Ayatullah Gulpaygani was born in the village of Koukeh near the city of Gulpaygan (135kms north-east of Isfahan) in the closing years of the 19th century. He studied under Ayatullah Sayyed Muhammad Hassan Khonsari and Sayyed Muhammad Taqi Gawdhi. At the age of 19 years he went to the city of Arak, and joined the Madressa of Agha Sayyed Zayauldeen where he completed his initial studies, before joining the lessons of Usul Fiqh at the Dars-e-Kharij level taught by Ayatullah Abdul Karim Haeri Yazdi for three years. At the age of 24 years, Ayatullah Gulpaygani followed his teacher Ayatullah Haeri to Qom, and joined the Faiziya Madressa. His teacher made Ayatullah Gulpaygani one of his private disciples and placed him in the council to answer religious queries. Ayatullah Gulpaygani gained permission from Ayatullah Haeri to practice Ijtihad.