1st Case Study: The Divine Presence
Why is it inevitable and essential that God exist?
What is the logical reasoning and essentiality behind the existence of God?
Does that reasoning follow the logic or not?
1) If we gaze at the spacious universe which surrounds the Earth, we will observe spatial objects and stars that all move in an orderly, specific, and sound pattern. These so-called stars are surrounded by planets that orbit them in an organized and systematic manner which reflect the rays of these stars. Surrounding the planets are small moons that move in regular orbits and their number is different from planet to planet. They too reflect the rays of the stars. These stars consist of great bodies of fire and blazing lavas, as well as gases and melted elements. Every group of stars, planets, and moons that have specific orbits are called a galaxy. In the spacious universe, there are in fact millions of galaxies that all move in regular and specific motion.
Furthermore, in every galaxy there are millions of suns or stars that are surrounded by planets in orbit, which are also orbited by the moons. Everything travels and moves according to the same fixed laws of motion (e.g., law of gravity, law of Newton, centrifugal forces, etc.) which if they were altered for one moment, it would disturb this neat system. In every second, many of the stars in these different galaxies get destroyed while many others are born. With these same stable laws, the new stars are orbited by spatial bodies which themselves are encircled by other smaller celestial bodies. This is how new solar systems are created; all this takes place around you and in front of your eyes millions of time in every second but you do not see or notice it. However, modern technology have revealed all of these facts to us including the fixed laws which govern these spatial objects, such that we are even able to apply these fixed laws and invent satellites which orbit the Earth for different purposes.
So the question we’re interested in asking is: Who originated and developed these precise laws? And more importantly, who made these laws constant and steady without being prone to change? Man requires an intellectual mind and sound judgment to simply benefit and apply these laws. In fact, it took hundreds of extraordinary bright heads joined together to make endless calculations and actually send off a satellite to orbit the Earth. This was possible only because these laws exist and are stable. Doesn’t it then require that these laws be established from nothing and that they be maintained in such a way that makes them constant and steady in any place in the universe? Doesn’t this challenging task require an extraordinary brilliant and super-intelligent mind that would create these non-existent laws, organize them and regulate them in every place and time? Isn’t this logical and necessary according to the human brain?
Consider the regulated motion of the multitude of galaxies in space? This magnificent arrangement could not exist by chance or by accident because it is built on regulated and fixed laws which man recently discovered. Could these laws possibly exist without a regulator who is in charge of maintaining such laws and regulating these systems? Could this all simply be a coincidence or happen in a random fashion? The laws we witness around us are considered to be great miracles, but what is more brilliant and challenging is the ability to maintain and keep these laws constant and ongoing in every time and place. Do our brains accept the idea of such intriguing phenomenon happening by chance?
Even if we accepted that, is it acceptable that such accidental and aimless phenomenon also take on the role of maintaining its intricate and organized laws in every place and time? If this was actually possible, would it be appropriate that we still consider these phenomenon as “accidental” or “random” or “chance”? After all, how can an “accidental” event be governed by rules that are comprehensive and regulated? How could such amazing and beautiful phenomenon exist by chance? And how could something exist from nothing?! Is that logical and does it agree with a sane mind?
Therefore, the question to ask now is: Who established these organized and meticulous laws and who maintains these laws at all times and in every place? Surely, there must exist a wise, great, strong, and competent mastermind and creator who behold such power and ability that enables it to carry out all that. This is indeed the logical conclusion that agrees with common sense of any sane person.
To make the picture more clear to you, consider this scenario: Man collects all the elements, tools, and equipment needed to assemble a satellite, then he left these various components on a field without constructing them together. Could one imagine that all of these components could come together and rebuild themselves in an appropriate fashion such that it could take off into space like a satellite would? Could such event happen by luck or chance? Certainly, this possibility cannot cross the mind of a sane and logical person! Without our mind and intellect, we could not ever reap the benefits of these mundane laws.
Then imagine what it would take for one to actually develop these laws from scratch, let alone maintain its continuity and application. Therefore, the logical mind concludes that if simply applying these laws require a smart, thoughtful, and intelligent mind, then it is imperative that the creator and regulator of these laws himself be very brilliant, knowledgeable, clever, and talented, etc. This creator must have the ability to create from nothing. Without having a creator with those attributes, there would not exist any law and there would not be the need to regulate anything. Hence, we would not see any sun, stars, galaxies, or constellations when we gaze at the sky.
If it was not for these laws, there would not be any orbital or spatial bodies. The actual presence of these laws lead us to believe that there must exist a God who established these phenomena and oversees its maintenance. This is the logical reasoning of the human mind and there is no room for denial or argument on this obvious conclusion.
2) If we take a closer look around us in our everyday life, we will notice that it is also governed by constant and well-defined laws in all fields. Similarly, these laws are similar to what we mentioned in the previous sections; they are constant laws in mathematical sciences, engineering, biology, chemistry, mechanics, physics, and pharmaceutical sciences, etc. When man was able to solve and decipher the mysteries and secrets of these laws, he was able to benefit from them and hence, the quality of his life advanced and improved dramatically. It would be foolish for one to think that the recent knowledge and advanced technologies that we experience in our life nowadays in every field is the result of the human mind.
The human intellect was only able to discover these already pre-defined laws and rules and to simply apply them and reaps its benefits. Rather, true credit and recognition must be given first and foremost to the one who created these laws and rules from nothing. After that, this creator and founder made sure that these laws and rules were constant, steady, and applicable in every time and place. So who did all that? There must exist a capable, all-powerful, and mighty creator who is in control at all times! As we mentioned before, if simply benefiting from these laws requires the presence a wise, smart, and brilliant human mind, then creating these laws and keeping them in a constant and steady form certainly requires a much more brilliant and intelligent being who is more knowledgeable and capable than man.
