Great companions on prohibition of two mut'as
The great companions of the Holy Prophet (S) have also confirmed the stance that Imam Ali (a.s) took in regard with the prohibition of the two mut'as. Here are the views of some of them:
One of the companions who has rejected Umar's opinion is Ibn Abbas. In his Musnad, Ahmad bin Hanbal narrates:
Once Ibn Abbas said: The Holy Prophet used to perform mut'a of hajj.
'Arwa bin Zubair said: Abu Bakr and Umar prohibited mut'a of hajj.
Belittling him, Ibn Abbas said: What does this little 'Arwa say?
'Arwa said: I said that Abu Bakr and Umar prohibited mut'a of hajj.
In response Ibn Abbas said: I think they are perished! I say that the Holy Prophet says so and so and he says that Abu Bakr and Umar forbade people from doing it!1
Sa'ad bin Abi Waqqas did not accept Umar's opinion either. In his Sunan, Tirmidhi quotes Muhammad bin Abdullah bin Harith bin Nufil as saying: Sa'ad bin Waqqas and Dahhak bin Qays were talking on muta' of hajj. Dahhak bin Qays said that no one except someone who does not know about shari'a laws does it (mut'a of hajj).
Sa'ad said: My nephew! How bad your idea is!
Dahhak said: Umar bin Khattab has prohibited it (mut'a of hajj).
Sa'ad said: The Messenger of Allah did it and following him we did it too.
After quoting this tradition, Tirmidhi says that the chain of this tradition is authentic.2
Another companion who has refused to accept Umar's opinion is Abu Musa Ash'ari. In his Musnad, Ahmad says: Abu Musa always decreed that mut'a of hajj was permissible. One day a man addressing him, said: Review some of your decrees, as you do not know that Umar, commander of the faithful has given a new decree concerning hajj rituals!
Thereupon, Abu Musa met Umar and asked him about it. In response, Umar said: I know that the Holy Prophet (S) did it and his companions also, following him, did it, but I did not like Muslims to (leave mut'a of hajj and) make sex with their wives under these arak3 trees and then perform hajj rituals while their heads and hairs are wet.4
Jabir bin Abdullah Ansari was also among the companions who were opposed to Umar's opinion concerning mut'a of hajj. Muslim in his Sahih and others have reported the following:
Abu Nadra reported: Ibn'Abbas continued to decree that mut'a of hajj was permissible, but Ibn Zubair forbade doing it. I made a mention of it to Jabir b. Abdullih and he said: It is through me that this hadith has been circulated. We entered into the state of Ihram as Tamattu' with the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him). When 'Umar was Installed as Caliph, he said: Verily Allah made permissible for His Messenger (may peace be upon him) whatever He liked. Quran is revealed for a particular occasion. Now however separate hajj from umra (mut'a of hajj) and leave aside temporary marriage. And any person would come to me with a marriage of appointed duration (Mut'a), I would stone him (to death).5
Abdullah bin Umar was also opposed to his father's decree concerning mut'a of hajj. When he was asked about mut'a of hajj, he said, "Mut'a of hajj is permissible". When the questioner said that his father had forbidden it, he said, "If my father forbade it and the Holy Prophet permitted it, whom
should we follow, my father or the Holy Prophet (S)?" When the questioner said 'indeed the Messenger of Allah's command', Abdullah bin Umar said, "The Messenger of Allah (S) did it himself".6
According to Ibn Abd al-Barr in his al-Isti'ab and Ibn Hajar Asqalani in his al-Isaba, Imran bin Husain was one of the great companions and jurists.7 During the last days of his life, he was extremely critical of Umar's opinion. Muslim narrates a tradition as under:
Mutarrif reported: 'Imran bin Husain sent for me during his illness of which he died, and said: I am narrating to you some traditions which may benefit you after me. If I live you conceal (the fact that these have been transmitted by me), and if I die, then you narrate them if you like (and these are): I am blessed, and bear in mind that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) combined Hajj and Umra. Then no verse was revealed in regard to it in the Book of Allah (which abrogated it) and the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not forbid (from doing it). And whatever a person (Umar) said was out of his personal opinion.8
Commenting on traditions that indicate that Imran bin Hasin was denying it, Nawavi says, "All these traditions unanimously agree that Imran intended to say that mut'a of hajj and qiran hajj9 both were permissible. This tradition likewise clearly indicates that Imran is critical of Umar's decree concerning mut'a of hajj".10
Ibn Taymiyya, a great Sunni scholar has also commented in this regard. Defending Umar's opinion concerning women, he says that Umar wanted to order [his followers] to do a better thing. To substantiate his point of view, he resorts to Ibn Umar's words, saying that Abdullah bin Umar used to allow mut'a. When he was told that his father had prohibited it, he said that his father meant something else [from prohibiting Mut'a].
