Conclusion of the Hajj Rites

فإذا قَضَيْتُم مَناسِكَكُم فَاذْكُرُوا اللهَ كَذِكْرِكُم آبائَكُم أوْ أَشَدَّ ذِكْراً.

“So when you have performed your devotions, then laud Allah as you lauded your fathers, rather a greater lauding. The Holy Qur’an; 2:200)”

We have already discussed how the physical acts of the Hajj rites represent the spiritual stations of perfect human beings who attain affinity with God and live a prosperous life in both this world and the Hereafter. Now that we have completed the Hajj rites, we should see whether we have gone through a spiritual change or not.

People of the Pre-Islamic Era Performed Hajj, Too

Reading history, we find out that the Arabs in the pre-Islamic era performed Hajj as follows: During the Hajj season, after performing the usual rites and sacrificing animal, gathered in Mina, started vying with each other in glory and boasted of having such and such fathers and ancestors. They were so business-minded that even in the gatherings held in Arafat and Mina under the name of Hajj, they were thinking of increasing their profits, boasting their business and living an aristocratic life. What they lacked and what was meaningless of them was moral virtues and spiritual perfection. They were an example of a people described by the Holy Qur’an:

قُلْ هَلْ نَنَبِّؤُكُمْ بِالأَخْسَرِينَ أَعْمَالاً. الَّذِينَ ضَلَّ سَعْيُهُمْ فِي الحَيَاةِ الدُّنْيَا وَهُمْ يَحْسَبُونَ أَنَّهُمْ يُحْسِنُونَ صُنْعاً

“Say: Shall We inform you of the greatest losers in their deeds? These are they whose labor is lost in this world's life and they think that they are well versed in skill of the work of hands. (18:103-4)”

They were thinking only of the worldly wealth and ignored the spiritual aspect of Hajj. In this relation, the Holy Qur’an says:

فَمِنَ النَّاسِ مَنْ يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا وَمَا لَهُمْ فِي الآخِرَةِ مِنْ خَلاقٍ. وَمِنْهُمْ مَنْ يَقُولُ رَبَّنَا آتِنَا فِي الدُّنْيَا حَسَنَةً وَفِي الآخِرَةِ حَسَنَةً وَقِنَا عَذَابَ النَّارِ

“But there are some people who say, Our Lord! Give us in the world, and they shall have no resting place... And there are some among them who say: Our Lord! Grant us good in this world and good in the hereafter, and save us from the chastisement of the fire. They shall have (their) portion of what they have earned. (2:201-2)”

O Pilgrims of the Sacred House

O pilgrims of the Sacred House, come to yourselves, for the heavenly call of the Holy Qur’an echoes in the ears of our soul: O Couriers of God’s House who have taken off your worldly garment and have given positive response to your Lord! O you who stay in Arafat, al-Mash’ar, and Mina! O you who stone Satan to death! O you who sacrifice the animal of concupiscence! O you who remove vices by shaving your head and clipping your nail! O you who renew your pledge with God by caressing the Black Stone! Do not forget your covenant and remember God a great deal! Remember the following Qur’anic Verse throughout your life:

اَلْحَجُّ أَشْهُرٌ مَعْلُومَاتٌ فَمَنْ فَرَضَ فِيهِنَّ الحَجَّ فَلا رَفَثَ وَلا فُسُوقَ وَلا جِدَالَ فِي الْحَجِّ وَمَا تَفْعَلُوا مِنْ خَيْرٍ يَعْلَمْهُ اللهُ وَتَزَوَّدُوا فَإِنَّ خَيْرَ الزَّادِ التَّقْوَى وَاتَّقُونِ يَا أُولِي الألْبَابِ.

“The pilgrimage is (performed in) the well‑known months; so whoever determines the performance of the pilgrimage therein, there shall be no intercourse nor fornication nor quarrelling amongst one another; and whatever good you do, Allah knows it; and make provision, for surely the provision is the guarding of oneself, and be careful (of your duty) to Me, O men of understanding. (2:197)”

Sermon of Man of Letter

يا مَعْشَرَ الحُجّاجِ الناسِلِينَ مِن الفِجاجِ، أتَعْقِلونَ ما تُواجِهونَ وإلى مَن تَتَوَجَّهونَ؟ أَمْ تَدْرونَ عَلى مَن تَقدِمونَ وعَلامَ تُقْدِمونَ؟ أَتَخالونَ أنَّ الحَجَّ هوَ اخْتِيارُ الرّواحِلِ وقَطْعُ المَراحِلِ واتّخاذُ المحَامِلِ؟ أمْ تَظُنّونَ أنَّ النَُسْكَ هو نَضْوُ الأَرْدانِ وإِنْضاءُ الأَبْدانِ ومُفارَقَةُ الوِلْدانِ والتّنائِي عَن البُلدانِ؟ كَلا واللهِ بَلْ هوَ اجْتِنابُ الخَطِيئةِ قبلَ اجتِلابِ المَطِيَّةِ، وإِخلاصُ النِّيَّةِ في قَصدِ تِلكَ البَنِيَّةِ، وإِمحَاضُ الطّاعَةِ عندَ وِجدانِ الاسْتِطاعَةِ، وإِصْلاحُ المُعامَلاتِ أَمامَ إِعْمالِ اليَعْمُلاتِ. فَوالّذي شَرَعَ المَناسِكَ لِلنّاسِكِ وَأرْشَدَ السّالِكَ في اللَّيلِ الحَالِكِ، ما يُنَقِّي الاغْتِسالُ بالذَّنوبِ مِنَ الانغِماسِ في الذُّنوبِ وَلا تَعدِلُ تَعرِيَةُ الأجْسامِ بِتَعْبِيَةِ الإحْرامِ ولا تُغْني لِبْسَةُ الإِحْرامِ عَن التَّلَبُّسِ بِالحَرامِ ولا يَنْفَعُ الاضطِباعِ بالإزارِ مَع الاضطِلاعِ بالأوْزارِ ولا يُجدِي التَّقَرُّبُ بالحَلْقِ مَع التَّقَلُّبِ في ظُلمِ الخَلقِ ولا يَرخَصُ التَّنَسُّكُ بالتَّقصيرِ دَرَنَ التَّمَسُّكِ بالتَّقصيرِ ولا يَسعَدُ بِعَرَفَةَ غَيرُ أهْلِ المَعْرِفَةِ ولا يزكُو بالخَيْفِ مَنْ يَرغَبُ بِالحَيفِ ولا يَشهَدُ المَقامُ إلا لمَنِ استَقامَ ولا يَحْظى بِقَبولِ الحُجَّةِ مَن زاغَ مِن المحَجََّةِ، فَرَحِمَ اللهُ امْرَأً صَفا قَبلَ مَسعاهُ إلى الصَّفا وَوَرَدَ شَريعَةَ الرِّضا قَبلَ شُروعِهِ إلى الإِضاءِ ونَزَغَ عَن تَلبيسِهِ قَبلَ نَزعِ مَلبوسِهِ وفَاضَ بِمَعْروفِهِ قَبلَ الإفاضَةِ مِن تَعريفِهِ.

