In order to have a clear picture of the Household of the Prophet’s (S) prophetic mission, these questions must be answered:
1.) What is an Islamic Prophetic Mission?
2.) What are the dangers faced by an aforementioned mission?
3.) To meet the mentioned challenges and dangers, what precautions should be taken?
Before answering these questions, two viewpoints must be acknowledged, in regards to the universe and mankind’s position in it.
The First Viewpoint: The whole universe is the kingdom of a great and powerful King (Allah Almighty), who is aware of everything in this world. He is unseen and no eyes can see Him. Human beings are His reliable successors in this world. However, mankind has never been the real rulers of the world (universe) because this world with everything in it, including the human beings, themselves, belongs to Allah and people are only trustees. Trustworthiness requires that mankind must leave every kind of order, regarding both good and evil and all other programs, for the real and the powerful King.
The second requirement of his trustworthiness is that he should take the deposit as it is to its real owner. Thus, according to this theory, human beings are to obey the orders of the Mighty King. (Allah Almighty).
Attached to this responsibility is a fixed reward or punishment ascribed for the job of the trustee. For this, another world is required, after this one, where the trustee is either rewarded or punished for his actions, in a place where he can face the decisions of the Hidden King.
Therefore, human beings are not limited to this short periodic world, but have a long way with greater goals and achievements; the way is so long that a human’s normal lifespan is insufficient to cover it. Therefore, it is necessary for him to continue his immortal life after this world reaches the end of the mentioned road, in order to achieve his goals.
When we believe that a person has potential of being in a metaphysical condition, as regards to goals and settlement, we also need to accept that he has the potential to accept a metaphysical responsibility.
Islamic culture fulfils this opinion, with all its attachments, allowing human beings to understand their connection to Allah the Exalted, and that Allah Almighty is the only One related to the human in his life and all of its different spheres.
The Second Viewpoint: According to this viewpoint, human beings have their own origin in the universe. They do not accept anyone else as controlling it apart from themselves. When humans are given such independence in the world, their responsibilities are automatically nullified. In this case, human beings are compelled to create responsibilities. After having created one or more responsibilities, they either forget or deny that their responsibility to answer to Him (Allah Almighty) for their deeds or that they are constantly observed by a greater power (Allah Almighty), and will either be rewarded or punished for their actions on the way to their destination.
Instead, they create their own objectives and responsibilities, which are nothing else but the reflection of their own psychological and sensory contents which, without a doubt, contain numerous flaws. Moreover, when he wants to create limits and boundaries for his deeds, man erects boundaries according to his own inclination without concern for rules and regulations.
Human tendencies are limited within a material framework, and his goals will also fall into the same category. Moral values are thus degradable causing disagreements and ensuing battles. Islam wishes to train people according to the first viewpoint to the extent that it becomes part of their minds and senses thus being reflected throughout all the actions and relations between Allah and themselves.
Imperative for putting the mentioned viewpoint into action is that Islam should supervise all humans and their deeds, as well as their relations with their surroundings, so that it can train them in the most beneficial manner. One can expect great results with an excellent level of supervision.
For example, due to weak supervision, a father is sometimes unable to successfully train his son the reason being that his son does not belong solely to him, but is also part of the surroundings and society. Additionally, the son, observing actions carried out around him, potentially becomes influenced by them; at times developing moral, social, political or economic relations with them. Therefore, we should say that he is not only the son of his father, but the son of the whole society. If the society is corrupt, many fathers cannot train their sons in the correct manner.
Thus, if the trainer does not have great control over the people and their relations with their fellow men, or if he is unsuccessful in having complete control, he cannot train them in the correct manner. By having the mentioned qualities, the educator will be able to play both the role of father and surroundings (society).
This is what the Holy Prophet (S) did. As he shouldered the responsibility of leading a society, which he himself had formed, he had great control over all its relations and spheres. He laid a strong foundation for his society’s policies and internal relations, such as the relation between a person with himself, his relation with his Allah, his relation with his family and his relation to his fellow men or the society. Thus, he succeeded in laying the foundation of a successful society where he trained human beings effectively.1
But despite all the struggles made by the Holy Prophet (S) for bringing about some very basic changes into the society, both in traditional and methodical forms, he still had much more to do in order to reach his destination; a gap still being left due to people’s ignorance of Islam. The Holy Prophet (S) had to reform the ignorant into perfect Muslims, enlightened by Islamic teachings, with all signs of ignorance removed.