For example, operating a computer and its programs demands a smart and clever user. Then imagine what it would take for a person to actually invent the computer and program it from scratch?! For instance, if you use electricity for heating, freezing, light or motion, then remember this great creator who developed the electrical energy and created its intricate laws. Based on these laws, we were able to use this energy in our everyday life and enjoy it although we don’t realize exactly who the creator and caretaker of this phenomenon is.
When you turn on your television set, radio, wireless, radar, telephone, video, or satellite network; you are indeed using instruments whose functions rely on constant, well-defined laws that are specific to electromagnetic waves present in the air which need to be carried and received appropriately. These waves were present with its laws ever since the Earth existed, but all man did was simply encounter these laws and apply them after he learned its constant rules and conditions. So, all praise and credit is due to the creator of these previously nonexistent laws that enabled us to invent these instruments and devices which in themselves stand as an obvious proof of His Existence.
If you ride transportation such as a car, train, aircraft, rocket or ship, all of these inventions have been built based on laws which convert fuel to energy, which is in turn converted into motion in different ways. If it was not for these well-defined and constant laws, the scientists and researchers would have not been able to invent and build such intricate machines. So all credit here should be given to the creator and sustainer of these laws!
There exist many laws around us which are constant and well-defined. For example, there are centrifugal forces, light energy, speed, electrical forces, heat energy, wave motion, atomic energy, magnetic energy, nuclear power, gravitational forces, floatation, sound waves, calculator, natural laws which govern the interaction between electricity and heat, electricity and light energy, light and heat, light and speed, speed and force, electricity and sound waves, light and sound with electro-magnetic waves.
There also exists chemistry-related laws; the interaction between atoms, and molecules of elements and compounds, laws that govern these elements and compounds; laws that convert raw materials into products, laws related to industrial science, devices, papers, textiles, compounds, toys, masterpieces, chemicals, food, drink, luxuries…all of that exist with well-defined and constant laws. Ask the scientists and they’ll tell you that they built all these inventions and innovations based on laws that already exist in all the different fields.
Everything you see around you from advanced technology and innovation stand as a witness and proves that these laws exist and are consistent, which in turn indicates the presence of the creator who originated these laws. Without the creator, there would be no laws, and without these laws there would be no inventions. And without these laws, there would be no life on Earth. So if you look around you and judge based on logic and common sense, you will realize that the presence of the creator is a fact and is logically inevitable and essential because everything around you indicates that.
3) If you take a closer look at yourself, your own body and organs, and the life in the creatures around you, e.g. animals, plants, and microorganisms, you will find that everything is governed by rules and laws. You can ask the scientists of biology, physiology, anatomy, and biochemistry about the laws like those which deal with the cells, osmosis, nuclear acids, genes, nutrients for the cells; laws dealing with conservation and expenditure of energy. The process of building and breaking down (anabolism and catabolism) require laws, as well as those that deal with tissues and the different organs in our body. Every organ carries its function based on specific laws. Even the relationship of the organs with each other requires laws.
The different body systems and processes such as breathing, gas exchange, blood flow, blood pressure, and heartbeat all work under a defined set of laws. Furthermore, the digestive system, excretion, reproductive, endocrine, and nervous system also are regulated by laws. Our five senses, muscle movement, nerve impulses, and perspiration require laws. The brain and its thought process, cognition, and coordination of physical movement all have laws that govern them.
Every place in our body like our skin, hair, bones, and joints work with laws, as the scientists could testify to that. When man was able to unravel these different processes and gain knowledge about them, many questions were answered. Man was able to benefit and develop in areas like medicine and biosciences. He was able to experiment with in vitro fertilization and even predicts the gender and inherited traits of an embryo in its mother’s womb.
And now, he wants to take a step further and control genetics (through the Human Genome Project)! Man was able to perform simple and complicated surgical procedures and develop other treatments and means of diagnostics. Even the diseases are governed by laws that are stable as well as the drugs used for treatment. Medical treatment became possible when man discovered some of these laws and was able to run analytical and diagnostic tests to detect a disease. If it was not for these consistent laws, it would’ve been impossible for us to grow and develop as we did. It would have been impossible for the human body and organs to carry out its functions. In fact, all the scientific disciplines and medical specialties have come to existence based on these unchanging laws that govern our lives. So who does all the credit go to?
Logically, our mind tells us that the credit is due to the one who originated and established these laws from nothing and ensured their continued status. Without the creator, no law would exist; and without law, we would not be able to reap the benefits of an organized and stable system. After deep thought and study, the sound judgment of a wise mind finds it inevitable to admit the necessity of the presence of a great Creator who wisely and powerfully created all these mundane laws for all the living creatures who are alive only because these laws exist. So, life in and of itself indicates the presence of laws, and laws indicate the presence of a law-maker and regulator. In fact, your whole existence and life surrounding you is proof to the logical existence of a creator and founder of these mundane laws.
So far, we did not discuss or dwell on how life was created from nothing and this in itself is a clear proof which the mind cannot escape from. We will avoid discussion in this topic due to the high volume of controversy and discussion that has already taken place in this topic. There are those who support the theory of Mother Nature and that life came into existence by chance. Others believe in the Darwin theory of evolution. These theories are illogical and go against common sense! In order for evolution and gradual development to happen, this process requires a source of energy that needs to be intelligent and thoughtful.
