Historical accounts have never stated that the Prophet’s (S) pure household (‘a) studied under anyone except their esteemed fathers and the Holy Prophet (S), from whom they inherited their education.
Abounding knowledge and brilliant learning distinguished them historically, this we know, despite the limited exposition of their daily scholastic lives.
Historians unanimously agree that the Prophet’s (S) pure household (‘a) was of the highest of the learned, overtaking all others in all major forms of knowledge.
True leadership and guidance, claiming leadership of the Islamic nations or the entire world needs divine guidance by applying the Imam’s hand in any field of knowledge and in any representation of responsibility towards the people. The A’immah (‘a) confirmed this pattern which history, also, recorded. An environment of hostility formed, as an opposing movement, encompassing the holy household of the Prophet (S). This was directed specifically from the caliphs, who considered them to be enemies and rivals; rivals with whom any competitors were unable to logically and practically compete with.
It became sufficient motivation for them to put the A’immah (‘a) under scientific scrutiny at different points and periods of time, which is registered in the history of Islam with valid quoted references. Perpetual triumph of the Prophet’s (S) household (‘a), in these examinations is doubtless and they were most desirable to the public to be divine leaders, as they proved the authenticity of their scientific jurisprudence in different aspects of knowledge to whole nations and to those presenting them with tests to measure the extent of their understanding and knowledge.
In holy tradition, a faithful man is described as one who sees with Allah’s light:
وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَيُعَلِّمُكُمُ اللّهُ وَاللّهُ بِكُلِّ شَيْءٍ عَلِيمٌ
“……Be in awe of Allah, and Allah teaches you, and Allah is All-Knowing of all things.” (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:282).
The Imamah Shi’ahs believed that their Imams were appointed to mankind by Allah and are, therefore, blessed with divine knowledge received directly by their hearts and minds, in the same manner of the Prophet (S); and in addition to this is the knowledge, generosity, and the perfection thereof they inherited from him (S).
They were the household of inspiration and prophecy and desired more than others to inherit knowledge and divine perfection, which crystallized in the Prophet’s (S) nature. They were those whom the Prophet (S) nominated to take over the crucially great responsibility of leadership of society.
مَا ضَلَّ صَاحِبُكُمْ وَمَا غَوَی
“Indeed, your companion [Prophet Muhammad (S)] has neither gone astray nor has erred.” (Surah Al-Najm, 53:2).
وَمَا يَنطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوَی
“Nor does he speak of concupiscent desire.” (Surah Al-Najm, 53:3).
إِنْ هُوَ إِلاّ وَحْيٌ يُوحَی
“His word is only a Revelation revealed to him.” (Surah Al-Najm, 53:4).
Scientists who studied and reported this learning, under these sacred and holy persons, are the best witnesses, aware of the various vast knowledge of their sciences, and superiority to those famed for their learning and knowledge.
We can divide the traditions quoted by Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) into those regarding the Qur’an, tradition: Hadith, jurisprudence, morals, history, and beliefs, in addition to learning that amidst the prayers and advice, there are disputes with the learned on psychology, socialism, trading sciences, Gnosticism, management, economy, and other majors of natural and humanity studies.
Here we write a brief of his knowledge and learning, as history recorded:
The Qur’an is pure inspiration from Allah, an everlasting miracle that proves the status of the master of the prophets, as well as provides the basis for the final Shari’a Law of all prophets, as it is and shall remain as the source for each and every knowledge. It is the essential ocean of any science and Divine learning.
The greatest Prophet (S) stated about the Qur’an; "I leave two valuable things amongst you, each of which is worthier than the other: Allah’s book, which is a rope suspended from the heavens to the earth, and my household –my Ahlul Bayt. These two never separate from each other till they come to me at the Pond of Kawthar. So let us see how you protect them after my demise."
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a), like his great forefathers, was attached to the Qur’an and its sciences. This attachment is very clear from his daily routine prayers, and his attention to its reading, commentary, teaching and performance. There is, therefore, no doubt in the reality that the Imam was well versed in the Qur’an with an identical imaginative quality regarding its illuminating verses; the everlasting miracle of Allah.
Here we present parts of his prayer after a completed reading of the Qur’an and whatever we are told is about the importance of the Qur’an:
“Lord, you helped me finish a complete reading of your book, the Qur’an; the book you sent down to us in a ray of light and empowered over any other religion you previously sent down and superior to any other traditions. The book in which you set standards to differentiate between Halal and Haram; the Qur’an in which you reveal the laws of your religion, a book you described and expound for your servants and an inspiration which descended to your Prophet (S).”
“You set it as a light till we distinguish the straight way from the wrong in the darkness of ignorance, and as remedy for those who listen with their hearts, a scale of justice, from which its followers would not move in any false way, and a guiding light, whose ray of logical reasoning never subsides in front of observers, a flag of deliverance to which anyone attached never goes wrong; he who reaches its purity, nothing can eradicate him.”
“Lord, now that you helped us in reading, which has cleared our tongue with its excellent words, consider us as one of those who desire its keeping and to serve you in front of its stable verses with great will, and believe and know themselves without any option to obey this in the presence of its revealed verses. Lord, you sent down that book uncovered to your Prophet (S) and inspired expounding knowledge of amazements to him and passed on that knowledge to us; in this way you overcame the limitations of we who do not have such learning and knowledge.”
“You granted us power of understanding reality and performing it to appoint us over those who do not have authority to act for truth. So, Lord, when you set our hearts as carriers of the Qur’an together with knowledge of your superiority and honesty, greet Muhammad (S) and his household who continually informed people on this subject. Make us from those who confess that this is sent down from you, and is your command till we remove any doubt through our hearts, and the thought of stepping out from the straight way, does not enter our minds.”1
The Qur’an is the great miracle of Islam and the son of the Prophet (S) pointed to parts of this brilliant learning. We describe some points here:
1.) Allah sends the Qur’an as a light to show the path to the lost and confused and declares the main goal of Allah to his servants.
2.) The Qur’an is ruler of all former divine books sent by Allah and it claims that former divine books were distorted by people who put a hand in them.
3.) Allah has made superior all the Prophet’s (‘a) narratives in the Qur’an as regards their conditions but the Qur’an, itself, mentions them in a general manner from which the people can take advice.
4.) Because the Qur’an is a book of living law, it is a standard to distinguish the Halal from the Haram. It mentions whatever the human being needs expounding, and there are no twists and problems in it.
5.) Allah not only set the Qur’an as a light in darkness but also set it as a recovery for spiritual disease, of course, for those who believe in it.
6.) The Qur’an is a scale of justice, there is not a minuscule mistake in it. Whoever takes sanctuary under its shelter will be on the straight way, and no deviation can be seen in it and it will save you from destruction.
7.) The Imam (‘a) asked Allah’s success to observe the Qur’an correctly and to surrender to strong verses and confessing similarities.
8.) Allah granted the holy Qur’an to the great Prophet (S) and taught him and the esteemed A’immah (‘a), of his household, its commentary. Allah raised their rank, made them treasurers of the Prophet’s (S) knowledge, and made them teachers of Qur’an learning.
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) was one of the brightest commentators on the holy Qur’an. Many knowledgeable scientists acknowledged his wondrously high status of magnificent commentary. They also wrote of his own special commentary school and his martyred son Zaid,2 and another of his sons, Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (‘a), whom Ziad Ibn Monthare Jarody, leader of the Jarodeih sect quoted, "they have followed their father’s school."
We will mention some of these commentaries.
1.) Imam Al-Baqir (‘a) said about the holy verse:
الَّذِي جَعَلَ لَكُمُ الْأَرْضَ فِرَاشًا وَالسَّمَاءَ بِنَاءً وَأَنزَلَ مِنَ السَّمَاءِ مَاءً فَأَخْرَجَ بِهِ مِنَ الثَّمَرَاتِ رِزْقًا لَّكُمْ فَلَا تَجْعَلُوا لِلَّـهِ أَندَادًا وَأَنتُمْ تَعْلَمُونَ
“Who made the earth a resting place for you and the heaven a canopy and (Who) sends down rain from the cloud, then brings forth with it subsistence for you of the fruits; therefore do not set up rivals to Allah while you know.” (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:22).
Allah customized earth and nature for your body, not too hot to burn you and not too cold to freeze you, not too sweet-smelling to render you unconscious and not too foul-smelling that you die from its stench. Not too smooth like water and not too hard that you could not build on it or bury your dead. But Glorious Allah made enough firmness on earth to enable you to utilise it and place your body and houses on it and create things which you use to build your graves and homes; so he spread the earth for you.
When Allah stated, "and He made heavens a canopy", it means he made the sky a ceiling over you where its sun, moon, and stars are in circles for you, and "He sent rain from the sky" means he sends rain from on high that falls on mountain tops, hills, and low ground, for the use of all. He sends it in different ways like drizzle, heavy rain and rainstorms, so that your ground absorbs water completely; he did not pour rain on you all at once, which would destroy your grounds, forests, and fruit.
