Umar bin Khattab:
Two pleasures were lawful and current during the time of the Holy Prophet (S). I prohibit those both of them and punish those who commit them. They are mut'a (pleasure) of hajj and mut'a (temporary) marriage.1
There is consensus among Muslims that there are verses in the Holy Quran on mut'a of hajj and temporary marriage. In regard with mut'a of hajj Allah says:
فَمَنْ تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ فَمَنْ لَمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَ سَبْعَةٍ إِذا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كامِلَةٌ ذلِكَ لِمَنْ لَمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرامِ وَ اتَّقُوا اللَّهَ وَ اعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللَّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقابِii
But when the pilgrim is secure [from the enemy or illness ] then whoever performs Hajj following 'Umrah, he must make an offering easily available, but he who is not able to find any offering he should fast three days during the hajj and seven days after his return to his home, making ten days complete. This is for him whose household does not live near the Sacred Mosque. Fear from the disobedience of Allah's commands and know that Allah is the server in punishment.
فَمَا اسْتَمْتَعْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْهُنَّ فَآتُوهُنَّ أُجُورَهُنَّ فَرِيضَةً وَ لا جُناحَ عَلَيْكُمْ فِيما تَراضَيْتُمْ بِهِ مِنْ بَعْدِ الْفَرِيضَةِ إِنَّ اللَّهَ كانَ عَلِيماً حَكِيماًiii
If you marry them for the appointed time you must pay their dowries. There is no harm if you reach an understanding among yourselves about the dowry. God is All-knowing and All-wise.
Obviously, Muslims acted in accordance with these verses until Umar bin Khattab after assuming caliphate declared:
Two pleasures were lawful and current during the time of the Holy Prophet (S). I prohibit both of them and punish those who commit them. They are mut'a of hajj and temporary marriage.
Thus there emerged difference among Muslims. The followers of Umar, who considered his words as a part of their principles were perplexed as how to justify his words which were as he himself admitted in contradiction with Allah's commandment. Umar himself said that two pleasure were lawful and he prohibited them.
- 1. - For the details, see the coming discussions.