Or else, why would the process of evolution always proceed towards completion and perfectionism, and why is it always a one-way road? Even if this theory proves to be correct, its principle is a proof of the presence of an all-powerful and dominant, wise creator. Actually, thanks to those who presented this theory of evolution because they provided for us another proof that supports the existence of a creator.
4) If you take a look at the nature surrounding us, you will find that it is also built on rules and laws that are stable and do not change. For example, there are night and day, four different seasons, solar and lunar eclipse, earthquakes and tornados, hurricanes and blizzards, thunderstorm and lightening, rain and snow. All of these natural phenomena are governed by laws which we gained knowledge about and was able to predict the earthquakes and forecast the weather. Man was able to predict the occurrence of an eclipse and season timing in different places. The existence of these laws that govern nature in a consistent and continuous manner certainly indicates the presence of a creator who originated these natural phenomena. If it requires a mature and wise mind to simply benefit from these laws, then it is logical that the law-maker himself has to be even more intelligent, wise, clever, and powerful.
4) Take a closer look at the atom and its composition, contents, and the laws that govern and are governed by it. When man came to know about this building block of life, he was able to make new elements and radioactive isotopes. He was able to use the atomic energy (useful and destructive) and benefit from its physical and chemical properties in military, civilian, pharmaceutical, and therapeutic areas. The atom consists of a nucleus which carries a positive charge. It is very small, but it carries all of the weight of an atom and it is orbited by small electrons which are negatively charged. These electrons travel in different levels of orbital with different quantity in every orbital.
This system is very similar to the solar system in the universe and galaxies and is governed by similar set of principles and laws of motion. Is it not logical for the mind to conclude that the creator of the whole great universe is the same as the one who created the smaller particles in it, which is the atom? Isn't this a divine miraculous hint from the Creator Himself? Otherwise, if it was an accident or Mother Nature that created, the questions begs itself whether the accident or Mother Nature also intended that the whole universe be built under the same principle of its smallest particle?
And if it did so, could we still call it a coincidence or randomness, while it can find such similarity that is impossible to happen by mere coincidence? It was able to build a system which is totally against randomness! This cannot be accepted by the mind! After all, isn’t it more than a coincidence that we observe a great similarity between these phenomena which is impossible to have existed accidentally?
The word “system” itself contradicts the notion of “accident” or “randomness”. What is more logical is that there exists a creator who intended this similarity and harmony so that we can recognize this as a proof for his existence, even if we can’t visually see him. Once again, there are laws that govern the interaction of electrons with neutrons, protons with neutrons, etc. When man discovered all of these types of interactions at the microscopic level, he was able to use this knowledge in many fields. Doesn't these laws and its consistency and stability point to the presence of its creator, establisher, and maintainer?
6) As we reached the conclusion earlier, the rules and laws that govern the universe and the life around us is an organized system that is stable and cannot come into existence except by a powerful creator who is wise, capable, and in control.
If we were to accept the notion that life came to existence by Mother Nature, chance, accident, coincidence or randomness, then we pose the following question: Is it also possible for Mother Nature, randomness, or coincidence to create a defined set of laws and an organized system, and after that, take care of its maintenance, regulation, and continuity? This is absolutely impossible because the notion of accident, randomness, and nothing contradicts the idea of a system, organization, and existence. After all, can nothing create something? And can something create its opposite? Even if it was able to do so, could we then still consider it unwise, as the case is with coincidence and randomness? Furthermore, could man present an example of a similar analogy to this impossible theory so that we can make a sound judgment?
7) More importantly, there is the creation of man himself! Human beings are created with a mind and intellect, so how could chance or randomness create mind and intellect when they themselves lack mind and wisdom? Logical reasoning dictates that “a deficient thing cannot give what it does not have.” Therefore, what makes sense is that the one who created man and granted him the ability to use his mind and think, must be more wise, more knowledgeable, and more thoughtful than man himself, such that he is able to give his creation the mind and intellect.
From the previous items 1-7, after thorough study and contemplation, and after using our bare minds and logical reasoning, we can with all confidence and faith conclude the following truth without any doubt:
There MUST exist a wise, all-powerful, strong, all-knowing, capable, dominant, eternal, and all-perfect God. The presence of this Creator is essential, inevitable and agrees with logic and common sense. This divine presence is surely a reality without any doubt, and therefore, it is a truth that cannot be denied or refuted logically, reasonably, or practically.
We previously reached the conclusion that there exists a Creator. Now, the question we ask ourselves: Is there one creator, two, or more?
What is the reasoning and essentiality behind the idea that there exists only One God?
Does that reasoning follow the logic or not?
1) Our logic and common sense deduces that there are only two possibilities:
Possibility # 1: There exists only one God without a partner nor an associate with Him. He created everything; the universe, life, land, heavens, atoms, and anything else you can think of. He created them by Himself and He is the Dominant, Guardian, and Sovereign Ruler by himself.
If this possibility is true, then what can our minds expect? Logic and common sense simply deduces that if there exists only one God, then we should find everything around us to be organized and peaceful. There should be no disturbance of any kind or deviation from this organized system from any creature or living thing.
To make the picture clear in our heads, consider this example: Take a look at the different ruling systems present in the countries of our world. What is the difference between the countries that rule democratically and involves a leadership team consisting of a president, national assembly, and juridical authority, and the countries that rule in a totalitarian regime and dictatorship system? In the latter, the ultimate ruler is only one person and one dictator. There is no power existing except his power, no word except his word, and no law except his law.
