Women and the Sacred Defence, Jihad

Defence of Islam and the Islamic country, incumbent on women

Defence of Islam and the Islamic country, incumbent on women

Question: What is the duty of Muslim women in the battle of truth against falsehood?

Reply: Jihad is not incumbent on women, but defence is incumbent on everyone in line with their ability and means.

Istifta’at Vol. 1, p. 503

Dear sisters and brothers, in whatever country you may live, defend your Islamic and national honour! Defend fearlessly and unhesitatingly the peoples and countries of Islam against their enemies: America, international Zionism, and all the superpowers of East and West. Loudly proclaim the crimes of the enemies of Islam. (343)

29 September 1979 (7 Mehr 1358 AHS)

If, God forbid, an attack is made on an Islamic country, then all the people, women as well as men, must take action. Defence is not a duty confined to men or something that pertains exclusively to one group, everyone must defend their country. (344)

27 December 1979 (6 Dey 1358 AHS)

I ask the brothers and sisters of Kurdistan to stand together in a fraternal manner with the rest of their Muslim brothers and defend their country. (345)

1 April 1980 (12 Farvardin 1359 AHS)

Now that we are confronting the world’s major powers and are on the defensive, defending the things that our movement, our uprising has brought for us, defending Islamic objectives, our Islamic country and everything to do with Islam and the country, the mobilisation must be a general one. Jihad is one matter and defence another. Jihad has particular conditions attached to it, only certain people or groups can take part, whereas defence is for everyone, men, women, young and old alike.

Just as reason dictates that if someone forces their way into another person’s home, the people of that house will defend themselves, or if a city is attacked the inhabitants of that city will defend themselves in order to protect their lives and property, so too there are no conditions attached to the defence of one’s country.

If our country, our Islamic country, is attacked and invaded, then it is the duty of everyone living there, women and men, young and old, to help defend it. So defence is different from jihad, it has no conditions attached, everyone must take part; even the old man who is not able to do much must defend his country to the extent that he is able. (346)

15 April 1980 (26 Farvardin 1359 AHS)

My brothers! My sisters! We are in a situation that we must handle wisely. We are faced with one superpower in the West and one in the East, both of whom want to swallow us up. But by the will of God the Blessed and Exalted, and through the determination of the devout brothers and sisters of Iran, we are standing against them both with the utmost resolve.

Indeed, we will not allow any power to threaten us and try to take control of our destiny. Do not fear big powers, for you are under God’s protection and all powers are transient before that of God the Blessed and Exalted. (347)

17 May 1980 (27 Urdibihisht 1359 AHS)

The men and women of this country are all guards of Islam. It is a matter of faith, not of material gain; they are not seeking to gain something so that when they fail to do so they give up trying. No, this is a matter of faith, it is a matter of defending Islam, and this must be carried out until the last person left standing. In other words, if necessary a population of 35 million must perish and then there will be no country left for a coup d’état to take place. Of course, a coup d’état is something that will never happen, those who think it possible are mistaken, they don’t understand. (348)

12 July 1980 (21 Tir 1359 AHS)

Oh brave tribes of the Tigris and the Euphrates! Oh fighters and warriors! Rise up and defend Islam, protect the Qur’an and its decrees, for defending Islam and the Most Noble Qur’an is a duty incumbent on all Muslims, women and men alike. (349)

4 October 1980 (12 Mehr 1359 AHS)

We have a duty to safeguard this Islam, which has been handed down to us, until, God forbid, the last person left standing. Everyone, women, men, young and old, has a duty to protect Islam, to defend the nation and defend their Islamic country to the last. Defence is a matter that concerns all, it is incumbent on all, whoever is able to defend his or her Islamic country must do so to the best of his or her ability. (350)

18 August 1981 (27 Murdad 1360 AHS)

When an Islamic country is threatened by enemies of Islam, it is incumbent on us all to strive to the best of our ability to defend that country and the honour of the Muslims. When we found ourselves in such a situation, you all, all the men and women of our country, praise God, proved yourselves ready to handle it, so you should not be intimidated by talk of a group coming from Paris or somewhere else to do whatever. They made one attempt by setting Saddam loose to attack Iran, and what a slap in the face he was dealt! (351)

18 August 1981 (27 Murdad 1360 AHS)

And I hope you will accept and perform those duties you are obliged to carry out, which are to strive both in the area of education, which is an important matter, and in the defence of Islam. These are among the important tasks the performance of which is incumbent on every man and woman, on the young and old alike.