O groups of pilgrims who come from everywhere! Are you mindful of what you will face and to whom you will turn? Do you understand whose guest you will be and what acts you will do? Do you think Hajj is to choose means of transportation, traverse roads, and prepare for journeys? Do you think the Hajj rites mean only to take off your clothes, get slim, be separate from your children and wife, and be away from home?

No, by God, it is not. Rather Hajj means to avoid wrongdoings before taking the riding animal and pure intention of pilgrimage for mere obedience to God, rectify one’s affairs with people before preparing for journey. By One Who decided the Hajj rites for people and Who guided wayfarers in murky nights, ritual washing of body with a few pails of water does not acquit you from purifying your soul. Making your body bare of garment and shoes does not necessarily prepare you for getting into the state of Ihram.

What is the benefit of putting on Ihram for one who is engaged in illegal business? What benefit can he get with Taqsir when he violates people’s rights? Except the knowledgeable, none may become prosperous in Arafat? What does he have to do with Kheif Mosque when he desires for wronging others? He cannot attend the standing-place of Ibrahim unless he is firm in belief. He who is deviated from the right path will not benefit by Hajj. Therefore, God may have mercy upon a man who purifies himself before Sa’y in Safa, and reaches the position of contentment before he accomplishes the rites, and removes the veil of guile from his soul before taking off his clothes, shoes and hat, and does good deeds before getting benefit from Arafat.1

Imam Sajjad’s Comprehensive Reference To the Secrets of Hajj

لمّا رَجِعَ مَولانا زَينُ العابِدينَ عليهِ السلامُ مِن الحَجِّ استَقَبَلَهُ الشِّبليّ، فقالَ عليهِ السلامُ لهُ: حَجَجْتَ يا شِبلي؟

قالَ: نَعَم يا بنَ رسولِ اللهِ.

فقالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: أَنَزَلْتَ المِيقاتَ وتجَرَّدتَ عَن مخِيطِ الثّيابِ واغْتَسَلتَ؟

قالَ: نعَم.

فقالَ عليهِ السلامُ: فَحينَ نَزَلتَ المِيقاتَ نَوَيتَ أنّكَ خَلَعتَ ثَوبَ المَعصِيَةِ ولَبِسْتَ ثَوبَ الطّاعَةِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ تَجَرّدْتَ عَن مَخيطِ ثِيابِكَ نَوَيتَ أنّكَ تجَرّدْتَ مِنَ الرِّياءِ والنِّفاقِ والدُّخولِ في الشُّبُهاتِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ اغْتَسَلتَ نَوَيْتَ أنّكَ اغتَسَلْتَ مِن الخَطايا والذُّنوبِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: فَما نَزَلتَ المِيقاتَ ولا تجَرَّدتَ عَن مخِيطِ الثِّيابِ ولا اغْتَسَلتَ.

ثُمّ قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: تَنَظَّفْتَ وَأحْرَمْتَ وَعَقَدتَ الحَجَّ؟

قالَ: نَعَم.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ تَنَظَّفْتَ وَأَحْرمْتَ وعَقَدتَ الحَجَّ نَوَيتَ أنّكَ تَنَظَّفْتَ بِنورَةِ التَّوْبَةِ الخَالِصَةِ للهِ تَعالى؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَلَيهِ السَّلامُ: فَحينَ أَحْرَمْتَ نَوَيتَ أنّكَ حَرَّمتَ عَلى نفْسِكَ كُلَّ محُرَّمٍ حَرَّمَهُ اللهُ تعَالى.

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السَّلامُ: فَحينَ عَقَدْتَ الحَجَّ نَوَيتَ أنّكَ قَد حَلَلْتَ كُلَّ عَقْدٍ لِغَيرِ اللهِ.

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ: ما تَنَظَّفْتَ وَلا أَحْرمْتَ ولا عَقَدتَ الحَجَّ.

ثمَّ قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: أَدَخَلْتَ المِيقاتَ وَصَلَّيتَ رَكْعَتَيِ الإِحرامِ وَلَبَّيتَ؟

قالَ: نعَم.