Then Allah stated: "...and he made your sustenance out of fruits." This means that the origin of all your food is earth. "So do not consider any rival for Allah" means, do not make any idols that are not able to think, hear and have no power to do actions in competition with Allah. And you know that they have none of those powers which Allah has.3
These brilliant words of Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) contain the most wonderful and firm reasons in favour of the monotheism of Allah. The complete and clear explanation of the creation of Earth, how Allah made it not too hard, nor too soft, so that you live comfortably on it and are able to enjoy its benefits and products; so the Earth, with all of its wonders, like mountains, deserts, mines, oceans, rivers… is amongst the greatest and strongest facts of Allah’s existence.
In the next part of this tradition, the Imam (‘a) talks about the greatness of Allah in creating the sky and whatever is in it, like the sun, moon, stars and the light from which the earth stores its power. The lives of plants are in consideration of the sun shining, and moonlight is effective in the ebb and flow of seas and, in this way, starlight is integral to the lives of plants and animals.
This phenomenon of the universe has been discovered during recent decades, but Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) indicated all of them in his above mentioned words. Indeed, this Imam and his great grandfathers and sons were pioneers in raising the flag of knowledge and were most effective in forming human civilization.
In another place, the Imam (‘a) talked about the process of rain, highlighting the fact that its fall is scheduled, falling at different times, with different aims to revive the Earth and facilitate the growing of plants, in order to reap produce; if the water reaches the Earth in one deluge of rain, it would completely destroy life on the Earth.
These clear reasons of the existence of Allah the Wise, encouraged servants of Allah to worship, practice monotheism, abandon idolatry, which degenerates thoughts and prevents a person from waking up to the reason why these idols provide no advantage or disadvantage and are unable to make a tiny move or change in the control of the world.
2.) In the sacred verse, the meaning of which is:
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا ادْخُلُوا فِي السِّلْمِ كَافَّةً وَلَا تَتَّبِعُوا خُطُوَاتِ الشَّيْطَانِ ۚ إِنَّهُ لَكُمْ عَدُوٌّ مُّبِينٌ
“O you who believe! Enter you one and all into submission wholly and do not follow the footsteps of Satan; surely he is to you an open enemy.” (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:208).
His commentaries, submission, advocate the acceptance of Amir Al-Mu’minin’s (‘a) wilayah authority.
Doubtless, Imam ‘Ali’s ‘Wilayah’, which is the door of the Prophet’s (S) knowledge, contains real health under the shadow of which people would gain stability and security; and if Muslims had accepted this wilayah and authority from Imam ‘Ali (‘a) they would certainly not have suffered so many political and social hardships and crises.
3.) Imam Sadiq (‘a) quoted his great father Imam Zayn Al ‘Abidin (‘a) in commentary of this verse, saying continually "There is an angel to take every one of your actions high in the heavens except for alms which reaches straight to Allah’s hand."4
أَلَمْ يَعْلَمُوا أَنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ يَقْبَلُ التَّوبَةَ عَنْ عِبَادِهِ وَيَأْخُذُ الْصَّدَقَاتِ وَأَنَّ اللّهَ هُوَ التَّوَّابُ الرَّحِيمُ
“Do they not know that Allah is He Who accepts the repentance from His servants and takes the alms and that Allah is He Who is Oft-Pardoning, Merciful?” (Surah At-Tawbah, 9:104).
4.) Someone asked Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) what is the meaning of ‘recognized right’ in this verse?
وَالَّذِينَ فِي أَمْوَالِهِمْ حَقٌّ مَعْلُومٌ
“And those in whose wealth there is a recognized right” (Surah Al-Ma’arij, 70:24).
“For the mendicant and the deprived,” (Surah Al-Ma’arij, 70:25).
The Imam responded that: "It refers to those of your properties, which are out of Zakat and Sadaqat, that you should purify them."
Then the man asked, "In what way should we spend it?"
The Imam replied: "Spend that money or properties to go to visit relatives, assist a weak person and solve his problems, or help his religious brothers in disasters."
The man continued, puzzled by the Imam’s knowledge, saying that Allah is wiser than anyone to know whom to deliver his mission of prophecy.5
5.) Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a), in commentary of this verse, explained it as meaning: "You should forgive others without their needing to provide excuse."6
فَاصْفَحِ الصَّفْحَ الْجَمِيلَ
“……then pardon you, with a gracious pardoning.” (Surah Al-Hijr, 15:85).
The knowledge of narrations is extremely important among the Islamic sciences. Vast parts of Islamic law are set in place regarding these traditions. The narrations either explain in detail the Shari’a rulings - including the five various categories, such as obligation, prohibition, recommendation, allowed and inappropriate - in the way in which they have been mentioned in the Holy Qur’an. They classify definitions and commentaries of Qur’anic verses, explaining them to others.
They elaborate which are to be adhered to, which are distinctively clear and which are vague (Mujmal). They clarify details, as to what are the required conditions of rulings, and elucidate the specific parts and matters that invalidate the acts of worship. They also specify limitations of that which is unconditional in regards to the Qu’ranic verses. In addition, they discuss behaviour, manners and moral rules, and teach about the perfect life and the ways to live happily without anxiety.
Imam Zayn Al ‘Abidin (‘a) is considered the greatest and most crucial narrator of all time. The Twelver Shi’ah believes the Imam himself to be a mine of divine rules and learning and the reason that the traditions of the A’immah (‘a) are the same as those of the Prophet (S). Imam ‛Ali Ibn Abi-Talib (‘a) stated: the Prophet (S) taught me a thousand gates of knowledge, each one of which has opened a thousand gates to me.7
History also proved this saying of Imam ‘Ali (‘a) and the disciples confess to the science of the jurisprudence of ‘Ali (‘a) and the pure A’immah (‘a), all of whom are his household, and Allah called them the gates of guidance and rescue ships and the Prophet (S) said about them: "My household is like Noah’s ark, whoever steps in it are saved and those who are left behind will be drowned."8
In some traditions received from Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin (‘a), it is declared that this tradition comes from the Prophet (S) to his grandfather Imam ‘Ali (‘a) and was then delivered to his father Imam Husayn (‘a), from whom he quoted it.
Distinguished scholars of the learning of traditions (‘Ilm Al-Hadith) know Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) as the most knowledgeable during the period of obedience and, had it not been for his school of science and his merciful efforts at the time when ignorance and nonchalance were rampant and passion was current, Islamic society would revert once again to the ignorant period, and all traces of Islam would disappear.
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) was unique in his time for addressing the doubts of the faithful, especially those resulting from imported questions and fake intellectual movements designed to destabilise pure believers of Islam, which was inspired for the benefit of all nations. Doubts associated with destiny, force and will; all of which had their origin from the time of Imam ‘Ali (‘a), grew and scattered like an intellectual phenomena that needed recovery.
In these conditions, the Imam (‘a) appeared with a wide range of knowledge, and all fingers were pointing at him. All Muslims believed in him, even Zuhri said, "I did not see from Bani Hashim more jurisprudence and anyone more learned than ‘Ali Ibn Husayn." Those Ummayyad caliphs who did not acknowledge his wisdom due to their incessant power struggles, also admitted this and Abd ul-malek Ibn Marwan told Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin (‘a), "Allah has given you such knowledge, faith and abstinence, that has not been given to anyone before." Omar Ibn Abul Azim called him - seraje donya and jamae Islam- which means ‘light of the world and the beauty of Islam.’9
There is a tradition about fortune or destiny from this Imam (‘a) in which it is said that a man once asked him: "Allah sacrifice me for you, do people encounter disasters because of their actions or by chance?" (Which means do they face troubles because of what they do, or because it has been predestined by Allah from the very first day that they should face such troubles as if it has been written on their foreheads as their fortune?)
The Imam answered: "Allah’s allocation of destiny and human action are like the human spirit and body. The spirit does not have any physical sensation and the body without the spirit does not have any movement. When they mix together they get power and start moving. Action and destiny are the same. If destiny was not the ruler of your action, there would be no difference between creator and creature and Allah’s allocation of destiny would change to something of nonsense. And if your action does not match destiny it would not happen. These two are always together and here Allah helps his righteous servants."
He then added: "You should know that the worst oppressor is the one who thinks that cruelty and oppression are justice but that the justice which Allah has guided him to is injustice and oppression. You should know that each servant of Allah has four eyes; from two of them he observes worldly affairs and, from the other two, he sees the works of the other world. So, if Allah intends someone benefit, he opens the eyes of his heart, otherwise he will leave him to himself."