We see that the condition of most of the countries around us that are ruled democratically with three branches of government and different authorities are unstable and troubling due to the presence of many conflicts, objections, rallies, protest, strikes, demonstrations, and confrontations. That is because often times, the president desires something while the national assembly (congress) disagrees and wants something different. The Supreme Court says that the decision of the ruler is not constitutional. There are confrontations between the national assembly and the Supreme Court, and so on and so forth. What has been decided today is cancelled tomorrow. A policy that is carried out this year is totally changed next year. Laws and bills are written down, discussed, and then disagreed upon, then laid for referendum. Some of these laws are accepted while others are rejected. Tentative or preliminary laws are applied, and then revised. So, the state of affairs are shaky, unstable, the power is split up, and the harmony is lost. Corruption is widespread, man is confused, and his matters are chaotic.
On the other hand, in the totalitarian regime governed by one dictator ruler, the matters are always stable and peaceful. The people may feel oppressed if there is an unjust ruler. However, due to the presence of one ruler, there is no room for conflicts, contradicting decisions, confusion, competing powers, strikes, demonstrations, no fluctuation in prices, no changes in laws, no political confrontation or conflicts, political scandals, propaganda or debates. Instead, there is stability, tranquility, and no deviation from the system. The system is enforced by force where nobody can deviate.
Therefore, our minds lead us to conclude that the stability and organization we observe in the life and universe around us indicate that the creator is one, the ruler is one, the controller is one, and the governor is one. Likewise, the state of the universe and creation agrees with the idea that the creator is one.
Possibility # 2: There exists more than one god…two, five, ten, or hundreds, etc.
Here we pose several questions to the mind which deserve some contemplation and answer. For example, do these different gods help each other and share in the process of creation and establishment of the laws? In that case, any creature together with the laws that govern him, have been created by these gods together!
Or does every god specialize in creating something particular in the universe and establishes its own set of laws? So there would be a god who created the sun, a god who created the moon, a god who created the stars, a god who created the fire, and a god who created beauty, etc. This ideology is similar to what the ancient Egyptians, Greeks, Romans, and some of the ancient philosophers used to believe. Furthermore, do these gods know about the presence of each other? What is their relationship and level of interaction with each other? And how is their relationships organized? Are they equal in power, strength, ability, dominance, and wisdom, or not? If this idea is true, then what does the mind expect the picture to be? If we use our mind, logic, and common sense to answer these questions, we will find the following:
In the first research topic, we had reached the logical conclusion that there must exist a strong, capable, wise, and powerful God that is perfect without any deficiency. So, logically if there exists more than one god, it would be necessary also that every god possess the same attributes that we agreed upon in the first logical conclusion. So, every god should be strong, dominant, powerful, wise and without any deficiency. If that is the case with every god, then why would every god need each other to participate in the creation of the universe and creatures?
The idea of sharing and assisted cooperation is generally needed when there is deficiency in ability. This is what the human mind understands and this means that you may have a weakness in something and strength in another, while I have strength in one thing which you are weak in and weakness in another thing which you are strong in. In that case, you and I will need to come together to complement each other in the areas we lack so that we cover up for each other’s deficiency. However, if you are capable, strong, and perfect in your abilities, then there will be no need for partnership or cooperation with other gods to create a universe, life, or creature. This is logical and agrees with common sense, so the idea of cooperation between gods to create something which means that every being is the result of cooperative creation from more than one god is a rejected idea for any logical and reasonable mind.
Another idea that may cross the mind is that every god specializes in the creation of a specific being in the universe. For example, one god created the stars; another god created the human beings, while another created the animals. If we accept this notion, it means that every god possesses his own will. Or else why would each god specialize in creating something that is different from the others? This is clearly logical and so long as we assume the multiplicity of gods, then there will also be multiplicity of wills and desires.
And this naturally leads to the fact that these different wills may either coincide or contradict each other. These supposed gods who should all be knowledgeable (as we reached in the previous research topic), should be very well aware and cognizant of each other’s presence. Furthermore, they should know the wills and desires of each other. Now, if the desires of all the gods coincide with each other, then there is no problem. But, what will be happen if their wills and desires clashed or contradicted each other, as we expect that to happen whenever multiplicity exists? What will happen in this case and how will these conflicts and disagreements become resolved, taking in consideration that the creation is living together in one universe? Will one of the gods impose his opinion on the others, or will he surrender to the other’s desires? Will they all reach to a compromise, or will each god take his creation along with him to a different place?
All of these scenarios are impossible to happen because they contradict the logical attributes of God. After all, if a god became defeated, was forced upon, surrendered, or conceded, then he cannot be called god since all of these actions indicate weakness and deficiency. Rather, we expect the god to be absolutely strong, perfect, powerful, and without any deficiency. So if all these scenarios are impossible and illogical, then this means that there are no contradictions. And if contradictions are impossible, it follows that multiplicity is also impossible which leads us to confirm that God is indeed only one.
What is the relationship between these gods and each other? Are they friends? Or are they enemies? Or are they neither friends nor enemies? If they are friends, then how will their friendship last when they have interests and desires which may clash or contradict each other? If they are enemies, what will happen to the universe and creation as a result of their hostility? And if they are indifferent to each other, how is that possible when they have common interests? It is clear that all of these possibilities are invalid and totally illogical since they go against common sense and sound judgment! If these gods are not equal in power, dominance, and wisdom, then the one who has the lesser share of these attributes will be weaker. This will automatically disqualify him from being god!