In short, Ibn Taymiyya wants to say that the prohibition verdict issued by Umar was something acting on which was optional not compulsory, implying that Umar did not really prohibit the said two mut'as.11
In my point of view, the justification on the bases of which Umar wanted to order his people to do a better thing is not acceptable at all. This is utterly false and ridiculous. On the other hand, he has attributed something to Ibn Umar, which is in contradiction with what is narrated from Ibn Umar in Sunni books. According to Ibn Kathir, Abdullah used to oppose his father to the extent that when he was told that his father used to prohibit mut'a, he said, "I am afraid lest Allah descends stones from the sky on you! The Messenger of Allah (S) used to do it. Whose tradition should we now follow, the Holy Prophet's tradition or Umar's?!12
The main point in Ibn Taymiyya's words is his denial of Umar's opinion according to which the said two mut'as are forbidden.13 A group of scholars have however, as we will mention, narrated this opinion.
Nevertheless, it seems that Ibn Taymiyya has sensed that his struggles for the justification of Umar's stand are in vain, leading nowhere. That is why he helplessly mentions that Sunni scholars are unanimous that it is only the
Messenger o Allah whose deeds are authoritative and we are supposed to follow them. According to him, on the view of Sunni scholars all human beings except the Holy Prophet (S) are prone to error and Umar is no exception to this rule.14
The stand taken by Umar is considered to be an 'innovation', being an instance of the tradition reported by Abu Musa Ash'ari, who quotes the Holy Prophet as saying:
أَنَا فَرَطُكُمْ عَلَى الْحَوْضِ وَلَيُرْفَعَنَّ مَعِي رِجَالٌ مِنْكُمْ ثُمَّ لَيُخْتَلَجُنَّ دُونِي فَأَقُولُ يَا رَبِّ أَصْحَابِي فَيُقَالُ إِنَّكَ لَا تَدْرِي مَا أَحْدَثُوا بَعْدَكَ
I am your predecessor at the Lake-Fount, and some of you will be brought in front of me till I will see them and then they will be taken away from me and I will say, 'O Lord, my companions!' It will be said, 'You do not know what they did after you had left.'15
It can be said that the main aim behind forbidding mut'a of hajj was to revive a tradition that was current at the time of ignorance. This is because it was considered a major sin on earth at the time of ignorance to do mut'a of hajj during the hajj months.16
In his al-Sunan al-Kubra, Bayhaqi quotes Ibn Abbas as saying: By Allah, the Messenger of Allah did not take Aisha with himself during the hajj months but to declare the tradition practiced at the time of ignorance as null and void. That is why there are many authentic traditions that quote the Holy Prophet (S) as saying:
لو استقبلت من امری ما استدبرت ما اهدیت و لو لا ان معی الهدی لاحللت
If I had formerly known what I came to know lately, I would not have brought the Hadi (sacrificial animal) with me. [Had there been no Hadi with me, I would have finished the state of lhram] . Suraqa b. Malik b. Ju'shum said: O Messenger of Allah, is it (this concession putting off Ihram of Hajj or Umra) meant for this year or is it forever? He said: It is forever.17
According to this tradition, it is not necessary to make sacrifice in order to get out of the state of ihram. It indicates that it is permissible to get out of the state of ihram after completing the rituals of umra of tamattu'a. The said tradition is reported by all Sahihs and Bukhari has allocated a particular chapter to it.
