadeeths were 
fabricated at a later date.
If one accepts the hadeeth to be true, one must also accept that other 
than these ten from among the companions of the prophet (s) are all in 
Hell Fire, because there is no in-between on the day of judgment.  And 
this is, by necessity, is wrong by reasoning and religion.
** Narrators of al-Tirmithi are as follows:
#3747: Qutaiba, Abdul Aziz bin Muhammad, Abdul Rahman bin Hameed, his 
father (Hameed), Abdul Rahman bin 'Awf.  Al-Tirmithi said: We were 
told one by: Abdul Aziz bin Mohammad, Abdul Rahman bin Hameed, his 
father, from the prophet (s) where "Abdul Rahman bin 'Awf" was not 
listed.  And another like it has been narrated by (adding) Saeed bin 
Zaid t othe chain.
#3748: Salih bin Mismar al-Marrouzi, Ibn Abi Fudaik, Musa bin 
Yaaqoub, Omar bin Saeed, Abdul Rahman bin Hameed, from his father, 
from Saeed bin Zaid.
General References:
1. Saheeh al-Bukhari
2. Saheeh Muslim
3. Sunan al-Tirmithi
4. Sunan Abi Daoud
5. Munadharat `Aqaediyya, Ameer al-Kadhimi al-Qazwini 
6. al-Khud'a, Salih al-Wardani
7. Lisan al-Mizan, Ibn Hajar al-'Asqalani
If any one requires any further information please contact the 
'Aalim Network in the usual manner.
With salaams and du'aas and a request that you remember me in 
your prayers,
Bashir Rahim

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