Defending Islam, defending the Islamic country, is an indisputable duty of the clerics, of those whose lives are Islam and who are Muslim. That which is disputable is women’s role in the lesser jihad.1 It is not incumbent on women to take part in this jihad. However, defending oneself, one’s country, one’s life, one’s property and defending Islam is the duty of us all. (352)

2 March 1985 (11 Isfand 1364)

You ladies must bear in mind that just as it is necessary for the men at the fronts to push forward and spearhead the battle, so too it is necessary for you to help on the home front and to prepare yourselves so that if, God forbid, there comes a time when national defence is obligatory for everyone, for every able-bodied person without exception, you are ready to fulfil this obligation. Education is, of course, also a bastion, a bastion of the Islamic culture.

You know that throughout these past centuries, from the period after the demise of the Prophet, upon whom be peace and blessings, to the present, the Islamic culture has been trampled underfoot, the laws of Islam falling into abeyance. This culture must be brought alive again. You ladies must be active on the educational and cultural fronts just as the men are.

I hope that God will grant you all success and you will make advances on these fronts too. Pray that those who are at the war front defending their country and Islam will also be successful, God willing. May you all be healthy and successful. (353)

2 March 1985 (11 Isfand 1364 AHS)

What is at stake here is not simply a government or one aspect of life; it is Islam. Islam is the concern. So it is incumbent on the men and women of this country to defend it to the best of their ability. And this defence must be continued until we attain the victories that God the Blessed and Exalted wants for us, if He so wills. (354)

19 July 1986 (28 Tir 1365 AHS)

Military training for women

Military training for women

Question: I am a girl who would like to serve the revolution by entering the Revolutionary Guards Corps, but my father does not approve. Please could you tell me what my position is according to the shari’a law?

Reply: The sisters may become revolutionary guards so long as Islamic precepts are observed. You had better seek your father’s consent.

Istifta’at Vol. 1, p. 503.

As I said earlier, women can join the army. That which Islam opposes and which it forbids as something sinful (haram) is corruption, whether on the part of the woman or the man, it makes no difference. (355)

28 December 1978 (7 Dey 1357 AHS)

Bearing in mind all that has been achieved so far through the efforts of the noble and crusading men and women, I hope that, with the support of Almighty God, they will be successful in their multidimensional mobilisation for military, ideological, moral and educational training, and that they will complete their practical military training in a manner befitting an Islamic nation that has risen. (356)

20 February 1979 (1 Isfand 1358 AHS)

Praise Almighty God, our dear nation has young combatants among the sisters and brothers who, through their military instruction throughout the country, have perplexed the enemies of Iran and Islam. With confidence in God’s power and a willingness to make sacrifices for the cause of Islam, they will surmount all difficulties and triumph over all satanic powers. (357)

8 September 1980 (17 Shahrivar 1359 AHS)

Consequently, if defence is a duty incumbent on us all, then the preparations for this defence must be carried out, and these include military planning and military training for those who are able. For it is not the case that it is our bounden duty to defend ourselves and we have no idea how to do so. We have to know how to defend ourselves. It goes without saying, however, that the environment in which you receive military training must be a sound one, an Islamic one, all aspects of decency and modesty, all Islamic aspects being upheld. (358)

2 March 1985 (11 Isfand 1364 AHS)

It makes me proud to see the ladies, young and old alike, playing a role in the educational, economic and military arenas and shoulder-to-shoulder with the men, ahead of them even, actively involving themselves in the cause of exalting Islam and advancing the aims of the Most Noble Qur’an. Those who are able to fight are partaking in military training - for this is one of the important duties that must be carried out in order to defend Islam and the Islamic homeland.