قالَ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ دَخَلْتَ المِيقاتِ نَوَيْتَ أنّكَ بِنِيَّةِ الزِّيارَةِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ صَلّيتَ الرَّكْعَتَينِ نوَيتَ أنكَ تَقَرَّبتَ إلى اللهِ بِخَيرِ الأعْمالِ مِن الصّلاةِ وأكْبَرَ حَسَناتِ العِبادِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليَهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ لَبَّيتَ نوَيتَ أنّكَ نَطَقْتَ للهِ سُبحانَهُ بِكُلِّ طاعَةٍ وَصَمَتَّ عَن كُلِّ مَعصِيَةٍ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: ما دَخَلْتَ المِيقاتَ ولا صَلَّيْتَ ولا لَبَّيْتَ؟

ثُمَّ قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ لهُ: أَدَخَلْتَ الحَرَمَ وَرَأَيْتَ الكَعْبَةَ وَصَلَّيْتَ؟

قالَ: نَعَم.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ دَخَلْتَ الحَرَمَ نَوَيتَ أنّكَ حَرَّمْتَ عَلى نَفْسِكَ كُلَّ غِيبَةٍ تَستَغيبُها المُسلِمينِ مِن أهْلِ مِلَّةِ الإِسلامِ؟

قالَ: نَعَم.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ وَصَلْتَ مَكَّةَ نَوَيتَ بِقَلبِكَ أنّكَ قَصَدْتَ اللهَ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَما دَخَلْتَ الحَرَمَ ولا رَأَيْتَ الكَعْبَةَ ولا صَلَّيْتَ.

ثمَّ قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: طُفْتَ بِالبَيتِ ومَسَسْتَ الأرْكانَ وَسَعَيتَ؟

قالَ: نَعَم.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ سَعَيْتَ نَوَيْتَ أَنَّكَ هَرَبْتَ إلى اللهِ وعَرِفَ ذلِكَ مِنكَ عَلامُ الغُيوبِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَما طُفْتَ بِالبَيتِ ولا مَسَسْتَ الأَركَانَ وَلا سَعَيْتَ.

ثُمَّ قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: صافَحْتَ الحَجَرَ وَوَقَفْتَ بمَقامِ إبراهِيمَ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ وَصَلَّيْتَ به ِرَكْعَتَينِ؟

قالَ: نعَم.

فَصاحَ الإمامُ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ صَيحَةً كادَ يُفارِقُ الدُّنيا. ثُمَّ قالَ: آهٍ آهٍ.

ثُمّ قالَ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ: مَن صَافَحَ الحَجَرَ الأَسْوَدَ فَقَد صافَحَ اللهَ تعَالى، فَانْظُرْ يا مِسكِينُ، لا تُضَيِّعْ أجْرَ ما عَظُمَ حُرمَتُهُ ونَتْقُضُ المُصافَحَةَ بالمُخالَفَةِ وقَبضِ الحَرامِ نَظيرَ أهْلِ الآثامِ.

ثمّ قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: نَوَيْتَ حِينَ وَقَفْتَ عِندَ مَقامِ إبراهيمَ عَليهِ السلامُ أنكَ وَقَفْتَ عَلى كُلِّ طاعَةٍ وتَخَلَّفْتَ عَن كُلّ مَعْصِيَةٍ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: فَحينَ صَلَّيْتَ رَكْعَتَينِ نَوَيتَ أنكَ صَلَّيتَ بِصَلاةِ إبْراهِيمَ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ وأَرْغَمْتَ بِصَلاتِكَ أنْفَ الشّيطانِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: فَما صَافَحْتَ الحَجَرَ ولا وَقَفْتَ عِندَ المَقامِ ولا صَلَّيْتَ فيهِ رَكْعَتَينِ.

ثمَّ قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: أَشْرَفْتَ عَلى بِئرِ زَمْزَمَ وَشَرِبْتَ مِن مائِها؟

قالَ: نعَم.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: أنَوَيتَ أنكَ أَشْرَفْتَ عَلى الطّاعَةِ وغَضَضْتَ طَرْفَكَ عَنِ المَعصِيَةِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَما اَشْرَفْتَ عَلَيها ولا شَرِبتَ مِن مائِها.

ثُم قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: أَسَعَيْتَ بَينَ الصَّفا وَالمَرْوَةِ وَمَشَيْتَ وَتَرَدَّدْتَ بَينَهُما؟

قالَ: نعَم.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: نَوَيتَ أنكَ بَينَ الرَّجاءِ والخَوفِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: فَما سَعَيْتَ ولا مَشَيْتَ ولا تََرَدَّدْتَ بَينَ الصَّفا والمَروَةِ.

ثمَّ قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: أَخََرَجْتَ إلى مِنى؟

قالَ: نعَم.

قالَ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ: نَوَيْتَ أنكَ آمَنْتَ النّاسَ مِن لِسانِكَ وقَلْبِكَ وَيَدِكَ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ:فَما خَرَجْتَ إلى مِنى.

ثمَّ قالَ لهُ: أَوَقَفْتَ الوَقْفَةَ بِعَرَفَةَ وَطَلَعْتَ جَبَلَ الرَّحْمَةِ وعَرَفْتَ وادِيَ نَمِرَةَ وَدَعَوْتَ اللهَ سُبحانهُ عِندَ الميلِ والجَمَراتِ؟

قالَ: نعَم.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: هَل عَرِفتَ بمَوقِفِكَ بِعَرَفَةَ مَعْرِفَةَ اللهِ سُبحانَهُ أَمْرَ المَعارِفِ والعُلومِ وعَرَفتَ قَبْضَ اللهِ عَلى صَحيفَتِكَ واطِّلاعِهِ عَلى سَريرَتِكَ وقَلبِكَ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: نَوَيتَ بِطُلوعِكَ جَبَلَ الرَّحمَةِ أنَّ اللهَ يَرحَمُ كُلَّ مُؤمِنٍ ومُؤمِنَةٍ ويَتَوالى كُلَّ مُسْلِمٍ ومُسلِمَةٍ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَنَوَيْتَ عِندَ نَمِرَةَ أنّكَ لا تأْمُرُ حَتّى تَأْتَمِرَ ولا تَزْجُرُ حَتّى تَنزَجِرَ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَعِندَما وَقَفتَ عِندَ العَلَمِ والنَّمِراتِ نَوَيتَ أنَّها شاهِدَةٌ لكَ عَلى الطّاعاتِ حَافِظَةٌ لكَ مَعَ الحَفَظَةِ بِأمْرِ رَبِّ السّماواتِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَما وَقَفْتَ بِعَرَفَةَ ولا طَلَعْتَ جَبَلَ الرَّحمَةِ ولا عَرَفْتَ نَمِرَةَ وَلا دَعَوْتَ وَلا وَقَفْتَ عِندَ النَّمِراتِ.