Furthermore, what is the scope and extent of the relationship between these gods? Is there an assembly, for instance, that gathers them all as some of the ancient people imagined? If that is the case, then it would be logical for us to expect that this assembly will be governed by a boss who will be chosen or elected by them. This boss will therefore have authority over the others and that means that he will be more powerful and the rest will be less powerful (authority here will be relative). And if they become less powerful, this disqualifies them from being gods. Furthermore, the boss would also disqualified from being god because his strength will depend on the selection and submission of the others. Therefore, he will be deficient since he gains power from others while the god as we logically concluded, is perfect and without any deficiency. Therefore, this possibility is invalid and impossible to accept
Now, what does our minds expect the state of the universe, creatures, and life to be if there exists more than one God? Our minds can picture that the situation be filled with many struggles, problems and conflicting laws. There will not be an ultimate governor to turn for decision-making. Hence, corruption will become widespread in the universe and between the creatures in such a way that life cannot be imagined! In fact, what we observe in the universe is totally the opposite! Life is running continuously in a very organized, systematic, and orderly manner. All of the creatures are living in peace and tranquility. This state of affair totally contradicts the notion that there are multiple gods.
From this, we conclude that the first possibility we proposed earlier, that there exists only one God without any partner, is the only logical truth and reality that is accepted by our minds. As for the second possibility, it is not acceptable at all and does not hold any water, due to its impossibility and contradiction to logical reasoning.
2) As we discussed before in the first research topic, the universe, creatures, and life around us are all built on stable and well-defined laws. Every creature and every part of the universe has its own specific laws. Fire, water, plants, animals, and human beings are all governed by laws. The same is the case with the ocean, air, sand, wind, mountains, stars, planets, clouds, electricity, heat, light, sound, etc. But that is not all! There is even another set of laws which regulate the relation and interaction between all these creatures with each other. So there are laws that regulate the scope of interaction between the fire and water, fire and air, air and water, heat and electricity, heat and water, sun and earth, earth and planets, stars and planets, galaxies with each other, acids and alkaline, cats with mice, birds with snakes, winds with clouds, and so on and so forth. The list of examples can go on and on without end.
Every creature has laws that regulate his relationship and interaction with the other creatures. These laws and regulations are stable and do not change in any time or place, so what does all of that indicate? Pure logic and common sense tells us that the creator of the universe and everything else is only one. Otherwise, if there is more than one god who each specializes in a particular creation, then why is there all that concern to regulate the relationships and interactions between the creatures and each other?
Furthermore, if every God established their own laws for their own creation, then who will take care of establishing the set of laws which govern the relationships between all the creation? For example, if one god creates the fire and another god creates the water with each of their individual set of laws, who then is the God who establishes the laws which precisely regulate the interaction between fire and water? Is it the god of the fire or the god of the water or a third god who is different from them? If it is the god of the fire, then how will it exercise his power over the water when it is not the god of water?
Similarly, if it is the god of water, how will it determine the relationship of water with fire when it is not the god of fire? And if it is a third different god altogether, how will it mediate the interaction between their individual creations? If this third god enforces its law on both of them, then that means that the other two gods are both disqualified to be gods because this third god will be more powerful than them. On the other hand, if the third god derives its power from their submission to them, then it also will be disqualified from becoming god since its authority will be dependent on the others. Therefore, it will be deficient and a God as we agreed earlier, has to be absolutely perfect without need for anyone or anything. Therefore, all of these ideas are rejected and deemed impossible!
Rather, what makes sense and follows logical reasoning is that the creator of the fire is the same God who created the water, and he is the same God who created everything else. Hence, He is the only one who established the laws which regulate the interaction between all the creatures and each other. There is only one creator, and one God without any partner or associate! This is what our minds accept as the logical and reasonable conclusion.
3) Furthermore, there is a clear similarity in many of the laws that are specific to every creature and the laws which overall regulate the interaction between the creation and each other. That in itself is a clear indication that the creator of these various sets of law is only one and not more. After all, if the law-makers were more than one, we would’ve seen a great difference in the laws. For example, the laws that govern living cells are generally constant, whether in the plants, animals, or human beings. The laws that govern the sun and its fire, and elements, and its movements and rays are similar to the laws which govern the rest of the stars in the universe.
In fact, the laws that control the earth and its movement are not different than those which govern the planets Mercury, Jupiter, and Saturn. The earthly elements are nearly the same as the elements present on the sun, moon, planets, and living organisms. The laws that connect the sun with the earth are similar to those that connect the sun with Venus and those which link a star with any planet. In fact, it is his similarity and huge resemblance in the laws which enabled man to make predictions, scientific guesses, and theories before even discovering or proving them! This is possible by using the laws as a tool of measurement and reference point. This actually happened and is presently occurring frequently in every branch of science and in the developing fields of study. Through this process, the scientists and scholars were able to make new discoveries and reveal more secrets.
So, the discovery of one compound in the body can lead (through prediction based on the similarity of laws) to the discovery of hundreds of other compounds in other bodies which perform different functions, but it is similar in law and regulation. Doesn’t the fact that we’re able to use comparison and measurement with the laws indicate that its creator, inventor, and organizer is only one without a partner? This is the conclusion that we reach using sound judgment and logical reasoning.