The Holy Prophet (S) undertook astonishing measures in order to bring about the necessary changes into society, within a short space of time. His actions had an incredible impact and ushered in great change.2
But the Islamic Ummah only enjoyed protection, by way of these changes, for no more than a decade. A period of ten years is clearly insufficient a time for the manifestation of a prophetic mission, with a means to bring about significant change, while moulding the generation of its time to the peak of perfection. This is essential in order to infuse absolute modifications to a society set in its ways, raising a new generation, encouraging it to abandon older, defunct traditions and accepting the new prophecy.
Such changes would make for a new generation, deserving of guardianship and continuation of the prophetic mission. It would also nurture endurance within it, preparing its members for the task of bearing, with all their might, any dangers a prophetic mission entails; enabling them to progress, ultimately, towards perfection.
The logic of this prophetic mission, belonging to the creed, demands that a person should practice his faith for an extensive period, longer than the time required for them to reach an ideal level, which would be the epitome of perfection.3
Foundations of Islam are laid on the basis of the practice of its goals and targets. It therefore, becomes necessary that these goals and objectives be practiced by the Holy Prophet (S). In the case of the Prophet (S) having a long life, all the situations for vast training would be available.
These targets would also have to have been practiced by his successors, who were very pure with regard to thoughts, actions and beliefs, never committing a single mistake during their lives, so that by practicing their goals, they could dissuade others from committing any sort of mistakes. The historical logic of all the revolutions demanded that the policies made by the Holy Prophet (S) needed to be very clear from every slight mistake.
The new movement should practice its goal under the auspices of its successor. And so this was done and thus, we observe that this serious obligation was preserved by his holy Household (‘a); people who were trained by no one but the Holy Prophet (S), himself. This ensured that they would continue the widespread revolution with accordance to its goal and the Holy Prophet’s (S) will.
Islam is not understood as being a human theory; therefore, its boundaries and limits are attainable by practice and experience. It is a divine prophetic mission whose boundaries and limitations have been fixed by Allah before its emergence and spreading. This religion is, also, not understandable by experience alone.
Therefore, the leader of the mission must be very aware of every single order and should have a clear picture of the prophetic mission. If not, he would have to rely on his own thoughts about in concerns of the mentioned dilemmas and follow his own vision; which will ultimately lead towards the defeat of a great mental and intellectual revolution.
Islam, as a divine religion, should be able to meet the challenges of chronological, geographical and national boundaries in all spheres of life. This is why Islam does not allow Islamic leaders- as the most powerful and important part of revolution - to commit mistakes and do whatever they want on the basis of their personal experiences. This would lead the revolution towards devastation.4
The events which came into being after the demise of the Holy Prophet (S) clearly show that his leadership could not be continued by the emigrants, people who were unfit for this divine prophetic mission. This became evident within the period of fifty years.
Within twenty-five years after the Holy Prophet’s (S) demise, the caliphate was defeated by powerful attacks from enemies. The enemies succeeded in occupying the most important ‘Islamic’ posts and made them deficient. They possessed the leadership of Islamic order shamelessly and compelled the Islamic Ummah to withdraw from leadership in their favour.
Thus, they changed the Islamic leadership into inherited kingship, which had no other cause but to degrade values, kill innocents, limit divine orders, drain the commands and humiliate the fate of human beings. Under such conditions, the Muslims’ treasure house was changed into the Quraish’s personal possession; and the caliphate was mutated into a ball, with which the Ummayyad children used to play.5
After the demise of the Holy Prophet (S), the Islamic Ummah faced a very dangerous deviation in both their inner and outer lives, with regards to the revolution he (S) brought among them. This deviation was continually increasing in both political and social fields - as it had to - and as a result was becoming entrenched, because deviation is like a seed in the soil that grows slowly and steadily. Thus, the process of deviation creates a platform for the next stage.
Naturally, such a deviation carves many curves on its historical way, leading towards hell, while importing many defects into the Islamic revolution. After such a great change, a number of needs and policies can be observed.
In this situation, during such an enhancing deviation, the Islamic revolution eventually meets its end; which means nothing else but a complete devastation of Islamic government, society and culture because, when the Islamic revolution is weakened with contradiction, it cannot protect itself from perils and dangers.
And thus it loses all its historical importance and the power of continuation. It cannot, consequently, fulfil the demands of the people nor can it meet challenges faced on the way to its destination. As a result, all true relations between the system and Ummah come to an end.
In conclusion, we can say that if deviation is observed in a society it leads to a complete collapse of revolution.