They have bravely and resolutely freed themselves from the restrictions that have been imposed on them, as indeed on Islam and the Muslims in general, by the enemies’ plots and the friends’ unfamiliarity with the laws of Islam and the Qur’an. They have thrown off the shackles of superstition in which the self-seeking enemies, using people suffering from ignorance and some akhunds2 oblivious to the interests of the Muslims, had bound them. (359)

5 June 1989 (15 Khurdad 1368 AHS)

Women’s presence on the fields of battle

Women’s presence on the fields of battle

Question: What are the rules governing female relief and medical workers going to the war fronts, where their presence would be useful, without the consent of their parents?

Reply: If it is going to cause the parents distress, their consent must first be obtained.

Istifta’at Vol. 1, p. 499

They are trying to frighten you away from an Islamic government. They say that if an Islamic government were set up, women would be locked up in rooms for all time. This is not so, in the early history of Islam, women went to battle! They stayed with the armies throughout the years of battle and tended to the soldiers’ wounds. (360)

8 November 1978 (17 Aban 1357 AHS)

They say they are afraid that Islam will take power and keep the women behind closed doors, that it will lock the doors of their homes so they can’t come out. Such talk and such myths come from abroad, God forbid that some of our own youth should be taken in by these. In the earliest age of Islam, women participated in the wars. They were there on the battlefields tending to the wounds of the injured, and many were killed there! Who has told you that women will be locked up?! They are free like men. (361)

9 November 1978 (18 Aban 1357 AHS)

This regime has disseminated propaganda to the effect that were Islam to come to power, women, for example, would have to remain at home with the doors locked to prevent them from getting out! Such falsehoods they spread about Islam. In the earliest age of Islam, women formed part of the army and entered the field of battle together with the men. (362)

11 December 1978 (20 Azar 1357 AHS)

In the earliest age of Islam, the women participated in wars together with the men. We saw how in this movement the women, the honourable ladies, stood shoulder-to-shoulder with the men, in front of them even, in the line of battle. They lost their infants and youth, but still they bravely resisted the enemy. (363)

6 March 1979 (15 Isfand 1357 AHS)

You are on a par with the soldiers of Islam and the ladies of the early days of Islam. Just as those ladies assisted Islam and helped in the Islamic movements and wars of that time, so too you ladies today, ladies everywhere in Iran, particularly the ladies of Qum, play a role in this movement and shoulder-to-shoulder with the men helped in our struggle against despotism and imperialism. (364)

10 May 1979 (20 Urdibihisht 1358 AHS)

In the earliest age of Islam, the women participated in wars together with the men. The position of women is a high one. Women in Islam enjoy a high rank. We saw how in this movement the women, the honourable ladies, stood shoulder-to-shoulder with the men, in front of them even, in the line of battle. They lost their infants and youth, but still they bravely resisted the enemy. (365)

1 February 1980 (12 Bahman 1358 AHS)

A nation whose women enter the arenas to battle with the superpowers and confront satanic powers ahead of the men will be victorious. (366)

18 August 1980 (27 Murdad 1359 AHS)

The sacrifices made by women during the sacred defence

The sacrifices made by women during the sacred defence

Greetings to the disabled brothers and sisters who bravely rose up in the way of truth and victory, who made sacrifices and gave the nation cause to hold its head high in the world. (367)

30 December 1979 (9 Dey 1358 AHS)

Greetings to you all, sisters and brothers, who are bravely living your lives in the war-stricken areas, and who are not afraid of dying for God at the hands of His enemies. You are defending your beloved homeland tooth and nail to please God, and you have inspired the fighters of Islam.