5) Furthermore, we observe great connection, network, and dependability between all the creatures. So there is no life without energy, no energy without heat, no heat without reactions, no reactions without elements and compounds, no life without food, no food without animals, no animals without plants, no plants without sunlight, oxygen and water, no light without sun and stars, no water without clouds, mountains, rain, wind, ocean, river, seas, and underground earth soil that is able to store water. There is no oxygen without plants and air, no galaxies without planets, no planets without stars, no stars without fire, no agriculture without suitable valleys and freshwater, and no freshwater without saltwater, and all that is for the benefit of man. There are no inventions, development, or equipment without man, and the list goes on and on in one circular network or chain that links everything together and is dependent on each other.
Doesn’t this complicated but well-organized chain and dependency of creatures on each other prove that there is indeed only one God? After all, if different gods create different creatures and have no relationship with each other, there wouldn't be all that organization, dependency, and networking! If every God created something different without having any relationship with the other creatures, then why do we see strong interaction and dependency of these creatures with each other? For example, if you opened a television set to view its internal structure, you will find thousands of circuits and electric cells, fuses, and condenser that may be different in shape, form, content, laws, or function. But they are all part of one network and they all work together in harmony, complement each other, and depend on each other to achieve a function. Now, would you have any doubt at that moment that the maker of this television set is only one person, one manufacturer, and one designer? This is logical and clear without any disagreement or debate.
6) Notice the magnificent similarity observed between the biggest things in the creation which is the endless vast universe (including its solar systems, galaxies, stars, and planets), and the smallest particle in our earthly life which is the atom (with its nucleus, electrons, protons and rays). Doesn’t this miraculous similarity in the structure, organization, and movement indicate the oneness of the creator? After all, if the one who created the greatest thing in the universe is the same as the one who created the smallest particle in the creation, then we can logically conclude that anything between them from creatures and beings are also the production of the same one God.
Furthermore, doesn’t this harmony and resemblance in the universe contradict the notion of life being created accidentally or by chance? Isn’t it obvious that the creator intended for resemblance to exist in the universe so that we can reflect upon it, realize, and appreciate His extreme mightiness and His Oneness? Indeed, common sense and logical reasoning dictates that there exists only one God without any accomplice and one creator without a partner. Otherwise, what does that resemblance and similarity indicate?
From the previous items 1-5, we can comfortably conclude after thorough study and contemplation and after using our mind and logical reasoning, we can with all confidence, faith and without any doubt conclude that:
The god and creator is only one, without any partner or associate with Him. He created everything alone with His own Power, Ability and Wisdom. This is surely a reality without any doubt and it is a truth that cannot be denied or refuted, logically, reasonably, or practically.
What are the essential and logical attributes that should be present in the One God whom we proved His Existence and Oneness?
We have established in the first research topic of this case study, that the existence of a creator is a reality that is logical and inevitable. Furthermore, we established the oneness of God in the 2nd research topic. Now, it is imperative on us that we pause and use our minds to examine this Creator and the logical attributes that are essential to be present in Him, based on the reality of the natural phenomena and creation that we observe around us in the universe.
In the first research topic, we had agreed on some logical attributes that we expect to be present in the Creator. However, it is worthwhile to take a closer look in this aspect as follows:
1) So far, we have concluded that God is the One and Only Creator of everything including the laws that govern all of creation. He is the Guardian and Caretaker who maintains the continuity and preservation of laws. He is the one who rules and everything eventually returns to Him. Therefore, among His characteristics is Lordship, which means continuous governorship, guardianship, and care which never ceases. Therefore, He is Lord and we can refer to Him as the Great Lord, or the Lord of All Creatures, or the Lord of All Worlds. This nomenclature is accepted by our minds and can be reached by pure logic. The Lord created everything from nothing, and He was not created, since He is Solitary and there is no one before Him or after Him. There is no one who shares His Lordship, He has no boundaries or limits, and this is logical being that He is the One and Only God. He is one without being divided or constructed, because the divided or constructed usually need its parts to function. And God, as we agreed, does not need anything. This attribute is logical to His divine and absolute Being.
2) Furthermore, it is logical that this One God has to possess a lot of Strength that is too great to imagine such that He is able to create all living and non-living things. In fact, our human minds cannot possibly reckon all the creatures, universe, and what’s behind them. Therefore, it is logical to conclude that no one can ever comprehend, imagine, or calculate the strength of God. Strength naturally leads to capability, and this capability cannot be measured because it is built on strength that cannot be conceived. Since this one Creator possesses immeasurable strength and capability, then this naturally means that He can do anything He desires and no one can prevent Him from doing so. That is because everything else will have much less strength than Him and their strength is derived from the Strength of the Creator.
Everything is deficient while the Creator is completely perfect. Therefore, the whole creation is submissive to His Will and Desire. So, it is logical that no being or creature can escape the divine will. Nor do they have any authority to change, appeal, or substitute this divine will because they do not possess the strength or ability to do so. Since the Creator possesses strength and ability that cannot be measured or conceived, we can therefore conclude that His Strength and Ability are absolute attributes.
3) Furthermore, God the Creator must be very magnificent and so great that we cannot measure His Greatness, and so magnificent such that minds cannot envision His Glory. After all, our simple minds cannot imagine the greatness of the universe, the number of stars, or number of atoms in one gram of iron while these are all simple creations from the Creator! Then how can our minds possibly comprehend the magnitude of the Creator Himself?! Of course, the human mind cannot reach to such level of comprehension because it has limited capability in thinking, understanding, and imagination. God is very Magnificent and Great, and our minds cannot fathom or measure His Greatness. We can therefore conclude that the Greatness and Magnificence of the Creator is absolute and beyond any limits whatsoever!
Since God is absolute in His Greatness and Magnificence, then this also means that He is Greater than any of His creation. Even if you were to gather all of the creation and universe together, God is still greater than all in such a way that cannot be pictured or imagined.