ثمّ قالَ عَلَيهِ السّلامُ: مَرَرْتَ بَينَ العَلَمَينِ وَصَلَّيتَ قَبلَ مُرورِكَ رَكْعَتَينِ وَمَشَيتَ بِمُزْدَلِفَةَ وَلَقَطْتَ فيها الحَصى وَمَرَرْتَ بِالمَشْعَرِ الحَرامِ؟

قالَ: نعَم.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَحينَ صَلَّيْتَ رَكْعَتَينِ نَوَيتَ أنّها صَلاةُ شُكْرٍ في لَيلَةِ عشر(كذا) تَنفِي كُلَّ عُسْرٍ وتُيَسِّرُ كُلَّ يُسرٍ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَعندَما مَشَيتَ بَينَ العَلَمَينِ ولم تَعْدِلْ عَنهُما يمِيناً وشِمالاً نَوَيتَ أنْ لا تَعْدِلَ عَن دِينِ الحَقِّ يمِيناً ولا شِمالاً بقَلْبِكَ ولا بِلِسانِكَ ولا بِجَوارِحِكَ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَعِندَما مَشَيتَ بمُزْدَلِفَةَ ولَقَطْتَ مِنها الحَصَى نوَيتَ أنكَ رَفَعْتَ عَنكَ كُلَّ مَعْصِيَةٍ وَجَهْلٍ وَثَبَّتَّ كُلَّ عِلْمٍ وعَمَلٍ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: فَعِندَما مَرَرْتَ بِالمَشْعَرِ الحَرامِ نَوَيتَ أنّكَ أشْعَرتَ قَلبَكَ إِشْعارَ أهْلِ التَّقْوى والخَوفِ للهِ عزّ وجَلّ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَما مَرَرْتَ بِالعَلَمَينِ ولا صَلَّيتَ رَكْعَتَينِ ولا مَشَيْتَ باِلمُزْدَلِفَةِ ولا رَفَعْتَ مِنها الحَصى ولا مَرَرْتَ باِلمَشْعَرِ الحَرامِ.

ثُمّ قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: وَصَلْتَ مِنَى وَرَمَيْتَ الجَمَرَةَ وَحَلَقْتَ رَأْسََكَ وَذَبَحْتَ هَدْيَكَ وَصَلَّيْتَ في مَسْجِدِ الخَيْفِ وَرَجَعْتَ إلى مَكَّةَ وَطُفْتَ طَوافَ الإِفاضَةِ؟

قالَ: نعَم.

قالَ علَيهِ السّلامُ: فَنَوَيْتَ عِندَما وَصَلْتَ مِنى وَرَمَيْتَ الجِمارَ أنَّكَ بَلَغْتَ إلى مَطْلَبِكَ وقَد قَضَى رَبُّكَ لَكَ كُلَّ حاجاتِكَ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السّلامُ: فَعِندَما رَمَيْتَ الجِمارَ نَوَيْتَ أنّكَ رَمَيْتَ عَدُوَّكَ إِبْليسُ وَعَصَيْتَهُ بِتَمامِ حّجَِكَ النّفيسِ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: فَعِندَما حَلَقْتَ رَأْسََكَ نَوَيْتَ أنّكَ تَطَهَّرْتَ مِن الأدْناسِ ومِن تَبِعَةِ بَني آدَمَ وَخَرَجْتَ مِن الذُّنوبِ كَما وَلَدْتََكَ أُمُّكَ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: فَعِندَما صَلَّيْتَ في مَسْجِدِ الخَيْفِ نَوَيْتَ أنكَ لا تخَافُ إلا اللهَ عزّ وجَلّ وَذَنْبَكَ ولا تَرجو إلا رَحْمَةَ اللهِ تعَالى؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: فَعِندَما ذَبَحْتَ هَدْيَكَ نَوَيْتَ أنّكَ ذَبَحْتَ حَنْجَرَةَ الطّمَعِ بمِا تمَسَّكْتَ بهِ مِن حَقيقَةِ الوَرَعِ وأنّكَ اتّبَعْتَ سُنَّةَ إبراهِيمَ عَليهِ السّلامُ بِذَبْحِ وَلَدِهِ وَثَمَرةِ فُؤادِهِ وَرَيحانِ قَلبِهِ وحاجه( كذا) سُنَّتَهُ لمَنْ بَعدَهُ وَقَرَّبَهُ إلى اللهِ تعَالى لمَن خَلفَهُ؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ عَليهِ السلامُ: فَعِندَما رَجَعت َإلى مَكَّةَ وطُفتَ الإفاضَةَ نَوَيتَ أنكَ أَفَضْتَ مِن رَحمَةِ اللهِ تعَالى وَرَجَعْتَ إلى طاعَتِهِ وتمَسَّكْتَ بِوُدِّهِ وأَدَّيتَ فَرائِضَهُ وتَقَرَّبتَ إلى اللهِ تعالى؟

قالَ: لا.

قالَ لهُ الإمامُ زَينُ العابدِينَ: فَما وَصَلْتَ مِنى، ولا رَمَيْتَ الجِمارَ، ولا حَلَقْتَ رَأْسَكَ، ولا أَدَّيتَ نُسُكَكَ، ولا صَلَّيْتَ في مَسْجِدِ الخَيْفِ، ولا طُفْتَ طَوافَ الإفاضَةِ، ولا تَقَرَّبتَ. إرجِعْ فإنّكَ لم تَحُجَّ.

فَطَفِقَ الشّبليُّ يَبكي عَلى ما فَرّطَهُ في حَجِّهِ وما زَالَ يتَعَلَّمُ حَتى حَجَّ مِن قابِلٍ بمَعرِفَةٍ ويَقينٍ.

Imam Zayn ul-Abidin –Sajjad- (as) was received by Shibli when he was back from Hajj and the following dialogue occurred between them:

The Imam: Did you perform Hajj, Shibli?