You have given everything you had with the purest of intentions, and through your repeated sacrifices, episodes of bravery and gallantry have been recorded in the annals of your unremitting struggles, and will continue to be so. Through your lessons of self-sacrifice and valour, you teach the meek of the earth the truth of God’s pledge that they shall inherit the earth. I salute you who through your struggles have brought shame upon the superpowers, and I stand humble before your forbearance and steadfastness. (368)

31 March 1980 (11 Farvardin 1359 AHS)

May the Islamic movement of the great women of Iran be victorious and glorious. Glory be to this exalted segment of the population who with their valuable and brave contribution to the defence of the Islamic homeland and the venerable Qur’an brought victory to the revolution, and who today are actively involved in the war effort, either at the front or in other areas, and are prepared to make sacrifices. (369)

24 April 1981 (4 Urdibihisht 1360 AHS)

You can see how the people are making sacrifices in this war, how these young people, these mothers and these fathers are making sacrifices. (370)

13 April 1982 (24 Farvardin 1361 AHS)

The resistance demonstrated by these great women in the imposed war and the sacrifices they are making are so astonishing that pens and tongues cannot adequately describe them, indeed they put them to shame.

Throughout this war, I have seen the mothers, sisters and wives who have lost their dear ones do things that I don’t think could be witnessed anywhere else other than here in this revolution. One event in particular stands out in my mind from all the rest, and that is the marriage of a young girl to a dear revolutionary guard who had lost both his hands in the war and had received injuries to both his eyes.

That brave young girl whose magnanimous spirit overflowed with sincerity and genuineness said: `Since I cannot go to the war front, let me pay my debt to the revolution and my religion through this marriage.’

No writer, poet, speaker, painter, artist, mystic, philosopher or jurisprudent, indeed anyone you care to name, can adequately convey the spiritual magnificence of this event or the human worth and the divine tones contained therein. No one can evaluate this great girl’s self-sacrifice, her otherworldliness and devotion to God using current criteria.
This blessed day is the day of women such as her, may God keep them for Islam and Iran. (371)

14 April 1982 (25 Farvardin 1361 AHS)

Martyrdom and the martyrdom-seeking spirit of women

Martyrdom and the martyrdom-seeking spirit of women

This is the light of the Qur’an and Islam that has appeared in your hearts and the hearts of the entire Iranian nation. It is the light of faith that stops you ladies from fearing martyrdom. (372)

6 May 1979 (16 Urdibihisht 1358 AHS)

Our young people are ready for martyrdom; our men and our women both are ready for martyrdom. (373)

9 May 1979 (19 Urdibihisht 1358 AHS)

A group of honourable ladies were here. One of them insisted that I allow them to go to Kurdistan. I told her it was not necessary for the women to go there, that their going would not solve Kurdistan’s problems. Another lady came after me asking me to pray that she be martyred. I told her to serve her country and I would pray that she would receive the reward from God that the martyrs receive. This is a transformation that has taken place. In the early days of Islam, they advanced with just such a spirit, they sought martyrdom, and in only half a century they had conquered the civilised world of that time. (374)

3 September 1979 (12 Shahrivar 1358 AHS)

Some ladies would come here asking me to allow them to go to Kurdistan to fight, and to pray that they would be martyred there. I would tell them that I did not think it advisable for them to go, that the people and the army would deal with the situation there. (375)

2 October 1979 (10 Mehr 1358 AHS)

Some of the ladies come here asking me to pray that they attain martyrdom; some of the brothers do the same. This spiritual transformation that came about in all classes of the nation, this change in attitude whereby all sought the same thing, that is an Islamic republic, this is what led to victory. For it is right, and rightness will prevail. This transformation must be safeguarded. (376)

3 October 1979 (11 Mehr 1358 AHS)

When I see the esteemed ladies treading the path towards their goal with a firm resolve and prepared for all kinds of suffering, prepared even for martyrdom, I am confident that this path will lead to victory. (377)

31 December 1979 (10 Dey 1358 AHS)

A young couple once came here to be married by me. Before she left, the young lady handed me a note, in it she asked me to pray for our young people, and at the end she wrote ‘I long for martyrdom’. There are many like her. This is a transformation wrought in you by God, it is God’s gift to you; cherish it. (378)

2 January 1980 (12 Dey 1358 AHS)

You know that our young people seek martyrdom, sometimes when they meet with me, some of them, some of the women, ask me to promise them that I will pray that they may become martyrs. But I tell them I will pray that they receive the same reward from God a martyr receives, and that they will be victorious. (379)