Since God is absolute in His Greatness and Magnificence, it is fair to say that He is also Vast and All-Encompassing in an absolute manner. It follows then that absolute strength, mightiness, greatness, magnificence, all-encompassing attribute that is incomparable logically leads us to conclude also that God is the ultimate defeater of those who refuse to obey Him. He is absolutely Dominant over those who challenge Him, and He is an absolute Compeller over those who have the audacity to disobey, challenge, or oppose Him. All of these are attributes of God which we can logically and reasonably deduce using our minds and intellect.
4) It is clear and logical that the One and Great Lord must be very Knowledgeable and All-Aware. His Knowledge is so vast that it cannot be measured and is beyond any limit or imagination. After all, if our minds cannot comprehend some or part of the creation, then how can we possibly conceive or imagine the magnitude of God’s Knowledge of all His universe and creation? Therefore, we can conclude that the knowledge of God is absolute, unlimited, and is beyond everything; the past, the present, the future, the obvious, the hidden, the unknown, the interior and exterior of the earth and universe, etc. It is not possible to imagine that anything in the heavens or earth be concealed from His knowledge. Since His Knowledge is absolute, He is very well Aware of all the minute details and the secrets of the souls. Nothing is hidden from Him no matter what. The magnitude of all these attributes cannot be comprehended by our minds, except to believe in them since it is the correct way of thinking.
5) Furthermore, God the Creator should be Dominant and be in total control at all times. He should be the Sustainer and Preserver of all the laws which govern His creation. This dominance, control, and preservation of laws are absolute and cannot be conceived or imagined. After all, if our minds cannot conceive the preservation of one type of animal, or bacteria, or one of the galaxies which are all simple creations of God, then how can we possibly fathom the dominance of the Creator Himself? Hence, we can conclude that the dominancy, control, and preservation of God are absolute and beyond any limit. It is from the logical attributes that can be expected to be present in God so that life and the laws of the creations are kept stable and steady. It is also imperative that God be Truthful and Honest in an absolute manner. We can expect Him to be free from any fault or deficiency.
6) Our minds can also expect that God who possesses all of these attributes we discussed, is Boundless and without any limit. So, He the Lord cannot be described, imagined, or even fanaticized! It is impossible for us to specify a place, shape, body, resemblance, or image from His creation. Hence, it is logical to conclude that nothing resembles Him, describes Him, limits Him, or places a similarity to Him since all of that contradicts logic and common sense.
7) We can also logically expect God to be the Eternal and the Ever-Lasting one. His existence is before the existence of any of His creation, for He is the First (in an infinite manner) and before anything. Since He is not bound by time, He is also the Last (in an infinite manner) and after everything. These characteristics are logically deduced and necessary to be present in God the Creator.
8) We can also expect that God who created the well-defined laws of the universe and created man with an intellectual and wise mind, be very Wise, Intelligent, Clever, and Guider in such a way that is greater than anything and is in harmony with His Glory, Strength, Knowledge, Awareness, and Dominance. These divine traits are logical and does not need any explanation or proof because as the saying goes, “A deficient thing cannot provide what it does not have.” After all, man is not capable of comprehending the magnitude of another being’s wisdom that is similar to him. Then how can he possibly comprehend the magnitude of the Creator’s wisdom? Therefore, we can conclude that God’s Wisdom, Intelligence and Brilliancy are all absolute. Wisdom is necessary to be present in God so that He can create the universe and manage His creation, considering that He is the One and Only creator who does not have any partner.
9) We can also logically expect God to be Independent of anything and anybody. His attributes are not characteristics of Him, but they are the essence of Him, e.g., sweetness of sugar is not a characteristic of sugar but rather its essence. He is not to be described by any adjective because His characteristics are the essence of Himself and He is not in need of anything. Hence, He is Rich, Perfect, and Independent of everything without any deficiency or change. This is an attribute that is logical to be present in God the Creator who by Himself created the universe and creation from nothing, and He created everything from nothing. So, He must have everything and is not in need of anything.
10) From among the attributes of God is that He originated and innovated everything. He is beautiful, since everything in His creation is wonderful and beautiful. After all, how can God provide splendor and beauty when He Himself lacks that attribute? His Beauty and Innovation are absolute and agrees with the attributes we previously concluded. He originated everything without a previous example, and that is logical due to His eternity. He innovated with His Power and Strength without needing an example to follow and without resembling anything. So He is absolute Beauty, and absolute Innovator, and Beautiful, as this can be reached logically by our minds and common sense.
11) Furthermore, among God’s logical attributes is that no one can envision or visualize Him. After all, how can the naked eye envision God with all His infinite Greatness, Magnificence, Strength and Knowledge? If the naked eye cannot look at the sun directly, then it is not surprising that it cannot see the Creator of the sun!
12) From among God’s attributes which we can expect to be present in Him is that He is the Absolute Justice, which fits well with his other attributes. So, He is the creator of justice and He is the one who provides for the creation. And the deficient thing cannot give what it does not have. He is the absolute Justice and He applies His justice between His creations. So, justice is a logical attribute that must be present in Him.
13) As we logically deduced earlier, there is nothing that is similar to Him and He has no equal. He is Solitary and His attributes are Absolute. Therefore, it is not possible for us to even imagine that He has a wife, father, mother, son, relative, or equal of any kind. After all, if God possessed any of these relations, then they would naturally be similar to Him and could be gods like Him. Of course, we had rejected the idea of polytheism in our past discussions, so this logically means that God does not have any companion or son. He does not beget nor is He begotten; nothing resembles Him and He does not resemble anything because He is the One and Only God while everything else is His creation.