Shibli: Yes, son of Allah’s Messenger, I did.

The Imam: You stopped at Miqat, put off your sewn clothes, and washed yourself, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you stopped at Miqat, did you intend to put off the garment of disobedience (to God) and put on a garment of obedience (to Him)?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you put off your sewn clothes, did you intend to get rid of ostentation, hypocrisy, and intrusion in suspicious matters?

Shibli: No, I did not?

The Imam: As you washed yourself, did you intend to wash yourself from sins and offenses?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not really stop at Miqat, put off your sewn cloths, and wash yourself. You washed yourself thoroughly, entered the state of Ihram, and intended to perform Hajj, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you washed yourself thoroughly, entered the state of Ihram, and intended to perform Hajj, did you intend to wash yourself thoroughly with pure repentance to Allah?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you entered the state of Ihram, did you intend to abstain from every matter that Allah deems unlawful?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you intended to perform Hajj, did you intend to get rid of any pledge that you took with anyone other than Allah?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not wash yourself thoroughly, enter the state of Ihram, or intend to perform Hajj. Did you enter Miqat, offer the two-Rakat prayer of Ihram, and say Labbayk (Talbiya)?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you entered Miqat, did you intend to meet all the qualifications of the visitation of the Sacred House of Allah?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you offered the two-Rakat prayer, did you intend to seek nearness to Allah through the best deeds such as prayers and the deeds by which servants of Allah can obtain His rewards?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you said Labbayk, did you intend to utter any statement of obedience to Allah and shut your mouth against any statement of disobedience to Him?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not enter Miqat, offer the two-Rakat prayer of Ihram, or say Labbayk. You entered the Sacred Precinct, saw the Kaaba, and offered prayers there, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you entered the Sacred Precinct, did you intend to abstain from backbiting any individual of Islam?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you arrived in Mecca, did you intend to direct towards Allah and no one else?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not really enter the Sacred Precinct, see the Kaaba, or offer prayers. You circumambulated the Holy House, touched the corners, and performed the Sa’y, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you performed the Sa’y, did you intend to seek refuge of Allah (from the trickeries of Satan and evil temptations) and that He, the Knower of the unseen, knew this from you?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not really circumambulate the Holy House, touch its corner, or perform the Sa’y. You caressed the Black Stone, stopped at the standing-place of Ibrahim (as), and offered a two-Rakat prayer there, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam (as) then cried so loudly and said:

To caress the Black Stone is to shake hands with Allah. Look, poor man, do not ever waste the reward for the thing that is greatly sacred and do not breach your caressing by acts of violation (of God’s instructions) and seizure of illegal things, just like the sinful.

As you stopped at the standing-place of Ibrahim (as), did you intend to stop at every act of obedience (to God) and leave every act of disobedience (to Him)?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you offered the two-Rakat prayer, did you intend to offer the same prayer that was offered by Ibrahim (as) and to disappoint Satan?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not really caress the Black Stone, stop at the standing-place of Ibrahim (as), or offer the two-Rakat prayer there. You came near to Well Zamzam and drank from its water, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you did, did you intend to come near to acts of obedience (to God) and cast your sight down acts of disobedience (to Him)?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you neither really came near that well nor did you drink from its water. You roamed, walked, and frequented to Mount Safa and Mount Marwa, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you did, did you intend to be between hope and fear (of God)?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not really roam, walk, or frequent between Safa and Marwa. You then left for Mina,2 did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: Did you intend to save people from your tongue (words), heart (ill intention), and hand (deeds)?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not really leave for Mecca. You halted in Arafat, mounted Jabal al-Rahma (Mount Mercy), recognized Nemira Valley, and supplicated to Allah at al-Mil and Jamarat, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you halted in Arafat, did you intend to recognize Allah, Glorified is He, and His knowledge, and recognize that He is holding on the record of your deeds and that He has full acquaintance with your hidden and secrets?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you mounted Jabal al-Rahma, did you recognize that Allah would have mercy upon every believing man and woman and see to every Muslim male and female?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you were on Nemira,3 did you recognize that your advices and warnings to people are fruitless unless they are originated from Allah’s instructions?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you stopped at al-Alam and an-Nemirat,4 did you recognize that these signs would testify for your acts of obedience (to God) and would keep you like the Keeping Angels whose mission is to keep you according to Allah’s instructions?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not really stop on Arafat, mount Jabal al-Rahma, recognize Nemira, supplicate to Allah, or stop at an-Nemirat. You passed by the Two Signs (al-Alamain)5, offered a two-Rakat prayer before so, walked in Muzdelifa, picked up pebbles there, and passed by al-Mash’ar al-Haram,6 did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you offered the prayer, did you intend it to be thanksgiving… that saves from every hardship and alleviates all difficulties?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you walked between the Two Signs without turning to right or left, did you intend not to turn away from the right religious with heart, tongue, or other organs?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you walked in Muzdelifa and picked up pebbles, did you intend to get rid of every act of disobedience and every item of ignorance and to fix in your behaviors every item of knowledge and good deed?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you passed by al-Mash’ar al-Haram, did you intend to carry in heart the slogan of the pious people and the God-fearing ones?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you did not really pass by the Two Signs, offer a two-Rakat prayer, walk in al-Muzdelifa, pick up pebbles there, or pass by al-Mash’ar al-Haram. You reached in Mina, threw the pebbles (i.e. performed the Ramy al-Jamarat), had your hair cut, slaughtered your sacrificed animal, offered prayer in Kheif Mosque, returned to Mecca, and performed Tawaf al-Ifadha, did you not?

Shibli: Yes, I did.

The Imam: As you arrived in Mina and threw these pebbles, did you feel that you achieved your aim and that your Lord would settle all your needs?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you threw these pebbles, did you intend to stone Eblis, your enemy, and challenge him through your precious Hajj?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you shaved your head, did you intend to purify yourself from all filths and liabilities of people that lie on your shoulders, and to get rid of sins as if your mother had just given birth of you?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you offered prayer in Kheif Mosque, did you intend that you would never fear anything except Allah and the responsibilities of your (past) sins and that you would hope for nothing except Allah’s mercy?