He then turned to the man who asked him about destiny and said: "He is from this group! He is from this group!"10
The Imam (‘a), in explaining the impossibility of claiming limitation to Almighty Allah, solely as ascribable to any possible existence, stated, "O Abu Hamzah, Allah is not described in relation to limitation, as how can you describe something that is endless and yet describe him in a way in which you limit him, while eyes are not able to see him but he sees vision, itself, and he is thorough and known?"11
5. Explicit Statements Of Imam Al-Sajjad (‘A) About The Imams (‘A) After Him And His Statements Concerning The Arrival Of Imam Mahdi (‘A)
1.) Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin (‘a) quoted a very lengthy hadith from Jabir Ibn Abdullah Ansari in some parts of which the Holy Prophet (S) mentioned his grandson Imam Husayn (‘a) saying to Jabir: "A man will be raised from the generation of this my son who will fill the Earth with justice and tranquillity, as it is now filled with grief and oppression."12
2.) In another place he said about his son, Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten his joyful advent): "In the ruling period of Al-Qaim (May Allah, hasten his glad advent) Allah will make Islam victorious over all other religions."13
3.) He also said: "With the arrival of Imam Mahdi (may Allah hasten his joyful advent), Allah the Almighty will remove illnesses and sickness from all sick faithful people and will return their strength to them."14
4.) Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) says: "Al-Qaim – who is from the holy household of the Prophet (S) – possesses some of the traditional prophetic characteristics like: the long lifespan of Adam (‘a) and Noah (‘a), the secret birth and being isolated from people thereafter like Abraham (‘a), the fear and absence associated with Moses’ (‘a), peoples’ disagreement about him like in the case of Christ (‘a), improvement after having tolerated all hardships like Ayyub (‘a) and rising with the sword like Muhammad (S)."15
5.) About Imam Mahdi’s (‘a) hiding and concealment, the Imam (‘a) says:
"The birth of our Qaim (may Allah hasten his fortunate advent) will remain hidden from the people to the extent that some will say that he has not yet been born. This is because, after appearing, he must not have promised his loyalty to anyone."16
6.) It has been narrated from Abu Hamzah Ath-Thumali who narrated from Abu Khalid Kabuli who said:
"One day I went to Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin (‘a) and asked him: "Oh, son of the Prophet! (S), tell me about the number of people the obeying of whom has been made obligatory by Allah the Exalted." He answered: "Oh, father of Kankar! They are none other than "those in authority" (Ulil Amr), who were selected as the rulers of the people by Allah, the Almighty, Himself, and whose following was made obligatory on people by Him: The first one is Imam ‘Ali (the chief of the faithful) (‘a) and then this mandate is provided to us by Allah." Then he was quiet for a while.
I asked him: "O, my Lord! We know about a tradition related to Imam ‘Ali (‘a) in which he says: the Earth will never be empty from Divine Proof (HujjatAllah). Hence, tell me who is the Divine Proof and the Imam (‘a) after you?"
"My son, Muhammad, will be your Imam (‘a) after me, whose name, according to the Torah (the Old Testament) is "Al-Baqir" and "analyzer of wisdoms." After him will be his son "Ja’far" whose name according to heavenly creatures is “Sadiq” (the truthful)."
I asked him politely: "My Lord! What is the reason that only he will be called "Sadiq (the truthful)" while all of you have the same quality?" (All of you are truthful).The Imam (‘a) said:
"My father quoted from his father who quoted from the Holy Prophet (S) who said: "When my son Ja’afar son of Muhammad son of ‘Ali son of Husayn son of ‘Ali (‘a) is born, name him "Sadiq (the truthful)" because the fifth son from his offspring will also be given the same name, who will boldly assert in the court of Allah, the Exalted, that he is also Imam. He will be known as "Ja’far Kazzab" (the liar) to Allah the Almighty, who, by accusing Allah the Almighty, will claim a seat for which he is not suitable. He will oppose his father and will display a feeling of jealousy towards his brother. He is the one who will make the divine secrets manifest in the period of absence of the friend of Allah (Waliullah)."
Then Imam ‘Ali son of Husayn (‘a) cried intensely and said:
"It is as if I am seeing Ja’far Kazzab who is provoking the cruelest person of his time to prevent the absent Imam (‘a) and Imam "Waliullah" from his righteous deeds, so that he can possess his father’s seat with the help of the cruelest person. But he is not aware of Imam "Waliullah’s" birth. In hearing the probability of Imam "Waliullah’s" birth, he will become furious to find and kill him, coveting to inherit all the inheritance of his father through wrongful means."
Ibn Khalid says: I said to Imam (‘a) politely: "O son of the Prophet (S) is there a possibility of such a thing?"
"I swear by Allah! Yes. This is written on a leaf of pages (book) in which a number of hardships and misfortunes are mentioned that we, the Ahlul-Bayt, the household of the Prophet (‘a), will have to face after the death of the Prophet of Allah (S)."
Abu Khalid said: I asked: "O the son of the Prophet (S)! What will happen after that?"
He said: "Then will continue the absent period of Imam "Waliullah" who is the twelfth Imam (Wasi) of all Imams of the Prophet (S) and other Imams (‘a). O Abu Khalid! The people of the period of his absence, who will have a strong belief in his Imamah and will keep waiting for him, are far better than the people of our time, because Allah the Almighty has given them such an understanding and knowledge that the absent period becomes an absolute observation for them. Allah the Almighty will equalize their positions to Jihad, which they fought alongside the Holy Prophet (S) against the enemies of Islam. They are really sincere and are our real Shi’ahs who openly or in secret invite people to the true religion of Allah (Islam)."
Then he mentioned that to wait for Imam Mahdi (May Allah, hasten his glad advent) is the best relief itself.17
The study circle that was established by Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) highlighted various types of Islamic knowledge. The Imam (‘a) added to the knowledge of the students with branches of his own and his forefathers’ knowledge. He taught the leading students Islamic Jurisprudence and inference of religious laws. A large number of Muslim jurisprudents graduated from a course of study here.
In this way, Imam (‘a) was successful in attracting the attention of a large number of Readers and men of the book and tradition, to the extent that Sa’id Ibn Al-Musayyab said: The Readers would not leave the city unless Imam (‘a) left Makkah and when we left the city along with the Imam (‘a), a group of one thousand riders accompanied us.18
The present meaning of Jurisprudence is a branch of knowledge dealing with the religious problems of the persons. The Imam (‘a) was the only one having explanations for all religious matters, teaching others their inference from an Islamic viewpoint. He was the only instructor of all Jurisprudents of Madinah. The establishment of his study circle changed into the origin for many other jurisprudential schools that were established later.
Zahari says about Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a): "I have not seen anyone else in Hashim’s family who can be called superior and a jurisprudent of a higher level than Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin (‘a)." According to Shafiei, he was the greatest jurisprudent of Madinah. 19
Islamic historians have said that Zahari acknowledged Imam Husayn Ibn ‘Ali’s (‘a) knowledge and supremacy. They say that Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) was among those people whom Zahari consulted for the solution of very important religious problems. It is narrated that Zahari dreamt that one of his hands was dyed with henna. Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) interpreted his dream saying: "Very soon, your hands are going to be mistakenly coloured with bloodshed."
Zahari was the governor of the Ummayyad government. One day, while he was torturing a criminal, the man suddenly died of his punishment. Zahari became very worried and had no other choice but to escape the premises. He did so and went to a cave where he spent all the time worshipping Allah. When the Imam (‘a) decided to go for Hajj, he passed the cave on his way and he saw Zahari worshiping Allah.
Someone asked the Imam (‘a): "Don’t you have anything to say to Zahari?"
Imam (‘a) replied positively. He went into the cave where he found him frightened and hopeless of Allah’s blessings.
Imam (‘a) said to him: "I am afraid for you; not for what you have done, but for your state of hopelessness of Allah’s blessings. Pay his blood-money to the members of his family (here the Imam (‘a) is pointing towards the 92nd verse of An-Nisa) and leave for your home and restart your religious teachings and arguments."
Zahari was overjoyed and said to the Imam (‘a): "O, my Lord! You solved my unsolvable problem. No doubt, Allah the Almighty blesses any family He wants with His prophetic mission and He is well- aware of everyone."20
It has been narrated that one day Zahari came to Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin’s (‘a) house together with a group of jurisprudents. The Imam (‘a) asked them about their discussion.
Zahari said: “Our discussion was about "fasting." In my view, we have no obligatory "fasting" other than fasting of the month Ramadan.”
The Imam (‘a) felt sorry for the scant information they had about their religion and religious laws so he then explained the kinds of fasting for them as follows:
"The matter is not as you said. There are forty kinds of fasting, ten of which are obligatory like for the month of Ramadan. There are ten kinds which are forbidden (Haram). The other fourteen kinds are optional. If a person wants to keep them, he can keep them. Otherwise he can break his fast, if it is one of the last fourteen types: three kinds are fasting of permission, fasting of permissibility, fasting of journey and, finally, fasting of illness."
Zahari and other jurisprudents were stunned to come to know about the Imam’s (‘a) knowledge on religious problems. Zahari requested him to explain all the forty kinds of fasting for them.
Imam (‘a) said:
"But among the obligatory fasting, the first is the fasting of the holy month of Ramadan; the second fasting is a fasting period of two months for having broken one of the fasts of the holy month of Ramadan intentionally; another kind of obligatory fasting is a fasting period of two months observed for an unintentional murder of someone by a person who does not have the ability to free a slave."
Allah the Almighty says:
وَمَا كَانَ لِمُؤْمِنٍ أَن يَقْتُلَ مُؤْمِنًا إِلاَّ خَطَئًا وَمَن قَتَلَ مُؤْمِنًا خَطَئًا فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ إِلاَّ أَن يَصَّدَّقُواْ فَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ عَدُوٍّ لَّكُمْ وَهُوَ مْؤْمِنٌ فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةٍ وَإِن كَانَ مِن قَوْمٍ بَيْنَكُمْ وَبَيْنَهُمْ مِّيثَاقٌ فَدِيَةٌ مُّسَلَّمَةٌ إِلَى أَهْلِهِ وَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مُّؤْمِنَةً فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ تَوْبَةً مِّنَ اللّهِ وَكَانَ اللّهُ عَلِيمًا حَكِيمًا
"And it is not for a believer to kill a believer except by mistake, and whoever kills a believer by mistake must set free a believing slave, and pay the blood-money to the family of the slain unless they remit it as a freewill offering. But if he (the slain) is from a tribe hostile unto you, and he is a believer, then (the penance is) to set free a believing slave. And if he is from a tribe between whom and you there is a covenant. Then the blood-money must be paid to his family and (also) a believing slave must be set free. But he who finds not (the means) should fast two months consecutively. (This is) a penance from Allah, and Allah is All-Knowing, All-Wise." (Surah An-Nisa’, 4:92).