- 1. - Musnad Ahmad, vol. 1, p. 554, tradition, no. 3111. Bukhari have also narrated something pertaining to the issue under discussion. See:
a) Abu Jamra narrates:I asked Ibn Abbas about Hajj-at-Tamattu'. He ordered me to perform it. I asked him about the Hadi (sacrifice). He said, "You have to slaughter a camel, a cow or a sheep, or you may share the Hadi with the others." It seemed that some people disliked it (Hajj-at-Tamattu). I slept and dreamt as if a person was announcing: "Hajj Mabrur and accepted Mut'a (Hajj-At-Tamattu')" I went to Ibn Abbas and narrated it to him. He said, "Allah is Greater. (That was) the tradition of Abu Al-Qasim (i.e. Prophet). Narrated Shu'ba that the call in the dream was. "An accepted 'Umra and Hajj-Mabrur." (Sahih Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 747).
b) Abu Shu'ba: Abu Jamra Nasr bin 'Imran Ad-Duba'i said, "I intended to perform Hajj-at-Tamattu' and the people advised me not to do so. I asked Ibn Abbas regarding it and he ordered me to perform Hajj-at-Tammatu'. Later I saw in a dream someone saying to me, 'Hajj-Mabrur (Hajj performed in accordance with the Prophet's tradition without committing sins and accepted by Allah) and an accepted 'Umra.' So I told that dream to Ibn Abbas. He said, 'This is the tradition of Abu-l-Qasim.' Then he said to me, 'Stay with me and I shall give you a portion of my property.' " I (Shu'ba) asked, "Why (did he invite you)?" He (Abu Jamra) said, "Because of the dream which I had seen." (Ibid, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 638).
- 2. - Sunan Tirmidhi, vol. 2, p. 224, tradition, no. 824. Muslim has also narrated some variation of this tradition:
Ghunaim b. Qais said: I asked Sa'd b. Abu Waqqas about Mut'a, whereupon he said: We did that, and it was the day when he was an unbeliever living in (one of the) houses of Mecca. (Sahih Muslim Book 7 ,Number 2821).
- 3. - 'Arak' is a kind of tree that grows in deserts. Similar to a pomegranate tree, it is ever green. In the past, Arabs used to make toothbrush from its branches.
- 4. - Musnad Ahmad, vol. 1, p. 81, tradition, no. 353.
- 5. - Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 56, tradition no. 1217. You can also see:
Abd Nadra reported: While I was in the company of Jibir, a person came and said: There is difference of opinion among Ibn Abbas and Ibn Zubair about two Mut'as (Tamattul in Hajj and temporary marriage with women), whereupon jibir said: We have been doing this during the lifetime of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and then 'Umar forbade us from doing it, and we never resorted to them (Sahih Muslim Book 7 , Number 2874).
See also: Shihab reported: I left for Mecca for Hajj-at-Tamattu' assuming Ihram for 'Umra. I reached Mecca three days before the day of Tarwiya (8th Dhul-Hijja). Some people of Mecca said to me, "Your Hajj will be like the Hajj performed by the people of Mecca (i.e. you will lose the superiority of assuming Ihram from the Miqat). So I went to 'Ata' asking him his view about it. He said, "Jabir bin 'Abdullah narrated to me, 'I performed Hajj with Allah's Apostle on the day when he drove camels with him. The people had assumed Ihram for Hajj-al-Ifrad. The Prophet ordered them to finish their Ihram after Tawaf round the Ka'ba, and between Safa and Marwa and to cut short their hair and then to stay there (in Mecca) as non-Muhrims till the day of Tarwiya (i.e. 8th of Dhul-Hijja) when they would assume Ihram for Hajj and they were ordered to make the Ihram with which they had come as for 'Umra only. They asked, 'How can we make it 'Umra (Tamattu') as we have intended to perform Hajj?' The Prophet said, 'Do what I have ordered you. Had I not brought the Hadi with me, I would have done the same, but I cannot finish my Ihram till the Hadi reaches its destination (i.e. is slaughtered).' So, they did (what he ordered them to do)." (Volume 2, Book 26, Number 639).
- 6. - Sunan Tirmidhi, vol. 2, p. 224, tradition, 825.
- 7. - Al-Isti'ab, vol. 3, p. 284 and al-Isabah, vol. 4, p. 584. In his Dad al-Mi'ad fi Huda Khair al-Ibad, Ibn Qayyim says, "Imran bin Hasin is better than Uthman. According to some, he saw angels and was greeted by them as he himself points out when he says that he was greeted. He died in 52 AH in Basrah".