Shibli: As you slaughtered your sacrificial animal, did you intend to cut off the throat of greed by clinging to the reality of piety, and to follow the exemplary tradition of Ibrahim (as) who intended to slaughter his dear son (so as to carry our God’s order)?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: As you returned to Mecca and performed Tawaf al-Ifadha, did you intent to supply yourself with Allah’s mercy, return to the obedience to Him, cling to His love, perform all His precepts, and seek nearness to Him?

Shibli: No, I did not.

The Imam: In that case, you neither reached Mina, nor did you throw these pebbles on Satan, nor did you shave your head, nor did you perform the rituals of the Hajj, nor did you offer prayer in Kheif Mosque, nor did you perform Tawaf al-Ifadha, nor did you offer sacrifice for the Lord. Go back, you did not perform Hajj.

As he heard these words, Shibli wept heavily for the shortcomings of his performance of Hajj and decided to perform idea Hajj the next year, and he did. 7 .

Imam Sadiq’s (as) full instruction on Hajj

Imam Sadiq (as) says:

إذَا أَرَدْتَ الحَجَّ فَجَرِّدْ قَلْبَكَ للهِ عَزَّ وجَلَّ مِن قَبْلِ عَزْمِكَ مِن كُلَّ شاغِلٍ وَحَجْبِ كُلِّ حاجِبٍ وفَوِّضْ أُمورَكَ كُلَّها إلى خالِقِكَ وَتَوَكَّلْ عَلَيهِ في جَميعِ ما يَظْهَرُ مِن حَرَكاتِكَ وَسُكونِكَ وَسَلِّمْ لِقَضائِهِ وَحُكْمِهِ وَقَدَرِهِ وَوَدِّعِ الدُّنيا والرَّاحَةَ والخَلْقَ.

وَاخْرُجْ مِن حُقوقٍ تُلْزِمُكَ مِن جِهَةِ المَخلوقينَ ولا تَعْتَمِدْ عَلى زادِكَ وَراحِلَتِكَ وأصْحابِكَ وَقُوَّتِكَ وشَبابِكَ ومالِكَ مخَافَةَ أنْ تَصيرَ لكَ أعداءً وبالاً لِيُعْلَمَ أنّهُ لَيسَ لهُ قُوّةٌ ولا حيلَةٌ ولا لأَحَدٍ إلا بِعِصْمَةِ اللهِ تعَالى وَتَوفيقِهِ.

وَاسْتَعِدَّ استِعْدادَ مَن لا يَرجو الرُّجوعَ وَأَحْسِنِ الصُّحْبَةَ وراعِ أوْقاتَ فَرائِضِ اللهِ تعَالى وَسُنَنَ نَبِيِّهِ صَلّى اللهُ عَليهِ وآلهِ وما يَجِبُ عَليكَ مِن الأدَبِ والاحْتِمالِ والصَّبرِ والشُّكْرِ والشَّفَقَةِ والسَّخاءِ واِيثارِ الزّادِ عَلى دَوامِ الأوْقاتِ.

ثمَّ اغْتَسِلْ بمَاءِ التَّوْبَةِ الخالِصَةِ مِنَ الذُّنوبِ وَالْبَسْ كِسْوَةَ الصِّدْقِ والصَّفاءِ والخُضوعِ والخُشوعِ.

وَأَحْرِمْ عَن كُلِّ شَيءٍ يمْنَعُكَ عَن ذِكْرِ اللهِ عزَّ وجَلَّ ويحْجِبُكَ عَن طاعَتِهِ.

وَلَبِّ بمَعنى إِجابَةٍ صافِيَةٍ خالِصَةٍ زاكِيَةٍ للهِ عزَّ وجَلَّ في دَعْوَتِكَ لهُ مُتَمَسِّكاً بِالعُرْوَةِ الوُثقى.

وَطُفْ بِقَلبِكَ مَعَ المَلائِكَةِ حَولَ العَرْشِ كَطَوافِكَ مَعَ المُسلِمينَ بِنفْسِكَ حَولَ البَيتِ.

وَهَرْوِلْ هَرْوَلَةً مِنْ هَواكَ وَتَبَرُّؤاً مِن جَميعِ حَوْلِكَ وَقُوَّتِكَ.

وَاخْرُجْ مِن غَفْلَتِكَ وزَلاّتِكَ بخُروجِكَ إلى مِنى وَلا تَمَنَّ ما لا يَحِلُّ لَكَ ولا تَسْتَحِقُّهُ.

وَاعْتَرِفْ بِالخَطَأِ بِالعَرَفاتِ وَجَدِّدْ عَهْدَكَ عِنْدَ اللهِ تعَالى بِوَحْدانِيَّتِهِ وَتَقَرَّبْ إلَيْهِ.

وَاتَّقْهِ بمُزدَلِفَةَ واصْعَدْ بِروحِكَ إلى المَلأِ الأعْلى بِصُعودِكَ إلى الجَبَلِ.

وَاذْبَحْ حَنْجَرَةَ الهَوَى والطَّمَعِ عِنْدَ الذَّبيحَةِ.

وَارْمِ الشَّهَواتِ والخَساسَةَ والدَّناءَةَ والأَفْعالَ الذَّميمَةَ عِنْدَ رَمْيِ الجَمَراتِ.

وَاحْلِقِ العُيُوبَ الظّاهِرَةَ والباطِنََةَ بحَلْقِ رَأْسِكَ.

وَادْخُلْ في أَمانِ اللهِ تعَالى وكَنَفِهِ وَسِتْرِهِ وَكَلائِهِ مِن مُتابَعَةِ مُرادِكَ بِدُخولِ الحَرَمِ.

وَزُرِ البَيْتَ مُتَحَقِّقاً لِتَعْظيمِ صاحِبِهِ وَمَعْرِفَتِهِ وَجَلالِهِ وَسُلْطانِهِ.