Another kind of fasting is a fasting period of two months, observed as atonement (Kaffara) for Dhihar21 for a person who does not have the ability to free a slave.
Allah Almighty says:
وَالَّذِينَ يُظَاهِرُونَ مِن نِّسَائِهِمْ ثُمَّ يَعُودُونَ لِمَا قَالُوا فَتَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ مِّن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَاسَّا ۚ ذَٰلِكُمْ تُوعَظُونَ بِهِ ۚ وَاللَّهُ بِمَا تَعْمَلُونَ خَبِيرٌ
“And those who make unlawful to them their wives by zihar and wish to redeem themselves of what they uttered, [the expiation] in that case is the manumission of a slave before they touch each other. That is an admonition to you. And Allah is All-Aware of what you do.” (Surah Al-Mujadila, 58:3).
فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ شَهْرَيْنِ مُتَتَابِعَيْنِ مِن قَبْلِ أَن يَتَمَاسَّا ۖ فَمَن لَّمْ يَسْتَطِعْ فَإِطْعَامُ سِتِّينَ مِسْكِينًا ۚ ذَٰلِكَ لِتُؤْمِنُوا بِاللَّهِ وَرَسُولِهِ ۚ وَتِلْكَ حُدُودُ اللَّهِ ۗ وَلِلْكَافِرِينَ عَذَابٌ أَلِيمٌ
“And he who finds not a slave for manumission must fast to successive months before they both touch each other. And he who is unable to do so, should feed sixty poor people. That is in order that you may have faith in Allah and His Messenger. These are Divine Laws. And for disbelievers, there is an excruciating torment.” (Surah Al-Mujadila, 58:4).
The other fasting is a fasting period of three days observed for taking an oath.
Allah the Almighty says:
اَ يُؤَاخِذُكُمُ اللّهُ بِاللَّغْوِ فِي أَيْمَانِكُمْ وَلَـكِن يُؤَاخِذُكُم بِمَا عَقَّدتُّمُ الأَيْمَانَ فَكَفَّارَتُهُ إِطْعَامُ عَشَرَةِ مَسَاكِينَ مِنْ أَوْسَطِ مَا تُطْعِمُونَ أَهْلِيكُمْ أَوْ كِسْوَتُهُمْ أَوْ تَحْرِيرُ رَقَبَةٍ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاَثَةِ أَيَّامٍ ذَلِكَ كَفَّارَةُ أَيْمَانِكُمْ إِذَا حَلَفْتُمْ وَاحْفَظُواْ أَيْمَانَكُمْ كَذَلِكَ يُبَيِّنُ اللّهُ لَكُمْ آيَاتِهِ لَعَلَّكُمْ تَشْكُرُونَ
"Allah does not call you to account for your vain (unintentional) oaths, but he calls you to account for what you have pledged solemnly. So its atonement is feeding ten paupers with the average of what you feed your own families, or clothing them, or freeing a slave. But whoever does not find (the means to do so), should fast for three days. That is the atonement of your oaths when you pledge. But guard your oaths. Thus Allah makes His Signs clear for you in order that you might be thankful." (Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5:89).
All mentioned fasting should be observed without allowing any gaps between the days.
Another kind of obligatory fast is the fast for discomfort as a result of shaving one’s head. And if a person has such a problem, he has the option to perform any of the three options (as in Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:196).
Another obligatory fasting is the fasting observed for changing the day of greater Pilgrimage.
Allah, The Almighty says:
وَأَتِمُّواْ الْحَجَّ وَالْعُمْرَةَ لِلّهِ فَإِنْ أُحْصِرْتُمْ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ وَلاَ تَحْلِقُواْ رُؤُوسَكُمْ حَتَّى يَبْلُغَ الْهَدْيُ مَحِلَّهُ فَمَن كَانَ مِنكُم مَّرِيضاً أَوْ بِهِ أَذًى مِّن رَّأْسِهِ فَفِدْيَةٌ مِّن صِيَامٍ أَوْ صَدَقَةٍ أَوْ نُسُكٍ فَإِذَا أَمِنتُمْ فَمَن تَمَتَّعَ بِالْعُمْرَةِ إِلَى الْحَجِّ فَمَا اسْتَيْسَرَ مِنَ الْهَدْيِ فَمَن لَّمْ يَجِدْ فَصِيَامُ ثَلاثَةِ أَيَّامٍ فِي الْحَجِّ وَسَبْعَةٍ إِذَا رَجَعْتُمْ تِلْكَ عَشَرَةٌ كَامِلَةٌ ذَلِكَ لِمَن لَّمْ يَكُنْ أَهْلُهُ حَاضِرِي الْمَسْجِدِ الْحَرَامِ وَاتَّقُواْ اللّهَ وَاعْلَمُواْ أَنَّ اللّهَ شَدِيدُ الْعِقَابِ
"And complete the Hajj (Pilgrimage) and the ‘Ummrah for the sake of Allah; but if you are prevented (to complete it), then (send) whatever offering (sacrificial animal) as may be obtained with ease; and do not shave your heads till the offering reaches w place (of sacrifice); but whoever among you is sick, or has an ailment in his head, then he (should) make redemption by fasting, or alms-giving or sacrificing. And when you are secure, then whoever enjoys from the ‘Ummrah to the Hajj (he should offer) of whatever offering is easily available (for him). But whoever finds none (to give), should fast three days during the Hajj (Pilgrimage), and seven days when you have returned; these (make) ten (days) complete. That is for the one whose family members do not dwell near the sacred Mosque. Have awe of Allah, and know that verily Allah is severe in penalty." (Surah Al-Baqarah, 2:196).
Another fast is the one kept for punishment of a prey by someone in the state of pilgrim’s grab (Ihram).
يَا أَيُّهَا الَّذِينَ آمَنُواْ لاَ تَقْتُلُواْ الصَّيْدَ وَأَنتُمْ حُرُمٌ وَمَن قَتَلَهُ مِنكُم مُّتَعَمِّدًا فَجَزَاء مِّثْلُ مَا قَتَلَ مِنَ النَّعَمِ يَحْكُمُ بِهِ ذَوَا عَدْلٍ مِّنكُمْ هَدْيًا بَالِغَ الْكَعْبَةِ أَوْ كَفَّارَةٌ طَعَامُ مَسَاكِينَ أَو عَدْلُ ذَلِكَ صِيَامًا لِّيَذُوقَ وَبَالَ أَمْرِهِ عَفَا اللّهُ عَمَّا سَلَف وَمَنْ عَادَ فَيَنتَقِمُ اللّهُ مِنْهُ وَاللّهُ عَزِيزٌ ذُو انْتِقَامٍ
"O’ you who have Faith! kill no game while you are in pilgrim garb: and anyone of you who kills it intentionally, its atonement is the like in cattle of what he has killed, as (to this likeness) two just persons among you judge, (and the animal) will be an offering reached to the Ka’bah, or the atonement (of it) is feeding the poor, or the equivalent of that in fasting, that he may taste the effect of his action. Allah has pardoned whatever is a thing of the past; and whoever returns (to it), Allah will take vengeance on him, and Allah is Mighty, the Lord of Retribution." (Surah Al-Ma’idah, 5:95).22
And then Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) said: "O, Zahari! Do you know how to equalize the number of fasts with its atonement (Kaffara)?"
Zahari replied: "No, I do not know."
Imam (‘a) said: "At first, the price of the prey is made known; then the number of kilograms of wheat, which can be bought with the same amount of money is noted. Then, the quantity of wheat is divided into ‘Sa’a’ (a unit which is about three kilograms) and then, a fast is observed against every half ‘sa’a."
The fasting for vow and ‘religious reclusion’ (I’tikaf) is also obligatory.23
“Among the particular days in which it is forbidden (haram) to observe fasting are "the festival at the end of the fasting month" (‘Id Fitr), Feast of Sacrifices observed on the 10th of the lunar month of Zilhajj (‘Id Qurban), the three days named "the days of Tashriq", which are the fasting for eleventh, twelfth and thirteenth days of Zihajj i.e. three days after sacrifice. Another forbidden fasting is of the "suspicious day" (Yum Al-Shak), which we were ordered to observe and which we were subsequently forbidden to keep; we were ordered to observe fast on the mentioned day with the intention of the month of Sha’ban, but we were later forbidden to do so as no one should observe a fast on a day about which the people are doubtful.”
Here Zahari said to the Imam (‘a): "May I be thy ransom! What should a person do who has not observed a single fast for the month of Sha’ban?" The Imam (‘a) replied: "He should observe fasting on the last day of the month of Sha’ban with the intention of a recommended (Mustahib) fasting. If the next day was the first day for the month of Ramadan, his fast will be counted as the first fasting day of the month of Ramadan. Otherwise, if it was still the last day of Sha’ban, he still has not lost anything."