15 April 1980 (26 Farvardin 1359 AHS)

Since this movement’s inception, women and men have frequently come to see me insisting I pray that they become martyrs. I tell them I will pray that they are successful and that they receive the reward from God a martyr receives. Serve Islam. This spirit you possess will bring progress; strive to preserve it. (380)

15 May 1980 (25 Urdibihisht 1359 AHS)

From the very beginning of the movement almost - when I was in Najaf - up to the present, young men and women have come to me imploring me to pray that they are martyred. I pray they will receive the reward from God a martyr receives. Here in Tehran not long ago we had a marriage ceremony. When the ceremony was over, the lady handed me a note, in it she asked me to pray that she would become a martyr. A lady who had just got married asked me to pray that she may attain martyrdom. A people who seek martyrdom, who ask for prayers to be said for their martyrdom, are they afraid of military intervention? (381)

4 June 1980 (14 Khurdad 1359 AHS)

A nation whose martyrs in the way of Islam are from the class of women as well as men and whose women actually seek martyrdom along with its men will not suffer harm. We have confidence in this thunderous torrent of people led by the esteemed ladies, who form the most precious class of the nation and who struggle to advance the aims of Islam.

I congratulate the Iranian nation, we fear no power for none can confront a nation whose men and women are ready to make sacrifices and who seek martyrdom. Your power is a divine power. (382)

18 August 1980 (27 Murdad 1359 AHS)

What can intimidate a nation whose young newly-weds volunteer for martyrdom and who tread God’s path prepared for any event? Triumphant is the nation for whom martyrdom is good fortune. Triumphant is the nation that will give itself and everything it has for Islam. We are victorious whether we get killed or kill. (383)

8 September 1980 (17 Shahrivar 1359 AHS)

Today our people, our men and women, young and old alike, are determined to stand against aggression as they have already demonstrated by curbing that perpetrated against them up until now, and sacrifice their lives for freedom and independence and for freeing themselves from the yoke of oppression. We have this expectation, as human beings, of all nations and governments. (384)

11 February 1981 (22 Bahman 1359 AHS)

May God’s blessings be upon the women who in this revolution and in the defence of the homeland attained the high rank of martyrdom. (385)

24 April 1981 (4 Urdibihisht 1360 AHS)

A nation, the hearts of whose women and men, young and old alike, beat for martyrdom, whose people vie with one another for attaining it, who flee from carnal desires and who believe in the invisible world and in the Supreme Companion, will not give up and leave the scene because of these losses, no matter how great they may be. (386)

11 February 1982 (22 Bahman 1360 AHS)

These exemplary women, men and children who under air bombardment and from hospital beds sing the song of martyrdom, who with limbs amputated wish to return to the fronts where true human beings are fashioned, are beyond the bounds of human conception, they transcend that about which a philosopher or gnostic could write, are beyond that which an artist or painter could portray.

That which the latter found through a scientific, gnostic or rational approach, the former found through a belief in that which is transcendent. That which the one found in books and papers, the other found in arenas of blood and martyrdom and in the path of Truth. (387)

28 August 1983 (6 Shahrivar 1362 AHS)

A nation that aspires after martyrdom, a nation whose women and men long for martyrdom, who cry out for it, such a nation does not care whether something is in short supply or in abundance. It doesn’t let the state of the economy bother it, this is for those who are tied to the economy, who have given their hearts to the economy. Those who have given their hearts to God don’t care whether something can be found easily on the market or not, whether something is cheap or expensive. (388)

18 February 1985 (29 Bahman 1363 AHS)

You came and attacked the Friday Prayer gathering thinking that by so doing our nation would back down! But you saw how the people at the Friday Prayers reacted. What happened there will go down in history. It had to be seen to be believed.