- 8. - Sahih Muslim, vol. 3, p. 70, tradition, 1236. See also:
a) 'Imran b. al-Husain (Allah be pleased with him) said: Know well that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) combined 'Hajj and 'Umra, and nothing was revealed in the Book (to abrogate it), and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) too did not forbid us from (combining) them. And whatever a person (Umar) said was out of his personal opinion. (Sahih Muslim Book 7 ,Number 2829).
b) 'Imran b. Husain (Allah be pleased with him) reported: We performed Tamattu' (Hajj and 'Umra combining together) in the company of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him), and nothing was revealed in the Qur'an (concerning the abrogation of this practice), and whatever a person (Umar) said was his personal opinion. 'Imran b. Husain narrated this hadith (in these words also): "Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) performed Hajj Tamattu' and we also performed it along with him."( Sahih Muslim Book 7 ,Number 2830).
c) 'Imran b. Husain said: There was revealed the verse of Tamattu' in Hajj in the Book of Allah and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) commanded us to perform it and then no verse was revealed abrogating the Tamattu' (form of Hajj), and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) did not forbid [us] to do it till he passed away. So whatever a person (Umar) said was his personal opinion. A hadith like this is transmitted on the authority of Imran b. Husain, but with this variation that he ('Imran) said: We did that (Tamattu') in the company of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) and he did not say anything but he (the Holy Prophet) commanded us to do it.( Sahih Muslim Book 7 ,Number 2831).
- 9. - Qiran hajj is a kind of hajj that is performed by those whose habitation is not located more than 16 farsakhs from The Sacred Mosque.
- 10. - Al-Minhaj, a commentary on Sahih Muslim, vol. 8, p. 168.
- 11. - Minhaj al-Sunna, vol. 4, pp. 182 and 183.
- 12. - Tarikh Ibn Kathir, vol. 5, p. 159.
- 13. - Minhaj al-Sunna, vol. 4, pp. 182 and 183.
- 14. - Ibid.
- 15. - Sahih Bukhari, Book on Riqaq, Chapter on Lake-Fount, pp. 787-788.
- 16. - The people (of the Pre-lslamic Period) used to think that to perform 'Umra during the months of Hajj was one of the major sins on earth. And also used to consider the month of Safar as a forbidden (i.e. sacred) month and they used to say, "When the wounds of the camel's back heal up (after they return from Hajj) and the signs of those wounds vanish and the month of Safar passes away then (at that time) 'Umra is permissible for the one who wishes to perform it." In the morning of the 4th of Dhul-Hijja, the Prophet and his companions reached Mecca, assuming Ihram for Hajj and he ordered his companions to make their intentions of the Ihram for'Umra only (instead of Hajj) so they considered his order as something great and were puzzled, and said, "O Allah's Apostle! What kind (of finishing) of Ihram is allowed?" The Prophet replied, "Finish the Ihram completely like a non-Muhrim (you are allowed everything)." (Bukhari, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 635)
- 17. - The full text of this tradition is under:
'Ata' reported: I, along with some people, heard Jabir b. 'Abdullah saying: We the Companions of Muhammad (may peace be upon him) put on Ihram for Hajj only. Ata' further said that Jabir stated: Allah's Apostle (may peace be upon him) came on the 4th of Dhu'l-Hijja and he commanded us to put off Ihram. 'Ata'said that he (Allah's Apostle) commanded them to put off Ihram and to go to their wives (for inter- course). 'Ata' said: It was not obligatory for them, but (intercourse) with them had become permissible. We said: When only five days had been left to reach 'Arafa, he (the Holy Prophet) commanded us to have intercourse with our wives. And we reached 'Arafa in a state as if we had just made intercourse (with them). He ('Ata') said: Jabir pointed with his hand and I (perceive) as if I am seeing his hand as it moved. In the (meantime) the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) stood amongst us and said: You are well aware that I am the most God-fearing, most truthful and most pious amongst you. If I had formerly known what I came to know lately, I would not have brought the Hadi with me. Had there been no Hadi with me, I would have finished the state of lhram. So they (the Companions) put off Ihrim and we also put off and listened to (the Holy Prophet) and obeyed (his command). Jabir said: 'All came with the revenue of the taxes (from Yemen). He (the Holy Prophet) said: For what (purpose) have you entered into the state of Ihram (whether you entered into the state purely for Hajj and, Umra jointly or Hajj and Umra separately)? He said: For the purpose for which the Apostle of Allah (may peace be upon him) had entered. (The Holy Prophet had entered as a Qiran, i.e. Ihram covering both Umra and Hajj simultaneously.) Thereupon Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) said: Offer a sacrifice of animal, and retain Ihram. And 'All brought a sacrificial animal for him (for the Holy Prophet). Suraqa b. Malik b. Ju'shum said: Messenger of Allah, is it (this concession putting off Ihram of Hajj or Umra) meant for this year or is it forever? He said: It is forever. (Sahih Muslim, Book 7, Number 2797).