Zahari objected to the Imam (‘a) saying: "How can a recommended fast possibly replace an obligatory fasting?" Imam (‘a) answered: "If a person is observing fast without knowing that it is the holy month of Ramadan, and comes to know it later, then his fasting is known as the fast of the month of Ramadan because he has not missed the obligatory fasting of the month of Ramadan."
Then Imam (‘a) continued on about the kinds of fasting, saying:
"Other forbidden fasts include the fast of union (Wisaal) [in which a fast is observed for a day and a night respectively], the fasting of ‘silence’ (Sukoot) [in which a person intends not to speak a single word for the whole day]."
Fasting for a vow of sins and a lifetime observed fasting are also forbidden.
But a number of optional fasts include the fasting of Fridays, Thursdays, Mondays, the fasting for ‘the White days’ or ‘the days of the bright night’ (Ayam Al-Beidh) which are the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth day of every month, the fasting for six days of Shawal after the holy month of Ramadan, the fasting for ‘Arafat and Ashura – the tenth day of Muharram, which is the day of martyrdom of Imam Husayn (‘a). For these days, the observer has the option of whether to keep fasting or break them.
But fasting of ‘permission’ depends on the permission of a third person. For example, a recommended fasting of a married woman depends on the permission of her husband, fasting of a slave depends on the permission of his master and fasting of a guest depends on the permission of his host. Because, the Holy Prophet (S) said: "whosoever becomes the guest of someone, he should not observe fast unless his host allows him to do so."
Another kind of optional fasting is the fasting of ‘correction’ like of a child (who has not reached the age of puberty but can discern the difference between good and evil) who practices observing the fast to be ready for fasting when he reaches the age of puberty; or the fasting of a traveller who has been eating and drinking during his journey as the travellers are allowed so to do, but who, after reaching home, does not eat or drink anything for the rest of the day to show respect and honour for the holy month of Ramadan.
The fasting of "IAbaha" (permitted) is a fast which is observed as a result of unknowingly breaking one’s fast. Such fasting is acceptable to Allah (swt).
But there is a controversy among the common jurisprudents on the fasting of a sick person and a traveller. Some of them say: They should observe fasting, while some others say that fasting is forbidden for them. There is a third group of jurisprudents according to whom observing a fast is optional for such people. But we say: fasting is not obligatory while a person is travelling or if he is sick. If such persons observe a fast, they should break it as Allah the Exalted has said: "whoever from amongst you falls ill or on journey, should observe [the same number of] fasts in other days."24
Thus, this jurisprudential discussion between Imam (‘a) and other jurisprudents and intellectuals came to an end; a discussion in which the Imam (‘a) showed his vast knowledge about religious laws and secondary branches of jurisprudential principles. In his discussion, the Imam (‘a) mentioned a number of branches of fasting, of which the other intellectuals and scholars were unaware; it needs to be mentioned here that when making a religious statement about the rules and kinds of fasting, Imamite jurisprudents rely on the ongoing tradition.
A record of Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) Al-Sahifah Al-Sajjadiyyah despite its crucially important responsibility of training and creating personal and social movements, also contain some very important scientific aspects, which shows the high educational rank of the Imam (‘a); just as Imam ‘Ali’s (‘a) speeches and Imam Husayn’s (‘a) ‘Arafat Prayer’ contain some scientific aspects related to physical branches of knowledge, like the form of human body, the circumstances of creating human beings along with heavenly and other earthly creatures.
In one of his prayers, Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) says: "O, Allah! You are so transcendent, knowledgeable and omnipotent that you know the weight of the Heavens; you are so pure that you know the weight of the Earth; you are so pure that you know the weight of the sun and the moon; you are so pure that you know the weight of light and darkness; you are so pure that you know the weight of the shadows and air."25
These expressions were mentioned by Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) at such a time, when none of them were discussed in scientific and scholarly gatherings of those days of the Islamic period.
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a), in one of his prayers for the soldiers of justice, also hinted about the possibility that food may be able to become polluted by germs; he has prayed cursing the enemies:
اللَّهُمَّ وَ امْزُجْ مِيَاهَهُمْ بِالْوَبَاءِ، وَ أَطْعِمَتَهُمْ بِالْأَدْوَاءِ ،
“O God, mix their waters with pestilence and their foods with maladies”26
There are a number of his prayers which contain a slight mention of such problems.
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) has also contributed greatly to the Arabic literary field. In fact, his work is so highly rated, that it can be classified as coming second to Imam ‘Ali’s (‘a) eloquently delivered speeches and literature, in terms of quantity and quality. When focusing on the quality of Imam Al-Sajjad’s work, we can see that his literature is quite unique. The majority of the literatures of the Imam (‘a) were his own prayers. He used his artistry and intellect in his literature to spread a universal message far and wide.27
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a), in his exceptional literary works, criticized corrupt conditions and tried to establish an Islamic identity, on both personal and social levels. The Imam’s (‘a) literary style can be viewed as being a revolutionary Islamic movement, set against the mundane literature of his time. This unorthodox literature initiated various bizarre phases, directly linked to the oppressive government. It mutated into a corrupt, dark and completely deviant form of literary art, which clearly illustrated a steady decline of the society’s morals and values.
In the complete version of Imam Al-Sajjad’s (‘a) record, ‘Al-Sahifah Al-Sajjadiyyah’, it has been narrated from Assema’i that he said: "One night I was circumambulating the Ka’abbah when I saw a young man with an elegant face. The strands of his hair were dangling. He had the curtain of the Ka’abah in his hand and was saying:”
"All eyes have gone to sleep, the stars have declined, and You are a Living (Immortal) King. Kings have closed the doors of their castles and asked their guards to be alert and to not let anyone in, but the doors of Your blessings are open. I am here so that you look favourably upon me."
Then he recited these poetic verses:
"Oh, One who recites the prayers in the middle of the night! Oh, the One who is the only remover of grief, misfortune and illness! All of your guests are asleep around your house, but oh, Self- Existent One! You are the only one awake. Oh, Lord! I call upon You in the manner that You have ordered me. Thus, for the sake of your holy home, have mercy on my tears. If the sinful have lost hope in being forgiven by you, then who else is there to shower the rain of blessings over them?"
Assema’i said: I followed the young man and realised that he was none other than Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin (‘a).
Another tradition narrated from Tawus Al-Yamani says: At midnight I saw a man holding the curtains of the Ka’abah in his hands and saying:
"O, One who is the only hope for me in my all needs. I have come to complain from you for my helplessness. Listen to my complaint, O, my Hope! You are the only remover of my hardships. Forgive me for my sins and provide me with all my needs. I have insufficient provision which will not help me reach my destination. Should I weep over my scanty insufficient provision or should I cry for my distant destination? I have brought some ugly and unfavourable deeds to your court. I do not find anyone more evil-doing than I am. O, my extreme Desire! Will you burn me in the burning fire? (If yes) then what will happen to my hopes and fear of you?"28
He says: When I looked at him carefully, I came to know that he was ‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a).
Other examples of the Imam’s (‘a) literary work are the following verses quoted in "Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin’s (‘a) role in the Ahl Al-Bayt (‘a)", a book by Ahmad Fahmi Muhammad:
"This is we who are the leading ones towards the Kawthar’s (a river in Paradise) pond. We are the ones who will quench the thirst of the thirsty people, or will not let them drink a single drop of it. No one can be prosperous without our permission. The ones who love us will never be left in helplessness and hopelessness. He who makes us happy shall reach happiness. But the birth of a person who hurts us will be objectionable. The place for meeting the people, who snatch our rights, will be the Day of Resurrection."29
The art of debating is amongst the most professional of arts. If someone wants to overcome his opponent by way of reasoning, he must be skillful in his field, methodical in his approach, adroit, attentive, well advanced and informed to the highest degree.
All of the sincere Imams (‘a) were experts in the field of religious debate. They always prevailed over their enemies by showing their cerebral expertise and allowed no room for doubt. The Imams clearly demonstrated, to their opponents, the constant assistance they received from Allah the Almighty. One of their enemies commented that: "They are a family who has been fed from the breasts of wisdom."
Shaykh Tabrasi compiled the fourteen Infallibles’ the Prophet (S), Hazrat Zahra (‘a) and the twelve Imams (‘a) argumentations in his book ‘Al-Ehtijaaj’. Some examples are mentioned as follows:
1.) A person from Basrah came to ‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a) and said: "O, ‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a)! Your grandfather ‛Ali Ibn Abi- Talib (‘a) killed believers." Imam Zayn Al-’Abidin’s (‘a) eyes filled with tears. He cried so much that his hands were drenched with tears. He poured the tears onto the earth saying:
"O, my brother from Basrah! No, I swear by Allah that what you just said is not the truth. I swear by Allah (swt) that, neither did ‘Ali (‘a) kill a believer, nor did he murder a Muslim. Those he killed were people who were claiming to be Muslims, but who had hidden their blasphemy. They were just acting like Muslims. By the time they found other people who agreed to help them in their blasphemous activities, they started showing their hidden infidelity. The Arabs of the Sahara, as well as the close companions of the Prophet (S) knew that those who participated in the battles of Jamal, Siffin and Nahrwan against Imam ‘Ali (‘a) were those who were cursed by the Holy Prophet (S) and the liars were injured."