وَاسْتَلِمِ الحَجَرَ رِضىً بِقِسْمَتِهِ وَخُضوعاً لِعَظَمَتِهِ.

وَوَدِّعْ ما سِواهُ بِطَوافِ الوَداعِ.

وَصَفِّ روحَكَ وَسِرَّكَ لِلِقاءِ اللهِ تعَالى يَومَ تَلْقاهُ بِوُقوفِكَ عَلى الصَّفا.

وَكُنْ ذا مُرُوَّةٍ مِنَ الله بِفَناءِ أوْصافِكَ عِنْدَ المَرْوَةِ.

وَاسْتَقِمْ عَلى شُروطِ حِجَّتِكَ وَوَفاءِ عَهْدِكَ الّذي عاهَدْتَ رَبَّكَ وَأَوجَبْتَهُ لهُ إلى يَومِ القِيامَةِ.

وَاعْلَمْ بِأَنَّ اللهَ لم يَفتَرِضِ الحَجَّ ولم يخُصَّهُ مِن جَميعِ الطّاعاتِ بالإِضافَةِ إلى نَفْسِهِ بِقَولهِ تَعالى: " وَللهِ عَلى النّاسِ حِجُّ البَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطاعَ إِليهِ سَبيلاً" وَلا شَرَعَ نَبِيُّهُ صَلّى اللهُ عَليهِ وآلهِ في خِلالِ المَناسِكِ عَلى تَرتيبِ ما شَرَعَهُ إلا لِلاسْتِعدادِ والإِشارَةِ إلى المَوتِ والقَبرِ والبَعْثِ وَالقِيامَةِ وَفَضْلِ بَيانِ السِّبْقِ مِن دُخولِ الجَنَّةِ أهْلَها ودُخولِ النّارِ أهْلَها بمُشاهَدَةِ مَناسِكِ الحَجِّ مِن أوَّلهَا إلى آخِرِها ِلأولي الألْبابِ وأولِي النُّهى.

When you intend to go on Hajj pilgrimage, empty your heart for sake of Allah, Glorified is He, of any preoccupation, which makes you unmindful of Him. Entrust all your affairs to the Creator and rely on Him for what you do and you do not. Submit yourself to the divine fate, decision, and destiny. Say farewell to the world, comfort, and people.

Discharge what you owe others. Do not rely on your provision, means of transportation, friends, physical power, youth, and wealth, for Allah may turn all of them as your enemies so that you will know there is no power or option but with Allah without whose assistance no one can succeed.

Then be prepared for Hajj like one who has no hope of returning home. Behave well with the co-travelers. Observe prayer timings and the traditions of the Holy Prophet (saw), perform what is your duty on courtesy, patience, tolerance, gratitude, compassion, generosity, and self-sacrifice all the time.

Then purify yourself with the water of repentance, put on the garment of truthfulness, sincerity, humbleness, and modesty.

Get rid of whatever keeps you away from Allah’s remembrance and obedience to Him.

Say Labbayk to Allah with pure, flawless, and chaste heart while you have laid hold on the firmest handle.

Circumambulate the throne with your heart among the angels in the same way as you circumambulate the House with other Muslims.

Perform Harwala (fast pace); that is escape from carnal desires with all your power and strength.

Come out of your ignorance and wrongdoings when leaving Mecca for Mina and never desire what is not lawful or you or not worthy of.

Confess of your wrongdoings in Arafat, renew your covenant with Allah, Exalted is He, on His Oneness and approach Him.

Fear Him Muzdalifah and make your soul ascend to heaven by climbing up the mountain.

Cut the throat of carnal desires and greed by offering animal sacrifice.

Throw away lust, miserliness, meanness, and all blameworthy acts through Ramy al-Jamarat.

Do away with the internal and external flaws when shaving your head.

Enter the sanctuary of Allah, Exalted is He, by ridding yourself of all desires when entering the Sacred Precinct.

Visit the House in order to honor its Owner and to know His glory and magnanimity.

Caress the Black Stone while you are content with what He has given you and you have become humble before His greatness.

Say farewell to everything save Allah in the last circumambulation.

Purify your soul and prepare for meeting Allah by staying in Safa.

Be fair-minded and dissolve yourself in Allah’s Attributes when you are in Marwa.

Be firm on and faithful to the pledge you have given to Allah by which you have performed your Hajj until the Day of Judgment.

Be it known to you that what the reason Allah has made Hajj obligatory and has allocated it to Himself by saying,

فِيهِ آيَاتٌ بَيِّنَاتٌ مَقَامُ إِبْرَاهِيمَ ۖ وَمَنْ دَخَلَهُ كَانَ آمِنًا ۗ وَلِلَّهِ عَلَى النَّاسِ حِجُّ الْبَيْتِ مَنِ اسْتَطَاعَ إِلَيْهِ سَبِيلًا ۚ وَمَنْ كَفَرَ فَإِنَّ اللَّهَ غَنِيٌّ عَنِ الْعَالَمِينَ “…

and pilgrimage to the House is incumbent upon men for the sake of Allah, upon every one who is able to undertake the journey to it. (The Holy Qur’an; 3:97),”

and the Holy Prophet (saw) has devised its rites in this way, is to remind us of death, grave, being raised to life, and the Day of Judgment.8

An Analogy Between Man’s Life and the Hajj Rites

A precise study of the philosophy of the Hajj rites reveals that man’s whole life is like full Hajj. The Hajj rites are symbols of different stages of a wise man’s life. Islam says: O man, you are a traveler who has come to the ‘Mecca’ of this world to perform the Hajj rites. This world is a seventy-eight year old place of circumambulation.

Like Mecca, this world can lead you to Paradise. It is, in the words of Imam ‘Ali (as), “the marketing place for those devoted to Allah. Herein they earned mercy and herein they acquire Paradise by way of profit.”9

Mecca is the mother of cities and the Holy Qur’an is the founder of human civilizations and culture in its real sense. Man derives inspiration from Mecca, goes through spiritual changes, attains the knowledge of God, gives positive response to God’s call, returns to Mecca, and takes shelter in the Kaaba and appreciates his kind mother for all the blessings given to him.