Elsewhere Muslim narrates:
a) Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) said.: We went with Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) in 'a state of Ihram for the Hajj. There were women and children with us. When we reached Mecca we circumambulated the House and (ran) between al-Safa and al-Marwa. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) said: He who has no sacrificial animal with him should put off lhram. We said: What kind of putting off? He said: Getting out of lhram completely. So we came to our wives, and put on our clothes and applied perfume. When it was the day of Tarwiya, we put on Ihram for Hajj. and the first circumambulation and (running) between al-Safa and al-Marwa sufficed us..Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) commanded us to become seven partners (in the sacrifice) of a camel and a cow. (Muslim, Book 7, Number 2794).
b) 'A'isha reported that the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) came out on the 4th or 5th of Dhul'I-Hijja (for Pilgrimage to Mecca) and came to me, and he was very angry. I said: Messenger of Allah, who has annoyed you ? May Allah cast him in fire I He said: Don't you know that I commanded the people to do an act, but they are hesitant. (Hakam said: I think that he said: They seem to be hesitant.) And if I were to know my affair before what I had to do subsequently, I would not have brought with me the
sacrificial animals, and would have bought them (at Mecca) and would have put off lhram as others have done. (Sahih, Muslim, Book 7, Number 2785).
c) Ja'far b Muhammad reported on the authority of his father: We went to Jabir b. Abdullah and he began inquiring about the people (who had gone to see him) till it was my turn. I said: I am Muhammad b. 'Ali b. Husain. He placed his hand upon my head and opened my upper button and then the lower one and then placed his palm on my chest (in order to bless me), and I was, during those days, a young boy, and he said: You are welcome, my nephew. Ask whatever you want to ask. And I asked him but as he was blind (he could not respond to me immediately), and the time for prayer came. He stood up covering himself in his mantle. And whenever he placed its ends upon his shoulders they slipped down on account of being short (in size). Another mantle was, however, lying on the clothes rack nearby. And he led us in the prayer. I said to him: Tell me about the Hajj of Allah's Messenger (May peace be upon him). And he pointed with his hand nine, and then stated: The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) stayed in (Medina) for nine years but did not perform Hajj, then he made a public announcement in the tenth year to the effect that Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) was about to perform the Hajj. A large number of persons came to Medina and all of them were anxious to follow the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) and do according to his doing. We set out with him till we reached Dhu'l-Hulaifa. Asma' daughter of Umais gave birth to Muhammad b. Abu Bakr. She sent message to the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) asking him: What should 1 do? He (the Holy Prophet) said: Take a bath, bandage your private parts and put on Ihram. The Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) then prayed in the mosque and then mounted al-Qaswa (his she-camel) and it stood erect with him on its back at al-Baida'. And I saw as far as I could see in front of me but riders and pedestrians, and also on my right and on my left and behind me like this. And the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) was prominent among us and the (revelation) of the Holy Qur'an was descending upon him . And it is he who knows (its true) significance. And whatever he did, we also did that. He pronounced the Oneness of Allah (saying): "Labbaik, 0 Allah, Labbaik, Labbaik. Thou hast no partner, praise and grace is Thine and the Sovereignty too; Thou hast no partner." And the people also pronounced this Talbiya which they pronounce (today). The Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) did not reject anything out of it. But the Messenger of Allah (May peace.be upon him) adhered to his own Talbiya. Jabir (Allah be pleased with him) said: We did not have any other intention but that of Hajj only, being unaware of the Umra (at that season), but when we came with him to the House, he touched the pillar and (made seven circuits) running three of them and walking four. And then going to the Station of Ibrahim, he recited: "And adopt the Station of Ibrahim as a place of prayer." And this Station was between him and the House. My father said (and I do not know whether he had made a mention of it but that was from Allah's Apostle [May peace be upon him] that he recited in two rak'ahs: "say: He is Allah One," and say: "Say: 0 unbelievers." He then returned to the pillar (Hajar Aswad) and kissed it. He then went out of the gate to al-Safa' and as he reached near it he recited: "Al-Safa' and al-Marwa