Then the old man from Kufah said to the Imam (‘a): “O, ‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a)! Your ancestor ‛Ali Ibn Abi- Talib (‘a) used to say: "Our brother did injustice to us." (He called the quarrelsome people his brothers).”
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) said: Didn’t you read the holy Book of Allah in which He says: "And unto the tribe of (‘Aad) we sent their brother Hud. We delivered Hud and the faithful who were with him, by a mercy from us and we unleashed upon the rest a barren wind."30
2.) It has been narrated from Abu Hamzah Ath-Thumali that he said: One day a judge from the judges of Kufah came to Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) and said: "May I be the ransom! Make me aware of the meaning of this verse: ‘and we made between them and the towns which we had blessed (other) towns to be easily seen and we apportioned the journey therein: travel through them nights and days, secure.’"
The Imam (‘a) said: "What did the people before you say about that?" He said: "They said it is Makkah."
The Imam (‘a) said: "Do you know another city where the number of thieves is greater than the number of thieves in Makkah?"
The man said: "Then which city is meant by the word ‘city or town’ in the verse?"
Imam (‘a) said: "The meaning of the word is the inhabitants of that place, not the place itself."
Abu Hamzah asked: "Is there any other verse in which the people of the cities have been mentioned?"
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) answered: "Have you heard of this verse: How many a town defied the command of its Lord and His apostles, then we called it to a severe account and punished it with a dire punishment", and "Those are the towns that we destroyed when they were wrongdoers, and we appointed a tryst for their destruction." And "Ask [the people of] the town we were in, and the caravan with which we came. We indeed speak the truth."
Then the Imam (‘a) proceeded to recite other similar verses.
The judge said politely: "May I be thy ransom! Now that I know what the words in the verse mean, people of the towns or cities, tell me who the people mentioned in these verses were?"
The Imam (‘a) answered: "We are the people!" He added, "Have you not heard that Allah says in the same verse: "And we had ordained the course through them: Travel through them in safety, night and day." "Aameen means in safety."31
3.) It has been narrated by Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) that one day he met Hasan Basri in Mina while Hasan Basri was preaching to the people. The Imam (‘a) stopped and said: "Wait for a moment! I have a question for you. Tomorrow, if your death comes to take you with it, will you be satisfied by the relation between you and your Allah?"
He said: "No."
Imam (‘a) said: "Have you ever thought to change your unfavourable condition into a favourable one?"
Hasan thought for a while and then replied: "I will be telling a lie if I say yes, I have!"
The Imam (‘a) said: "Do you hope for a new prophet to come after Muhammad (S); a prophet with whom you may develop a relation (like you may be one of his companions)?"
He answered: "No."
Imam (‘a) asked: "Do you hope to migrate from this home (the world) to another home (Hereafter) and do you hope to struggle to get there?"
He said: "No."
Imam (‘a) said: "Have you ever seen a person with a little wisdom who is satisfied with himself so little as you are right now? You are living in a condition which you do not like; you are also not thinking seriously of changing your condition and situation. You do not hope for any other prophet after Muhammad (S), and you do not hope to struggle to reach another home from your present one. Yet still you are preaching to the people!"
When the Imam (‘a) had gone away, Hasan Basri asked: "who was that person?"
The people answered: "He was ‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a)."
Hasan Basri said: "A person from the family of wisdom!"
After that day no one saw Hasan Basri preaching to the people!32
4.) Abu Hamza Ath-Thumali narrated from Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) that the Imam (‘a) said to a man from Quraish: "When Allah the Almighty accepted the repentance of Adam and Eve, they had intercourse. They had never done it before. Adam had such great respect for the Ka’abah and its surroundings that when they wanted to have sexual intercourse, they would leave the place; they often went to a place named Hull for this purpose. After having sexual intercourse, they would have a bath before returning to the Ka’abah and entering within the Ka’abah boundary."
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) continued saying: "Twenty children (boys and girls) were born from Adam and Eve. When Eve conceived for the first time, she gave birth to a boy and a girl who were named "Abel" and "Iqlima" respectively. When she became with child for the second time, another boy and girl were born who were named "Cain" and "Loza" respectively. Loza was the most beautiful daughter of Adam.”
“When the four children grew older and reached the age of puberty, Adam started becoming frightening of sedition. Therefore, he called his four children and said: Abel, I want you to marry Loza and Cain should marry Iqlima. Cain disagreed with Adam’s proposal saying: I will not do so! How can I allow Abel to marry my beautiful sister and in return I should marry his ugly sister? Adam said: We will draw lots and each of the brothers should marry the sister upon whom the lot falls. Loza’s lot fell upon Abel and Iqlima’s fell upon Cain and thus they got married. Afterwards, getting married with sisters was forbidden by Allah."
The man from Quraish asked: "Did Abel and Cain have any children from those two sisters?"
The Imam (‘a) said: "Yes."
The man stated: "This is what the Magians do today."
The Imam (‘a) said: "Magians are still performing this act, while it has been announced as a forbidden action by Allah the Exalted." He then said: "This problem [marriages between Adam’s children] is not something deniable. All this took place while it was not yet a banned institution, nor was it prohibited according to their religious laws. Did Allah the Almighty not create Eve from Adam himself and later allow them to get married? It was a divine religious law that was afterwards forbidden."33
5.) It has been narrated from Imam Muhammad Al-Baqir (‘a) that after the martyrdom of Imam Husayn (‘a), Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyya chased Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) and when he met him in private, he said: "O, my nephew! You know that the Holy Prophet (S) announced ‛Ali Ibn Abi- Talib (‘a) as successor and Imam after him. ‘Ali (‘a) did the same with Hasan (‘a) and then Husayn (‘a). But your father – Imam Husayn (‘a) – has been killed (martyred) without making an announcement about the next successor and we offered prayer on his grave (we buried him and he will never come back). I am your uncle, your father’s brother. As far as age and experience is concerned, I have supremacy over you because you are just a young man. Therefore, do not struggle to oppose me on the matter of Imamah and Succession."
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) replied: "Be an abstemious servant of Allah. Never claim for such a thing that you are not suitable for. I give you advice not to be from amongst the ignorant ones. O, dear uncle! My father made me his successor before leaving for Iraq. Also, he made me the next Imam just before his martyrdom. This sword that is lying next to me is the Prophet’s (S). Therefore, do not try to snatch my right otherwise I am afraid for your short life. Allah the Exalted wants Imamah and succession to remain only in Husayn Ibn ‘Ali’s (‘a) line. If you want proof, let us go to "Hajar Al-Aswad" (the black stone which pilgrims kiss at Makkah) and ask it to make a decision."
Imam Al-Baqir (‘a) continues: "This argument occurred in Makkah. Both of them went to ‘Hajar Al-Aswad’ where the Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) said to Muhammad Hanafiyya: “First you pray in Allah the Exalted’s court and request Him to make this stone speak in your favour, and then ask the stone yourself (About who is more suitable for the post of succession and Imamah)."
Muhammad started praying and begged Allah the Exalted to make the stone speak in his favour. Then he asked the stone to help them know the right person as Imam, but nothing happened (the stone did not say a single word).
Now, Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) said to him: "My dear uncle! If you were the successor and Imam, the stone would answer your question."
Muhammad Ibn Hanafiyah looked at the Imam (‘a) and said: "My dear nephew! It is your turn to pray."
Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a) prayed and after praying said: "I want you to speak for the sake of He who put the essence of agreement among the prophets, successors and the common people in you; speak in clear Arabic language and let everyone know the Imam and successor after Imam Husayn (‘a)!"
‘Hajar Al-aswad’ started vibrating as if it wanted to leave its place and Allah the Almighty made it speak in a clear Arabic voice that said:
"In fact, Allah the Almighty wants the succession and Imamah after Husayn Ibn ‘Ali (‘a) to be for ‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a) who is the son of Fatimah daughter of the Prophet (S)."
Muhammad, who having turned away from the black stone, abandoned his former opinion and became a devout follower of Imam Al-Sajjad (‘a)."34
It has been narrated from Imam Ja’far Al-Sadiq Ibn Muhammad (‘a) who narrated from his ancestor, ‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a), that he said:
"We are the leaders of the Muslims, the Divine Proofs for inhabitants of the world, chiefs of the pious people, leaders of those with bright foreheads [the best group of paradisiacal ones] and we are the masters of all believers of the world. We are the cause for peace on Earth like the stars in the skies which are the reasons for heavenly peace. We are those because of whom Allah has detained the sky from falling down on the Earth - unless He wishes it - and has not let the Earth shake its inhabitants. Because of us comes the rain; the mercy of Allah is spread everywhere which makes the Earth emit its blessings. If one of us was not on the Earth, it would swallow its inhabitants."
Then Imam (‘a) said:
"From the very first day when Allah the Almighty created Adam, the Earth was not left without a Divine Proof. Among such proofs, some were publicly known and some remained unknown and hidden; and the Earth will not be left alone without a Divine Proof until the Day of Resurrection. Otherwise, Allah the Almighty may not be served and worshiped any longer."35
You saw that Imam (‘a) never left his ancestors’ city and remained there till the very end of his life. In those years he always defended the religious tenants and tried to establish the intellectual and moral training of the Muslim Ummah. Every Friday, he gave people advice. During his advice sessions he told them to be wary of the world, its deceits and traps because, at that time, most people were already trapped by it.