Not only does man start his intellectual and spiritual journey from Mecca so as to reach perfection, but also the earth started moving from the Kaaba in the course of perfection. Imam Sadiq (as) says:

إنَّ اللهَ عزّ وجَلَّ دَحا الأرْضَ مِن تحْتِ الكَعْبَةِ إلى مِنى، ثمَّ دَحاها مِن مِنى إلى عَرَفاتٍ، ثمَّ دَحاها مِن عَرَفاتٍ إلى مِنى.

“Surely, Allah the Honorable the Glorified stimulated the earth from beneath the Kaaba towards Mina and then from Mina towards Arafat and there from towards Mina.”10

In the previous hadith, Imam Sadiq (as) used the Arabic word ‘daħa’ as the main verb of the statement. This word, however, has many indications. It may means ‘to stimulate’, ‘to expand’, ‘to put into motion’, ‘to drive’, or ‘to roll’.11

If we throw a ball on the ground, we will see that it will have both rotation and transitional movement. This meaning of ‘daha’ is compatible with rotational and transitional movement of the earth as held by astrologers.

Therefore, the earth in its rotational movement starts moving from the Kaaba towards the eastern points. Interestingly, both Mina and Arafat are located on the eastern side. Hence, the earth rotates from the Kaaba and completes its rotation in that point.12

From what we have said, it is inferred that the earth too performs the Hajj rites willingly:

فَقَالَ لَهَا وَلِلأَرْضِ ائْتِيا طَوْعاً أَوْ كَرْهَاً قَالَتَا أَتَيْنَا طَائِعِينَ.

“Then He (the Lord) directed Himself to the heaven and it is a vapor, so He said to it and to the earth: Come both, willingly or unwillingly. They both said: We come willingly. (The Holy Qur’an; 41:11)”

وَالأَرْضَ بَعْدَ ذَلِكَ دَحَاهَا. أَخْرَجَ مِنْهَا مَاءَهَا وَمَرْعَاهَا. وَالْجِبَالَ أَرْسَاهَا. مَتَاعاً لَكُمْ وَلأَنْعَامِكُمْ.

“And the earth, He expanded it after that. He brought forth from it its water and its pasturage. And the mountains, He made them firm, a provision for you and for your cattle.(The Holy Qur’an; 79:30-3)”

These Qur’anic Verses implicitly say: O man, be aware! In the same way that the earth moves eastward in the course of perfection, you to must start your intellectual and spiritual journey towards the Orient of knowledge of God from the Kaaba.

The Hajj rites are analogous to different stages of man’s life. A man when born is like a traveler who has entered the ‘Mecca’ of the world after traversing the loins of fathers and wombs of mothers, suffering many hardships in his path but he has not yet reached the so-called Miqat.

When he reaches puberty and maturity, he has entered Miqat; hence, he should put on Ihram and become duty-bound before God, give positive response to God’s call and observe what is lawful and what is unlawful until he completes the Hajj-like stages of his life. The leader of the caravan of Hajj is a prophet or imam throughout history. Today too, the leader of this caravan is Imam Mahdi (as) and each of us is engaged in performing one stage of the Hajj rites.

Some of us have entered the ‘Mecca’ of this world and are going through childhood. Some others have reached Miqat and they are saying, Labbayk. Some others have gone farther and have settled on Mount Arafat (knowledge of God). Some of us have reached al-Mash’ar, that is, we have reached the highest degree of insight and intellectual in a way we will say:

يَا دُنيا يَا دُنْيا، إِلَيْكِ عَنِّي، أَإِلّيَّ تَعَرَّضْتِ أَمْ إِلَيَّ تَشَوَّقْتِ؟ هَيهاتَ، غُرِّي غَيْرِي. فَقَدْ طَلَّقْتُكِ ثَلاثاً لا رَجْعَةَ فِيها.

O world, O world, Get away from me. Why do you present yourself to me? Or are you eager for me? You may not get that opportunity to impress me. Deceive some other persons. I have no concern with you. I have divorced you thrice where after there is no restitution.13

Others have gone through this stage and have rushed to place of sacrifice, that is, they have sacrificed this world for sake of God. By caressing the Black Stone and through the love of God, they have reached the highest degree of pleasure in the universe. Some people too have completed their Hajj rites or are in the last stage of their life and in the throes of death. They are waiting to see the result of their Hajj (deeds), failure or success. There are those who are buried in graves, though purgatory, and another caravan has settled in their tent performing their Hajj.

  • 1. See Maqamat al-Hariri; 31st Maqama
  • 2. It is recommended for the performers to leave for Mina on the night of Arafa.
  • 3. Nemira is a mountain added to Mount Arafat
  • 4. Al-Alam and an-Nemirat are signs of the Holy Precinct found on Mount Nemira
  • 5. The two signs are two cols located between Mount Arafat and al-Mash’ar al-Haram.
  • 6. It seems that al-Mash’ar al-haram, here, is a reference to a mountain lying in al-Muzdelifa. To mount this mountain is a recommended rite among the Hajj rites.
  • 7. See Mustadrak al-Wasaail; vol. 2 p.186-7, Section 17, Hadith 5
  • 8. See Misbah ash-Sharia; section 21
  • 9. See Nahjul Balagha; sermon 130:

    .الدُّنيا مَتْجَرُ أَولِياءِ اللهِ؛ اِكتَسَبوا فِيها الرَّحمَةَ وَرَبحُوا فِيها الجَنَّةَ

  • 10. See al-Kafi; vol. 4 section Hajj, p. 189, hadith 3
  • 11. See al-Mizan fi Tafsir al-Qur’aan; vol. 20 p.292
  • 12. See ash-Shehristani’s al-Hay’atu wa’l-Islam
  • 13. This statement is Imam ‘Ali’s. See Nahjul Balagha; saying 77