are among the signs appointed by Allah," (adding:) I begin with what Allah (has commanded me) to begin. He first mounted al-Safa' till he saw the House, and facing Qibla he declared the Oneness of Allah and glorified Him, and said: "There is no god but Allah, One, there is no partner with Him. His is the Sovereignty. to Him praise is due. and He is Powerful over everything. There is no god but Allah alone, Who fulfilled His promise, helped His servant and routed the confederates alone." He then made supplication in the course of that saying such words three times. He then descended and walked towards al-Marwa, and when his feet came down in the bottom of the valley, he ran, and when he began to ascend he walked till he reached al-Marwa. There he did as he had done at al-Safa'. And when it was his last running at al-Marwa he said: If I had known beforehand what I have come to know afterwards, I would not have brought sacrificial animals and would have performed an 'Umra. So, he who among you has not the sacrificial animals with him should put off Ihram and treat it as an Umra. Suraqa b. Malik b. Ju'sham got up and said: Messenger of Allah, does it apply to the present year, or does it apply forever? Thereupon the Messenger of
Allah (May peace be upon him) intertwined the fingers (of one hand) into another and said twice: The 'Umra has become incorporated in the Hajj (adding): "No, but for ever and ever." 'All came from the Yemen with the sacrificial animals for the Prophet (May peace be upon him) and found Fatimah (Allah be pleased with her) to be one among those who had put off Ihram and had put on dyed clothes and had applied antimony. He (Hadrat'Ali) showed disapproval to it, whereupon she said: My father has commanded me to do this. He (the narrator) said that 'Ali used to say in Iraq: I went to the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) showing annoyance at Fatimah for what she had done, and asked the (verdict) of Allah's Messenger (may peace be upon him) regarding what she had narrated from him, and told him that I was angry with her, whereupon he said: She has told the truth, she has told the truth. (The Holy Prophet then asked 'Ali): What did you say when you undertook to go for Hajj? I ('Ali) said: 0 Allah, I am putting on Ihram for the same purpose as Thy Messenger has put it on. He said: I have with me sacrificial animals, so do not put off the Ihram. He (Jabir) said: The total number of those sacrificial animals brought by 'Ali from the Yemen and of those brought by the Apostle (may peace be upon him) was one hundred. Then all the people except the Apostle (may peace be upon him) and those who had with them sacrificial animals, put off Ihram , and got their hair clipped; when it was the day of Tarwiya (8th of Dhu'l-Hijja) they went to Mina and put on the Ihram for Hajj and the Messenger of Ailah (may peace be upon him) rode and led the noon, afternoon, sunset 'Isha' and dawn prayers. He then waited a little till the sun rose, and commanded that a tent of hair should be pitched at Namira. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) then set out and the Quraish did not doubt that he would halt at al-Mash'ar al-Haram (the sacred site) as the Quraish used to do in the pre-Islamic period. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him), however, passed on till he came to 'Arafa and he found that the tent had been pitched for him at Namira. There he got down till the sun had passed the meridian; he commanded that al-Qaswa should be brought and saddled for him. Then he came to the bottom of the valley, and addressed the people saying: Verily your blood, your property are as sacred and inviolable as the sacredness of this day of yours, in this month of yours, in this town of yours. Behold ! Everything pertaining to the Days of Ignorance is under my feet completely abolished. Abolished are also the blood-revenges of the Days. of Ignorance. The first claim of ours on blood-revenge which I abolish is that of the son of Rabi'a b. al-Harith, who was nursed among the tribe of Sa'd and killed by Hudhail. And the usury of she pre-Islamic period is abolished, and the first of our usury I abolish is that of 'Abbas b. 'Abd al-Muttalib, for it is all abolished. Fear Allah concerning women ! Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah, and intercourse with them has been made lawful unto you by words of Allah. You too have right over them, and that they should not allow anyone to sit on your bed whom you do not like. But if they do that, you can chastise them but not severely. Their rights upon you are that you should provide them with food and clothing in a fitting manner. I have left among you the Book of Allah, and if you hold fast to it, you would never go astray. And you would be asked about me (on the Day of Resurrection), (now tell me) what would you say? They (the audience) said: We will bear witness that you have conveyed (the message), discharged (the ministry of Prophethood) and given wise (sincere) counsel. He (the narrator) said: He (the Holy Prophet) then raised his forefinger towards the sky and pointing it at the people (said): "O Allah, be witness. 