From amongst all his lectures and advices, the following one is mentioned as an example:36
1.) “May Allah the Almighty protect us from the conspiracy of oppressors, the aggression of the jealous and the severity of those who make unjustified demands. O, believers! Be careful of obstinate people and their followers who are enamoured of worldly things, so that they cannot make you like themselves and entice you to leave the righteous path. They are the people who have been deceived by the world and are chewing its dried crust which will not last till tomorrow (the Day of Resurrection). Avoid whatever Allah has forbidden you; and show piety against whatever Allah has kept you away from.”
“Do not believe in whatever there is in this world unlike those who have thought this mortal world as their immortal place. I swear by Allah that the world along with a thousand kinds of self-decoration, lapsing of time, change and revolution, warnings and its traps, is a good reason for hatred of it. This is the world which has made anonymous ones famous and has made respectable ones despised; and which will throw people into hell on the Day of Resurrection. These all must be more than enough for an aware person to learn a lesson and keep himself away from this mean world.”
2.) An advice for piety, praying in the court of Allah the Exalted and warning people from helping oppressors:
“Abstain from evils with the help of Allah. Try for self- correction. Obey Allah and your leader. Maybe someone regrets the mistakes he did yesterday and for the rights of Him. Ask Him for forgiveness and repent in His court for your wrong deeds because He is the One who accepts penitence. He is the One who forgives for all wrong deeds. He is aware of all that you do. Avoid the companionship of sinful ones, do not help oppressors and keep yourselves away from neighbouring lewd persons. Be careful of their conspiracies and do not go near them.”
3.) Befriend Allah’s Saints:
“You should know that whoever opposes Allah’s Saints, or chooses a religion other than one of Allah’s, or depends on his own ideas and thoughts and who rejects whatever the Saints say will be burned in a flame which will swallow their unfortunate disembodied souls. They are like the dead who do not understand and perceive the burning fire. O, pious people! Learn a lesson and thank your Allah who has guided you to the right path. You should know that you have no other way to escape from Allah’s territory of power. Certainly, He is seeing all you do. One day you all will return back to Him. Benefit from advice and try to train yourselves as the good ones do.”37
4.) “The sign of those who are the pious ones in this world and who are very eager to know about the Hereafter, they leave every kind of friendship and companionship which does not suit their targets. You should know that whoever struggles for the reward on the Day of Resurrection does not pay much attention to the mortal happiness of the world and is always ready to die. Such a person prepares provisions for the next world and for the long journey he is about to go on.”
Allah the Almighty has said:
حَتَّي إِذَا جَآءَ أَحَدَهُمُ الْمَوْتُ قَالَ رَبِّ ارْجِعُونِ
“Until, when death conies unto one of them, he says: ‘My Lord! Send me back again, ” (Surah Al-Mu’minun, 23:99).
لَعَلّـِي أَعْمَلُ صَالِحاً فِيمَا تَرَكْتُ
“That I might do righteousness in that which I have left behind!’…” (Surah Al-Mu’minun, 23:100)
“Thus each of you should think of himself as a person who has been taken back to this world and who is regretting for not having done righteousness for the Hereafter.”
5.) “O servants of Allah! Be aware that he, who is afraid of a surprise attack by night, leaves the comfortable bed. He abandons eating and drinking various foods and drinks as he is afraid of some international instigated victory over him. Woe to you! O, son of Adam for the surprise attack by Allah on honour, and woe to all sinful ones for the surprise attack of Him with sudden death during day and night. This is what we call a surprise attack from which there is never and no way to escape from. O believers! Fear Allah’s surprise attack because He has said:”
وَلَنُسْكِنَنَّكُمُ الأَرْضَ مِن بَعْدِهِمْ ذَلِكَ لِمَنْ خَافَ مَقَامِي وَخَافَ وَعِيدِ
“And, certainly, We shall settle you in the land after them. This is for him who fears My Majesty and fears My threat.” (Surah ‘Ibrahim, 14:14).
“Fear happiness, pride and the evils of the world. Always remember the ending period of your life and struggle for reaching that because the glitter of the world is nothing else but deceit and wanting the world itself is a great sin."
6.) “O, servants of Allah! Ask for Allah’s support, and struggle to reach what you have been created for and act righteously, because Allah the Exalted has not created you purposeless, neither has He left you straying. But He has made you aware of Him. He has sent His messengers towards you and has sent down His Book over you, which tells you about lawful and unlawful things with examples. Thus ask for His support who has argued with you in such a manner saying:”
أَلَمْ نَجْعَل لَّهُ عَيْنَيْنِ
“Have We not made for him two eyes?" (Surah Al-Balad, 90:8).
“And showed him the two ways (of good and evil)?" (Surah Al-Balad, 90:10).
“This is a Divine proof for you, thus fear Him the most you can because all powers are for none other but Him and no one else but He can be relied on and may His peace and blessings be upon Muhammad and his holy household.”38
7.) “Undoubtedly, the world has turned its back to you and the next world (Hereafter) is welcoming you face to face. Both of them (this world and Hereafter) have their own children. So, try to be the child of the Hereafter. Act pietistic in this world and keep thinking of the next world because, to the pious, the earth is just a floor for living on, soil just a bed for sleeping on, lumps of earth are just small cushions, and water only a perfume to make them smell good. They use the world simply according to their needs.”
“You should know that those loving paradise are always attracted by good deeds. They refrain from lust. He, who fears hellish flames, always averts himself from sins; he, who lives piously in this world, his hardships change into ease and relief at which point he no longer considers them hardships. Allah the Almighty has some servants whose hearts are stacked with futurity rewards, as if they can see heavenly men surrounded by immortal comforts and the dwellers of hell surrounded by tortures and torments. They are the people who never cause sedition. Their hearts are sorrowful, their souls are pure and their wants are very few.”
“They pass the short days with patience; the short days which will very soon bring everlasting pleasure for them. When night falls, they stand up supplicating in His court while teardrops flow on their cheeks and they pray for freedom from hellish flames and burning fires. During the day, they are the intellectuals and righteous. They are as thin as a bow, because the fear of Allah, and excessive prayers have made them so. They seem to be sick and ill although they do not have the slightest illness in them. Sometimes, when people see them, they start doubting their sanity although their minds are thinking strongly about burning flames and the tortures of the hell.”39
A Bundle of Imam Al-Sajjad’s (‘a) Brilliant Words40
1.) The goodness of a person is to prevent himself from himself.41
2.) The highest level of belief is to show willingness for all divine provisions.
3.) He who is valuable for himself thinks of the world as a mean thing.
4.) He who shows willingness in regard to what Allah the Exalted has fixed for him is free from want more than everyone.
5.) Any work done with piety is never useless, because how can a work which is accepted by Allah the Exalted possibly be useless?
6.) Someone asked the Imam (‘a): “who are the most valuable people?” The Imam (‘a) replied: “He who does not think of the world as the source of his value.”
7.) Someone came to the Imam (‘a) and said: “O, Allah! Make me free of all your creatures.” The Imam (‘a) said: “This kind of prayer is not a correct one and people always need each other. Always say: O, my Lord! Keep me away from the evil in your creatures.”
8.) Refrain from lies, whether small or big, serious or jokes – because these small lies give people courage to tell big ones.
9.) Whenever you find the hands of your enemy sinful of enmity against you, you should be sure that Allah has helped you.
A person asked the Imam (‘a): “What is piety?”
The Imam (‘a) answered: “Piety is of 10 types among whose highest quality is the lowest quality of self-restraint, the highest quality of self-restrain is the lowest rank of belief and the highest rank of belief is the lowest quality of willingness. The real meaning of piety has been mentioned in this verse:”
لِكَيْلَا تَأْسَوْا عَلَی مَا فَاتَكُمْ وَلاَ تَفْرَحُوا بِمَا آتَاكُمْ وَاللَّهُ لاَ يُحِبُّ كُلَّ مُخْتَالٍ فَخُورٍ
In order that you may not grieve at the things that you fail to achieve, nor rejoice at what has been given to you. And Allah likes not prideful boasters. (Surah Al-Hadid, 57:23).
10) Begging from people causes wretchedness; it destroys modesty, decreases dignity and is the essence of poverty. On the other hand, not calling every now and then for others’ help is the essence of freedom of want.
11) From amongst you the most beloved, the most beneficent and the most honourable to Allah is the one whose love is the strongest for whatever is with Allah. The more a person fears Him, the greater becomes his chances of freedom from Divine punishment. The more a person is of a high moral standard and the more open-handed he is to his family, the more pleased will Allah be with him. Indeed the most favourable of you to Allah is the one who is the most pious of all.
12) The Imam (‘a) said to one of his sons: “My dear son! Do not be a companion of five groups of people, and do not travel with them. Never accompany a liar, as he is like a mirage; he will always try to give you the impression of nearness for things that are far and vice versa. Do not accompany a lewd person as such a person will sell you for a morsel or something lower than that. Do not accompany a jealous person as he will leave you alone when you need his help the most. Do not accompany a foolish person as the good intentions of such a person will harm you, and do not accompany someone who has broken off ties of relationship with his family members because I have found him cursed in the holy Qur’an.”