The decline of Islamic Government, is an indication of the end of Islamic ‘culture’ and the separation of leadership from the government. In this situation, Islam becomes separated from the governing system and after governmental collapse its position remains stationary, if intact, until facing any slight attack, potentially causing it to shatter. Several attacks have been faced by Islam at various times.
The era of the Abbasid dynasty is one example. These attacks can make the life span of Islam appear fragmented and remain stagnant for a period of time, sometimes decades and even centuries. This dispersing and scattering means the decline of the government and revolution as well as the isolation of the Islamic Ummah. In such conditions and in response to the sharp attacks the Muslim Ummah faces, it also adapts, in the same way as its government and system, no matter how consistently it acts according to the rules and regulations of Islam.
The reason behind the Ummah’s morphing, is that it has only been under the shelter of Islam for a very short time - the time when the Holy Prophet (S), himself, was the leader of Islam and was leading his Ummah towards the righteous path. After the Prophet’s (S) demise, his Ummah was left behind and the Islam they were presented with, in later years, completely deviated from the religion and possessed no signs of the original real Islam.
This deviation prevented Islam from fully influencing societies, and making them aware of their responsibilities with regard to belief; it also prevented Islam from swaying societies, changing them according to Islamic traditions, and protecting them from sudden and continuous attacks from alien cultures (thus, preventing devastation and destruction by way of cultural attacks, and newly introduced concepts, with which to convert the Muslims).
After the Muslim Ummah lost their revolutionary souls, government and culture, their will was broken. They were ruled by those who had successfully adjusted the revolution. The Muslims felt alone and could not envisage having the strength to defeat those dominating the government. This was due to the fact that the rulers had forced them to bow down in front of them.
It is natural that the Muslim Ummah was unable to meet the blasphemous challenges that had come into being with the view of bringing about their demise, having a goal to mix up realities and remove the truth from the pages of history. Thus, they wished that nothing be left of Islam, save a few memories which would equal the end of this true religion of Allah.6
If we ignore the vital role played by the holy Household (‘a), who faced great dangers and had the responsibility of revolution, the government, Ummah and the prophetic mission on their shoulders, then Islam would have had to continually face the same aforementioned situations.
The holy Household (‘a), (who were the best people from amongst the family of the Prophet (S) and who were chosen by Allah the Exalted), played a vital role in dealing with the purity of Islam and training human beings according to Islamic teachings, as well as preventing authentic Islam from being dispersed. This can be summarized in these basic ways:
1. Securing the Muslim Ummah against the challenges About to cause their dispersal.
2. Struggle for controlling the government and the leadership.
As the Islamic revolution had three elements regarding its educational aspect:
2.) The educational guide prescription consisting of religious laws
3.) Grounds for practicing those laws which are none other than the Muslim Ummah.7
The deviation which took place in regards to the three above mentioned elements occurred upon the demise of the Prophet (S). This also brought a complete change with the other two points; or rather it completely devastated the other two elements. The reason for this was that, after the demise of the Prophet (S), his successor was unable to challenge him in any field of education, chastity, power and control, bravery and perfection.
The seat for leadership of the Ummah was occupied by people who were not from amongst the "Infallibles". Also, they didn’t understand the very meaning of the prophetic mission. They could not guarantee that the Ummah, who were shown the right path by the Holy Prophet (S), would also remain pious and keep walking on the right path after the Holy Prophet’s (S) passing.
Additionally, they could not assure that the Ummah would not go towards deviation; deviation whose depth and negative side effects were unpredictable for the Islamic government, the Muslim Ummah and the Islamic religion. They believed this change would affect only the leader, not his leadership.
Here we should mention two other very important policies which were followed by the holy Household (‘a) with regard to all their activities:
1. The first policy was to secure the Muslim Ummah from all kinds of dispersion after the revolution and lend empowering components within their control, to enable them to be independent, by way of constant faith, a brave fighting spirit and firm steps.
2. The second detail carried out by the holy Household (‘a) was the acquiring of the power to govern the Muslim Ummah and establish leadership. They also attempted to remove deviating elements and return the leadership to its original place so that the three-fold elements could come together in the Muslim Ummah, allowing them to develop a great relationship with the gathering, government and the leadership.8
The second policy needed a long-term plan, created by the Household (‘a) so that fundamental Islamic laws, in relation to all values, could be launched at a right time; the values and laws are the fruits of the Islamic mission and the only reason for organizing an Islamic government, coming into being solely in the name of Allah. It was put into effect to make human beings attain their level of perfection.