Women with their infants in their arms, men with their small children at their sides remained where they were despite the distressing circumstances. On one side there was the explosion set off by those inhuman cowards, and on the other the shooting3, yet no one moved, everyone kept their composure and remained where they were sitting. This nation is such a nation. (389)

15 March 1985 (24 Isfand 1363 AHS)

Women’s role behind the front lines and their support for the fighters

Women’s role behind the front lines and their support for the fighters

Where throughout history have you heard of young women, who are supposed to be enjoying their youth, old women and old men striving the way ours are doing here today to support their army? Where in the world have you seen women struggling shoulder-to-shoulder with their men folks, with their revolutionary guards, police, army and all the armed forces? If you know of such a place tell us so that we may know too. (390)

28 October 1980 (6 Aban 1359 AHS)

You yourselves can see that the entire country is now at war. Even girls in their homes have joined the war by contributing to the war effort. (391)

3 November 1980 (12 Aban 1359 AHS)

Can you find a single village in Iraq that would help them4 in their war effort as our people are helping in ours? Of course they get the things they need, but by forcing the people to contribute, by plundering their people. You can’t find one village in the whole of the country of Iraq whose women would bake bread, pack it and send it for the soldiers as ours are doing. Such a nation fears no one, it has no reason to fear. (392)

3 November 1980 (12 Aban 1359 AHS)

Who are supporting our armed forces, may God assist them, now that they are at the war fronts and are in the thick of the fighting? [They are] those ladies who bake bread for them and those people who send money, provisions and so many other things for them. [They are] these Muslim people. You can see on your televisions a lady who donates ten eggs, a young child who gives his ten tumans. Why are they doing this? They are doing it for Islam, for their Islamic country. (393)

16 November 1980 (25 Aban 1359 AHS)

If a war had broken out during the time of Muhammad Riza in Ahwaz, for example, would the women of Khorasan province5 have baked bread for his soldiers? They would have prayed for their defeat! Now, however, things have changed. Where in the world can you find a similar situation where the people support their government, support their army as they are doing here today? This has no equal; you cannot find its likes in history.

From the small child who donates his ten tumans to the aged 80-year-old who gives her few eggs to help the armed forces, these are very valuable acts. Such values must be preserved, our country’s victory stems from such values; the victory over hearts is much greater than the victory over a country. (394)

6 December 1980 (15 Azar 1359 AHS)

The entire nation, not only the young people and those at the war fronts, but even the aged men and women and the very young girls, all are active in the struggles and the war effort, all consider themselves to be at the battle front. (395)

19 March 1981 (28 Isfand 1359 AHS)

When I see on the television those esteemed ladies who are busy helping and supporting the armed forces, my heart is filled with admiration for them such that no one else can inspire. The things they do, they do without expecting anything in return, they are not seeking a post or something from the people in return. They are the unknown soldiers who are busy performing their jihad on the different fronts.

If we have gained nothing else from this Islamic Republic, this active involvement of all segments of the population in the country’s affairs, their supervision of these affairs, is in itself a miracle that I don’t believe has occurred anywhere else. And this is a gift from God, the hands of man are not involved here, God, the Blessed and Exalted, has bestowed this upon us. We must cherish this gift.

Let us imitate these ladies and children who are working behind the lines, and those who have remained in these ruined and half-ruined cities. We must learn Islamic ethics, faith and turning to God from them. (396)

19 March 1981 (28 Isfand 1359 AHS)

Perhaps throughout the whole of history you cannot find anything quite like it. Small children, young adults, old women, young brides and bridegrooms, all take part in the war effort together. The battlefield here is one on which the entire nation is present. (397)

5 April 1981 (16 Farvardin 1360 AHS)

What was more significant than anything else in Iran was the change, which took place in the Iranian women. The ladies of Iran have played a greater role in this movement and this revolution than the men, and today as they pursue their activities behind the front lines, their role is greater still. Through their educational pursuits, whether in the form of educating their own children or teaching in classrooms or other places, they still play a great role in this revolution.