13) The standard for understanding a Muslim’s perfection of honesty is to find him abandoning talking about foolish things, debating less, and showing patience and good morals.
14) O mankind, while you give yourself advice and count (your mistakes) and when you wear fear of Allah as a blanket and "avoiding" as a linen cloth spread under your carpet, you begin to improve. O mankind, you will die and then will become alive again. Then you will be let into the court of Allah for questioning about what have you done. Thus, prepare your answers for that day.
15) Someone from Quraish does not have supremacy over the one who is not from Quraish but by the means of humility. Greatness is nothing but piety. The good deed is what is done with good intention. Prayer is useless without religious knowledge. The most rejected and hated persons to Allah are those who claim to be followers of a religious leader but do not follow his guide’s directions.
16) A real believer is a person whose supplication has one of three results: It is granted and reserved for him in the next world [if not fulfilled in this world], it is fulfilled in this world or it repels some misfortunes which were about to strike him.
17) A hypocrite is someone who himself performs what he tells others to refrain from, and does not do what he suggests others to do. He is just like quadrupeds kneeling down when falling on his knees for prayers and resembles a gallinacean hen while prostrating.
Although he does not observe a fast, he passes his days expecting a variety of delicious foods for dinner. His nights are passed along with his only target which is none other than sleeping. He never holds a vigil. However, a real believer blends his wisdom with patience. His sitting is for learning, and silence is the source of sound for others.
He keeps secrets and never exposes them even to his friends. He witnesses for everyone, even for strangers. He does not perform a good action hypocritically; neither abandons such an action simply on account of feeling shy. If he is praised among the people, he becomes afraid of whatever is said about him. He asks Allah for forgiveness for the sins people are unaware of. He is never injured by foolish people.
18) How many people are there who are proud of being praised by others; and how many people are there who are proud on account of Allah’s beautiful secrecy of their faults.
19) There are a great number of deceived people who laugh, eat and drink and who do not know that perhaps they are cursed by Allah and will be thrown into hellfire.
20) Donating in indigence, generosity in richness, giving people their rights and saying ‘salam’ to people, are some of the habits of real believers.
21) Three things cause deliverance to a believer: silence in keeping himself away from backbiting people, compelling himself to perform actions which are useful for him in the next world and shedding tears for his sins.
22) A believer’s affectionate looking at another believer and loving him is a sort of prayer.
23) There are three things which if found in a believer, will take him under Allah’s protection and, on the Day of Resurrection, keep him under the shelter of the holy throne, and Allah will free such a person from huge fear: giving people as much as he expects them to give him; not commencing anything before investigating whether the work is for Allah’s pleasure; and not reproaching his brother except only for a fault which he does not have or has overcome. It is enough for a person to discover his own faults and neglect those of others.
24) After theology, the second thing which is very much liked by Allah is chastity of the stomach and of lust; Allah the Almighty does not like anything more than to be asked for the fulfilment of one’s needs.
25) Whoever asks your help for a good purpose, help him. If you later find him deserving, then you have performed a good deed; but if you do not find him deserving, you will, in any case, find yourself deserving for doing such a good deed. If a person, while standing on your right side, abuses you, but while reaching your left side asks for your forgiveness, forgive him.
26) Sittings with good causes call people towards righteousness. Respecting intellectuals causes excess of wisdom. Obeying parents makes a person become respected. The (correct) usage of wealth is the essence of manliness. Guiding a person who is asking for help is a correct execution of blessing. Stopping oneself from harming others is the essence of wisdom, which brings ease for both this world and the Hereafter.
27) Imam ‘Ali Ibn Husayn (‘a) was reciting the Qur’anic verse:
وَإِن تَعُدُّوا نِعْمَتَ اللَّهِ لاَ تُحْصُوهَآ
“……and if you count Allah’s blessings, you are unable to number them….” (Surah ‘Ibrahim, 14:34).
And he said: “Allah is pure who did not give the knowledge of his blessings to anyone but after having them confess to their lesser knowledge about it, as He did not let anyone know Him except to the extent that they know of their inability of knowing Him. Thus, Allah the Exalted has appreciated the declaration of the Gnostics with regard to their inability of understanding Him and He has named their declaration as their praise to Him, as He has named the insufficient knowledge and wisdom of intellectuals (who will never be able to understand Him) as their faith. This is because He is well aware of His servants’ capacity and strength. Purity is for Allah who has accepted the confession of His blessings by His servants as His praise. Be pure, as one who states his helplessness in praise of Him as a thanksgiving.”42
- 1. Al-Sahifah Al-Sajjadiyyah (‘a) prayer on a complete reading of Qur'an (Khatm Al-Qur'an).
- 2. Ayat Imam Al-Baqir 1/11.
- 3. ‘Uyun Al-Akhbar Al-Rida 2/125-126; Beirut edition.
- 4. Tafsir Al-Safi, 2/372-373
- 5. Wasa’il Al-Shi’ah, 6/69.
- 6. Wasa’il Al-Shi’ah 12/171; Amali, Al-Saduq 416.
- 7. Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 1/204
- 8. Al-Mustadrak ‘ala Sahihayn 3/151; It has been narrated with slight difference in, Majm'a Al-Zawai'd 9/168; Nazm Durar Al-Simtayn p. 235.
- 9. Tarikh Al-Ya’qubi 2/305.
- 10. Al-Tawhid for Shaykh Saduq, 366-367.
- 11. Shaykh Al-Kulayni, Al-Kafi 1/100.
- 12. Mu'jam Ahadith Al-Imam Al-Mahdi (may God hasten his glad advent) 3/190.
- 13. Ibid, 3/191; Yanabi' Al-Mawaddah 3/240.
- 14. Ibid, 3/193; Kitab Al-Ghaybah p. 332.
- 15. Al-Sirat Al-Mustaqim 2/238; A'yan Al-Shi'ah 2/58.
- 16. Kamal Al-Din wa Tamam Al-Ni'mah p. 323.
- 17. Al-Ihtijaj 2/48-50; the arguments of Imam Ali son of Hussain (‘a).
- 18. Ikhtibar M'arifat Al-Rijal 1/333.
- 19. Imam Zayn Al-‘Abidin (‘a) Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq, Research by Muammad Al-Baqir Mahmudi, p. 27.
- 20. Ibn ‘Asakir, Tarikh Madinat Dimashq 41/398; Mustadrak Al-Wasa’il 18/222; Ibn Shahrashub, Manaqib Ali Ibn Abi Talib 3/298.
- 21. Dhihar is a kind of separation from ones wife announcing her as his mother and making any kind of sexual relations haraam with her. This practice has been outdated in Islam and now if a person wants to do so, despite being prohibited, he should pay (Kaffarah) penance instead, and she will be still lawful.
- 22. Fiqh Imam Al-Ridha (‘a), p. 200; Al-Maqn'ah for Al-Mufid, p. 363.
- 23. After having observed fast for two days, the third fasting of religious seclusion becomes obligatory and its vows and charity also becomes obligatory.
- 24. Al-Kafi 4/84; Al-Khisal pp. 534–537; Tafsir Al-Qummi pp. 172–175; Al-Muqni'a 58; Al-Tahdhib 1/435.
- 25. Al-Sahifah Al-Sajjadiyyah p. 24.
- 26. Ibid, 135.
- 27. Tarikh Al-Adab Al-Arabi fi Daw' Al-Manhaj Al-Islami p. 353
- 28. Al-Sahifah Al-Sajjadiyyah p. 514.
- 29. Al-Majlisi, Bihar Al-Anwar 46/91; Bisharah Al-Mustafa p. 179.
- 30. Ihtijaj of Shaykh Tabrasi, 2/40.
- 31. Shaykh Tabrasi, Ihtijaj, Imam Al-Sajjad's (‘a) argumentations.
- 32. Ihtijaj, Shaykh Tabrasi, Imam Al-Sajjad's (‘a) arguments 2/46-47.
- 33. Ihtijaj Shaykh Tabrasi, Imam Al-Sajjad's (‘a) arguments 2/43-44.
- 34. Ihtijaj Shaykh Tabrasi, Imam Al-Sajjad's (‘a) arguments 2/46-47.
- 35. Ihtijaj Shaykh Tabrasi, Imam Al-Sajjad's (‘a) arguments 2/47-48.
- 36. Tuhaf Al-’Uqul of Ibn Shu'bah Al-Harrani, 182-184; Al-A'alami (edition/ Beirut).
- 37. Tuhaf Al-’Uqul of Ibn Sha'bah Al-Harrani, pp. 252-255; with a slight difference.
- 38. Tuhaf Al-’Uqul of Ibn Shu'bah Al-Harrani, 272-274.
- 39. Ibid, 281.
- 40. All the traditions that we have narrated here are from Tuhaf Al-’Uqul pp. 200-205.
- 41. Tuhaf Al-’Uqul for Ibn sha'abah Al-harani, pp. 278.
- 42. Tuhaf Al-’Uqul of Ibn Shu'bah Al-Harrani, pp. 278-283.