This was the only reason that the holy Household (‘a) didn’t consider an armed battle against the government, for the forming of an Islamic government.
To meet the challenges of such a time, a great army of faithful people possessing an unbreakable faith in the Imam (‘a) and his purity was needed. The members of this army were the people who knew the great goals of the Imam (‘a) and had spent a long time with him. They were always the defenders of those elements, centred on the safeguarding of the policies fixed by Allah Almighty, for the Islamic Ummah.
However, under the imposed circumstances, the first policy much suited the holy Household (‘a) and whenever the holy Household (‘a) did not find it suitable to gain control over the government, which was the second policy, they followed the first policy.
This was to give the Ummah’s political affairs depth, with regard to their prophetic mission. They did this to organize the Muslims, so in case the revolution was removed from amongst them, they would have something to guarantee their safety against dispersion.
This target was achievable only by creating some very important bases among the Ummah, while allowing the core of the prophetic mission to guide them.9
Acting on the two abovementioned lines was a positive move for safeguarding the continuity of the prophetic mission, the Ummah and the government. The holy Household (‘a) would launch their plans against every kind of deviation; and whenever the Muslim Ummah’s faith or the Islamic revolution was endangered and the deviated ruling governments did not know how to take them out of this peril, the holy Household (‘a) put their struggle into effect for the betterment of the Muslim Ummah. They guaranteed the Islamic society a safeguard against annihilating dangers with regard to their beliefs.10
This is where we can say that the activities of the holy Household (‘a) helped to bring awareness among the Muslim Ummah, in all fields of life, as well as to launch, among the people, real Islam, to guarantee the safety of all mankind. These pursuits were very valuable and important. The activities can be divided into many parts.
The holy Household (‘a) had the responsibility of guarding the valuable heritage of the Holy Prophet (S), which were achieved after much struggle on the Prophet’s (S) part. The following elements strengthen this belief:
1.) The religion which was brought and introduced amongst the people of the societies reflected in the holy Book of Allah and the Sunnah of the Holy Prophet (S).
2.) The Muslim Ummah which was trained by the Holy Prophet (S).
3.) The political Islamic society which was created by the Holy Prophet (S) or a government, established by the Holy Prophet (S).
4.) A leader who, himself, accepted the responsibility of governing and later trained some persons from among his family to continue this government in the best form.
However, if there was not a possibility of central government leadership – which was exclusively for the holy Household (‘a) who were trained for the purpose of guaranteeing the Ummah’s benefits – for safeguarding the political Islamic society and Islamic government, the most important thing would be to save the Islamic system.
For this, the great persons of that time would leave no stone unturned under the possible conditions and circumstances, to guarantee the safety of the Islamic government under the mentioned conditions.
The disintegration of Islamic government, led to the demise of the Muslim Ummah, who were, during this bleak period, abandoned and without the guidance of leadership. The holy Household (‘a) did their best to secure the Muslim Ummah and provide the religion with a complete safeguard against all kinds of devastation.
Therefore, the activities of the holy Household (‘a) were profuse and observable in all spheres of life against the ruling governments under the following conditions:
1.) A kind of ruling government.
2.) The level of the people’s awareness and belief about the holy Household (‘a) as well as the level of their obedience to the cruel rulers of their time.
3.) The kind of ruling conditions over the society.
4.) The level of rulers’ Islamic knowledge and obedience.
5.) The kinds of tools used by the leaders for ruling and providing their kingdom with safeguard and continuity.
Imams (‘a) were working against the ruling government of their time under the above mentioned conditions, and these struggles caused the ruler to cease oppression and cruelty. These activities were of two kinds; oral and armed, like the rising of Imam Husayn (‘a) against Yazid’s government who fought him till the very end of his life.
Sometimes, when there would be a chance for pagans and infidels to gain control over the Islamic government, the holy Household (‘a) indirectly held the government and strengthened it. However, this did not mean that they were happy with the mentioned cruel government, because they were continuously working for betterment in the field of deviated Islamic governance.
The holy Household (‘a) were also working for the betterment of the people’s faith and the ethical as well as political aspects of their lives. For this, they trained some very wise companions who had the ability to become role models for the Islamic government. They were the people who answered questions, arising from the people about the prophetic mission, as well as the Islamic religion during the long years of the cruel dominance of the Ummayyad dynasty.