Women have a special kind of compassion and benevolence in their natures which men lack and which pushes them to strive harder than the men behind the front lines. It is this compassion, which has led them to make very useful and valuable contributions to the war effort and to continue to do so. (398)

23 May 1981 (2 Khurdad 1360 AHS)

However, God the Blessed and Exalted bestowed His favour on this nation and granted our country this victory. I am hopeful that through the dedication and commitment of the ladies, support for this nation and Islam will become stronger in the future, and through the efforts of you esteemed women, young people will emerge who will help bring victory at the warfront and will work behind the lines to develop and improve the country. (399)

23 May 1981 (2 Khurdad 1360 AHS)

All the Muslim people of Iran support the army. As you fight at the fronts, they help behind the lines. No one forces them to do so; they do so willingly. Small children come forward and give their savings for you; a 70-year-old lady comes and gives the gold she has had for years to help you. (400)

14 June 1981 (24 Khurdad 1360 AHS)

Today the people’s co-operation and help is unprecedented. Every day we see women giving their life savings, their pieces of gold, for God and the war effort. (401)

25 May 1982 (4 Khurdad 1361 AHS)

Greetings to you lion-hearted men and women who through your mobilisation, financial help and co-operation in other areas, whether at the front line or behind the lines, encourage our brave fighters and reinforce these warriors, and who are instrumental in uncovering and neutralising the plots of our enemies. (402)

4 June 1982 (14 Khurdad 1361 AHS)

We are indeed indebted to the kindness of these generous masses who give all they have and expect nothing in return. From those old ladies who give for Islam what it has taken them a lifetime to collect, to those who break open their moneyboxes and donate the contents. I can find no words to adequately describe this nation; I cannot praise them enough. I leave it to God the Blessed and Exalted to bestow His special favour upon them. May God protect you all and keep you steadfast in these bastions. (403)

17 October 1982 (25 Mehr 1361 AHS)

I must thank the people of Qum, the great ladies of Qum, who, at a time when we are forced to confront the superpowers and other corrupt powers who are attacking Iran on all sides, are active behind the lines just as the warriors are in the front lines. You are active on two fronts, on one you are fashioning yourselves and your young ones, and on the other you are supporting those at the war fronts. What you are doing is worthy of thanks; it is very valuable and carries much weight before God the Blessed and Exalted. (404)

13 March 1983 (22 Isfand 1361 AHS)

These people in the streets and bazaars, these people in the provincial towns, cities and villages, they are the nation; they are the ones helping the war effort, helping behind the lines. It is their women, their children, all of them together who are busy rendering a service. They are not tired. What is there to be tired of? Should they turn away from Islam?! (405)

17 August 1983 (26 Murdad 1362 AHS)

If it were not for your efforts, along with those of your noble brothers and sisters at the war fronts and behind the front lines who through their particular form of sincere devotion attracted Almighty God’s special favour, which power and which weapon of war could save the Islamic Republic and your beloved country from this raging tidal wave which the East and West, hand in glove with its satellites, created in the hope of submerging it? (406)

7 February 1985 (18 Bahman 1363 AHS)

While acknowledging my own weaknesses and failures, I should like to express my gratitude and appreciation to the dear warriors who through their valour and martyrdom-seeking spirit defended their Islamic homeland, and with their pure blood have lit up the path to freedom for all the captive nations. Also to the honourable mothers, fathers, sisters, brothers and spouses on the home front who have risen up in support of the dear combatants, sparing no effort in the sacred defence of Islam and their Islamic country. Indeed, I thank the entire nation of great and committed people who form an active presence on all scenes. (407)

1 September 1985 (10 Shahrivar 1364 AHS)

You ladies should bear in mind that just as it is necessary for the men at the fronts to push forward and spearhead the battle, so too it is necessary for you to help on the home front. (408)

2 March 1986 (11 Isfand 1364 AHS)

A very significant sum of money donated by the esteemed Iraqi ladies has been received. May God assist them further in their service to Islam and to the dear combatants who are sacrificing their lives to eliminate the wickedness of the powers and their vile dependants. I ask Almighty God to grant health and happiness to all. (409)

19 December 1987 (28 Azar 1366 AHS)

  • 1. - Refer to footnote 53.
  • 2. - Akhund: a word of uncertain etymology that originally denoted a scholar of unusual attainment, but was later applied to lesser-ranking scholars, and then acquired a pejorative connotation, particularly in secularist usage.
  • 3. - This refers to the bomb that went off during the Friday Prayer ceremony in Tehran on 18 February 1985 (29 Bahman 1363 AHS).
  • 4. - The Ba’athist regime in Iraq.
  • 5. - In the northeast of Iran.