0 Allah, be witness," saying it thrice. (Bilal then) pronounced Adhan and later on Iqama and he (the Holy Prophet) led the noon prayer. He (Bilal) then uttered Iqama and he (the Holy Prophet) led the afternoon prayer and he observed no other prayer in between the two. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) then mounted his camel and came to the place of stay, making his she-camel al-Qaswa, turn towards the side where there we are rocks, having the path taken by those who went on foot in front of him, and faced the Qibla. He kept standing there till the sun set, and the yellow light had somewhat gone, and the disc of the sun had disappeared. He made Usama sit behind him, and he pulled the nosestring of Qaswa so forcefully that its head touched the saddle (in order to keep her under perfect control), and he pointed out to the people with his right hand to be moderate (in speed), and whenever he happened to pass over an elevated tract of sand, he slightly loosened it (the nose-string of his camel) till she climbed up and this is how he reached al-Muzdalifa. There
he led the evening and 'Isha prayers with one Adhan and two Iqamas and did not glorify (Allah) in between them (i.e. he did not observe supererogatory rak'ahs between Maghrib and 'Isha' prayers). The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) then lay down till dawn and offered the dawn prayer with an Adhan and Iqama when the morning light was clear. He again mounted al-Qaswa, and when he came to al-Mash'ar al-Haram, he faced towards Qibla, supplicated Him, Glorified Him, and pronounced His Uniqueness (La ilaha illa Allah) and Oneness, and kept standing till the daylight was very clear. He then went quickly before the sun rose, and seated behind him was al-Fadl b. 'Abbas and he was a man having beautiful hair and fair complexion and handsome face. As the Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) was moving on, there was also going a group of women (side by side with them). Al-Fadl began to look at them. The Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) placed his hand on the face of Fadl who then turned his face to the other side, and began to see, and the Messenger of Allah (may peace be upon him) turned his hand to the other side and placed it on the face of al-Fadl. He again turned his face to the other side till he came to the bottom of Muhassir.1680 He urged her (al-Qaswa) a little, and, following the middle road, which comes out at the greatest jamra, he came to the jamral682which is near the tree. At this be threw seven small pebbles, saying Allah-o-Akbar while throwing every one of them in a manner in which the small pebbles are thrown (with the help of fingers) and this he did in the bottom of the valley. He then went to the place of sacrifice, and sacrificed sixty-three (camels) with his own hand.1694 Then he gave the remaining number to 'All who sacrificed them, and he shared him in his sacrifice. He then commanded that a piece of flesh from each animal sacrificed should be put in a pot, and when it was cooked, both of them (the Holy Prophet and Hadrat 'All) took some meat out of it and drank its soup. The Messenger of Allah (May peace be upon him) again rode and came to the House, and offered the Zuhr prayer at Mecca. He came to the tribe of Abd al-Muttalib, who were supplying water at Zamzam, and said: Draw water. 0 Bani 'Abd al-Muttalib; were it not that people would usurp this right of supplying water from you, 1 would have drawn it along with you. So they handed him a basket and he drank from it. (Ibid, Book 7 ,Number 2803).
Bukhari has also narrated similar traditions:
The Prophet and his companions assumed Ihram for Hajj and none except the Prophet (p.b.u.h) and Talha had the Hadi (sacrifice) with them. 'Ali arrived from Yemen and had a Hadi with him. 'Ali said, "I have assumed Ihram for what the Prophet has done." The Prophet ordered his companions to perform the 'Umra with the lhram which they had assumed, and after finishing Tawaf (of Ka'ba, Safa and Marwa) to cut short their hair, and to finish their lhram except those who had Hadi with them. They (the people) said, "How can we proceed to Mina (for Hajj) after having sexual relations with our wives?" When that news reached the Prophet he said, "If I had formerly known what I came to know lately, I would not have brought the Hadi with me. Had there been no Hadi with me, I would have finished the state of lhram." 'Aisha got her menses, so she performed all the ceremonies of Hajj except Tawaf of the Ka'ba, and when she got clean (from her menses), she performed Tawaf of the Ka'ba. She said, "O Allah's Apostle! (All of you) are returning with the Hajj and 'Umra, but I am returning after performing Hajj only." So the Prophet ordered 'Abdur-Rahman bin Abu Bakr to accompany her to Tan'im and thus she performed the 'Umra after the Hajj. (Sahih Bukahri, Volume 2, Book 26, Number 713).