Also, these people fought those scholars who worked for the government and who defended the government’s every cruelty as a wise step. They had many discussions with them with regard to political and intellectual deviated incidents.
The holy Household (‘a) introduced a proper channel of thinking, ethics and politics against the deviated government. This proper channel could be seen in the lives of the holy Household (‘a).They increased the level of awareness as well as the faith of the people regarding the holy Household (‘a).They called the people towards true Imamah and leadership of the holy Household (‘a).
Beside these, another feature of the Household’s (‘a) lives, which presented a clear indication of the rising against the ruling government, was that they directly affected the personal lives of the people.
When we see a long termed indirect leadership of the Household (‘a), a question arises in our minds as to whether general people accepted them as their religious and spiritual leaders, merely because they were of the holy Household (‘a) of the Holy Prophet (S). No. They had not become leaders of the people just because of their status, as there were many other persons related to the Holy Prophet (S) who did not become leaders of the people, like the Imams (‘a).
This is due to the fact that the Islamic Ummah does not allow anyone to become a leader without careful consideration. A person will never conquer people’s hearts until he struggles to remove their hardships and sorrows.
This is why Islam remained safe enough as a theoretical religion, yet it experienced complete deviation and had left no way to exercise practical methods; and that is why the Muslim Ummah changed into a nation who rose against the intellectual invasion of the aliens and were successful after a long term resistance, to regain their lost power. This authority and influence is clear to see after so many centuries.
The holy Household (‘a) became successful in their action due to training a group of pious people who had great belief in them. These great men, after making plans and programs, became successful in providing the holy Household (‘a) with great backup, applying different methods, to help them overcome hardships.
They also changed their own followers into an army of believers; an army whose people lived with the prophetic mission and worked very hard in spreading the messages of authentic Islam amongst the rest of the people.
When we study about the history of the holy Household (‘a) and on one hand become aware of the special conditions they were living in, as well as come to know about how they fought in the conditions discussed, we can say that their conditions and battles can be assessed in three periods and stages. These three stages, nevertheless, have things in common and contain differentiating aspects:
The first stage starts soon after the demise of the Holy Prophet (S); which was Imam ‘Ali’s (‘a), Imam Hasan’s (‘a), Imam Husayn’s (‘a) and Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin’s (‘a) era’s of religious leadership. This stage was the period when Islam was being separated from its real teachings by the Ummayyads and other persons who had great enmity with the holy Household (‘a).
The Imams (‘a), though, did not have the power to completely remove the persons around them who were deviating from Islamic teachings, making them into something other than authentic Islam. However, the mentioned Imams (‘a) tried their level best and made plans and programs to save the original elements of the prophetic mission. Eventually, they became successful in bringing awareness to the people, that the ruling government (Ummayyad) was hugely flawed and the rulers were not appropriate leaders for the Muslim Ummah.
In general, the holy Household (‘a), whose greatest struggles were involved with creating a group of pious true believers under their own leadership, never conflicted with the ruling government on matters concerning the welfare and betterment of the Muslim Ummah and the Islamic system.
The second stage of the holy Household’s (‘a) battles against cruelty began from the second half of Imam Al-Sajjad’s (‘a) life and continued into the time of Imam Muhammad Kadhim (‘a). This stage consisted of two specialties:
1.) After the holy Household (‘a) gained success in alerting the people to the deviation in the Caliphate and the cruelty they faced after the demise of their Prophet (S) in the central part of Islam, the great leaders (the holy Household (‘a) put all their struggles into making the ruling government lose its self-made logical and scientific powers, as the said government had positioned some famous scholars and those knowledgeable in ahadith [both categories of whom were perpetual king-praising individuals], so that, with their help, they could justify their government and present it as most religious.
2.) The second specialty of this stage was training a group of righteous people against the government. The foundation of this great work was laid during the first period of war against the cruel rulers. At this stage, the holy Household (‘a) explained in much detail the matter of the prophetic mission for which they had been made the guardians by Allah the Exalted. And thus, they were able to train a generation as a group of pious people and intellectuals believing in Imamah ideologies, whose work was to defend real Islam against the ideas of those who worked for caliphs (Wu’az Al-Salatin).
Another responsibility of the Imams (‘a) was their having to provide suitable answers to the questions asked from the caliphs regarding many problems accusing many Islamic castes of being bogus Islamic groups.
The Imams (‘a), in this way, did whatever was necessary to bring down deviant governments and leadership. These activities were done against a number of opposition movements to the ruling government; especially revolutionary ones. These activities would necessarily challenge those who had occupied the seat of caliphate after the demise of the Holy Prophet (S); all of this happened after Imam Husayn’s (‘a) uprising against Yazid’s brutal government.
The third phase of this battle started from the second half of Imam Kadhim’s (‘a) life and ended in the time of Imam Mahdi (‘a).
After the pious group was secure and a detailed policy regarding faith, politics and ethics was presented, and they had entered the second phase of their struggles, the ruling caliphs came to know that the power of the Imams (‘a) had reached such a peak that they were now prepared to retake the government from those unfit for it and return the Islamic government to its real place. This made the caliphs demonstrate strong reactions against the Household (‘a).
The position of the Household (‘a), which they took against the caliphs, depended on the position that the caliphs had taken against them. Whenever there was a change in the position of the government against the holy Imams (‘a), the holy Imams (‘a) likewise adapted and brought about a change in their position.
As the Imams (‘a) were well aware, after such great struggles they made to reveal the real faces of the fraudulent caliphs, and since the caliphs had come to know about the Imams’ (‘a) general position among the people, and as the Imams (‘a) were the real Islamic leaders of the people, they, the Imams (‘a), would not be allowed to continue their activities publicly.
Because of this, they considered training a group of pious people who were well-aware of the real Islamic teaching and whom the Imams (‘a) prepared, to meet the challenges ahead of them; the challenges which were made by scholars favouring the ruling government. These great men put all their struggles into effect to secure their groups so that, in the absence of their real leaders (who were none other than the Imams (‘a), they could also continue their activities).
After this, a concept of the training of jurisprudents and calling the people to consult them for their religious problems was put together and practiced everywhere. The reason behind this was to prepare the jurisprudents to solve the people’s problems during the time of occultation; the occultation about which the Holy Prophet (S) had foretold.
However, how long this occultation would last was known by no one but Allah the Exalted. In this way the Imams (‘a) were able to prevent deviation in the growth of the Islamic leadership and Islamic government, so that they could end the separation of the Ummah from a real Islam as well as end the machinations put in place to completely destroy the religion and divine mission.
What made the Ummah separate from the principles of real Islam was the presentation of another Islam by the caliphs, which was very different from the Islam introduced by Muhammad (S). This newly introduced Islam had no symptoms of original targets and values. For this, the Muslim represented the real Islamic teachings among society, under the leadership of the Imams (‘a); the Imams (‘a) who had repelled all impurity by Allah and who were purified with thorough purification.
Thus, the struggle undertaken by the holy Imams (‘a) not only influenced and affected the shi’ah believers, people who had strong belief in the Imams (‘a) and their Imamah, but it also, affected the whole Islamic society. In order to build a pure Islamic society, the Imams (‘a) had their own special method, and they claimed leadership of the Islamic World.
Although, except for a limited group of people from amongst the Islamic Ummah, other people did not accompany them in their mission, as these struggles were introducing true policies, with regard to political, social, economic, moral fields, along with worship, they were able to influence all the people of the Islamic society.
After building a strong relationship with them, these continuous struggles made people look towards Islam with a new perspective; one that was completely different from that which they had been provided with by their former cruel leaders. Thus, with the help of this new perspective, the Islamic society was able to defend and take care of Islam and practice its teachings in all spheres of their lives.11
- 1. Ahl Al-Bayt, The different spheres and a single destination, 117-122; printed by Dar Al-Ta'aruf.
- 2. Bahth hawl-al Wilaya p. 15 published/ Dar Al-Ta'aruf.
- 3. Bahth hawl-al Wilaya p. 15 published/ Dar Al-Ta'aruf.
- 4. Bahth hawl-al Wilaya pp. 57-58; published/ Dar Al-Ta'aruf.
- 5. 65. Bahth hawl-al Wilaya pp. 57-58; published/ Dar Al-Ta'aruf pp. 60- 61.
- 6. Ahl Al-Bayt (‘a) the different periods of life and the oneness of their target, pp. 127-129.
- 7. Ahl Al-Bayt (‘a) the different periods of life and the oneness of their target, p. 122.
- 8. Ahl Al-Bayt (‘a) the different periods of life and the oneness of their target, p.59.
- 9. Ahl Al-Bayt (‘a) the different periods of life and the oneness of their target, pp. 131-132 and pp. 147-148.
- 10. Ibid, 144.
- 11. Ahl Al-Bayt (‘a) the different periods of life and the oneness of their target, pp. 79-80.