Our minds cannot accept the notion that God created a son, father, or wife for Himself. This is simply because He is not in need of any one and any relation since His Richness and Independency are absolute. Given that these types of relationships are typically associated with creatures like animals and human beings, it is not appropriate for it to be associated with the Great and Solitary God. Furthermore, a son of God would logically inherit the same attributes as God or at least some of them. This notion is totally unacceptable because there is nothing similar to Him in His attributes whether all or some of it!
Hence, it is also impossible for any of God’s creation to possess even one of His attributes in an absolute and infinite manner because in that case, he would resemble God in His attributes. Therefore, we can logically and reasonably conclude that it is impossible for God the Creator to have a father, mother, wife, or to resemble anything in His creation. Any person who accepts this idea is going totally against logical reasoning and sound judgment.
14) It is also logical and natural that God’s presence be Permanent and Eternal in an absolute manner. He does not cease to exist, for if He did, He wouldn’t be God and therefore, the creation would not exist. He should also have absolute eternal life, for He is always Alive and Immortal and He never tastes death. If He died, then the whole creation and life would end. Also, among His attributes is continuous and absolute awakefulness, for if he slept or went into slumber even for one second, life would immediately end and the laws of the universe would be disturbed. His Presence is Constant and He does NOT experience change. That is because all the laws of the universe are maintained in a steady fashion by God. After all, if God changed, then the e laws would not be constant and there would be disturbance in the universe and kingdom. All these characteristics are logically necessary to be present in God being that He is God the Creator.
15) Based on the previously discussed attributes, we can logically deduce that God is the Absolute King, Ruler, and absolute owner of the whole universe, creation, and existence; both what we see and what we don’t see. He is the Ultimate Judge between His creation and He has the total freedom to do anything in His Kingdom. No body shares Him in His Governorship except by His permission and command. These attributes are intuitive and there is no need for disagreement or debate because they conform to logical reasoning and common sense.
16) It is also imperative for God the Creator to be capable of setting alive and ending life in an absolute manner, and this is based on human logic and intuition. He should be capable of starting life and restoring life. He creates and destroys at any time in any way He pleases, and this fits well with His absolute Strength, Capability, and Magnificence.
17) Furthermore, it is not surprising that none of God’s creatures are able to encompass any of His attributes or even imagine them because they are all absolute and infinite attributes. His attributes cannot be fathomed or encompassed by anyone. They are different to that which exists in the creation although these adjectives may bear the same title. None of His creation can encompass His Knowledge since His Knowledge is absolute.
18) It is also logical that God the Creator who created everything around us would be attributed with Dignity and Exaltation. Everyone in the creation fears Him due to His Power and Dominion over them. At the same token, all the creatures love Him because He is the One who brought them into existence and kept them alive. He granted them beauty and bounty and He sponsors and oversees their needs. Therefore, He deserves love, fear, humility, and obedience from all His creation and this is certainly included among His logical and essential attributes.
19) It is also necessary that the attributes of the One and Only God who is Knowledgeable, Watchful, and a Great Sovereign that is dominant, obeyed, dignified, just and truthful also include that no one can have the audacity to fabricate things about Him, or make false claims on His behalf or against Him in such a way that displeases Him. Hence, nobody from His creation can in any way speak on His behalf in such a way which He doesn’t accept, or convey something from Him which He didn't order, or propagate a command from Him something which He didn't say. This would be inconsistent with His other attributes. Now, if any one of His creatures had the audacity to do such thing, it would be imperative for God to expose him, reveal his lies, inflict severe punishment on him, and eradicate him and his lies. This is very logical to be an attribute of God the Creator since He is the Sustainer who is Knowledgeable, Watchful, Dominant, and in control over His creation. Any other reaction from God is illogical and does not conform to common sense.
20) Last but not least, it is impossible for God to possess an attribute that conflicts with or contradicts any of the absolute and necessary attributes that we previously deduced logically.
From the previous items 1-20, after thorough study and contemplation, and after using our bare minds and logical reasoning, we can with all confidence and faith conclude the following truth without any doubt:
Some of the logical and reasonable attributes that are the essence of God the Creator, in addition to His Oneness are as follows: LORDSHIP, STRENGTH, CAPABILITY, GREATNESS, MAGNIFICENCE, KNOWLEDGE, AWARENESS, WATCHFULNESS, AND DOMINANCE, etc.
He is present in every place, and He is not limited to a specific place. He has no boundaries, shape, form, or body and He does not resemble any of His creation. Nothing existed before Him and nothing will exist after Him. He cannot be defined by anything and it is impossible for anyone to imagine Him or draw a picture of Him or to envision Him in any way using our simple human minds. He cannot be composed or divided into parts and there is nothing like Him.
His Divine Presence is Eternal and is not limited by any time. He is the First and the Last and He is Wise, Judicious, Rich, Independent, Originator, Beautiful, Innovator, and no sight can envision Him. He is the absolute Justice and is Immortal. He does not sleep or slumber, His Presence is constant, and He is not subject to any change. He is the Governor, Judge, King, and Owner. He is capable of bringing life into existence and also bring life to the dead. He destroys and recreates, and He does as He pleases in any time and in any place. He is not in need of anybody or anything.
He does not have a father, or mother, or brother, or sister, or wife, or son, or partner. He does not have any equal and does not resemble anyone. He is free from everything and is the Solitary, the Loved one, the Compeller, the Defeater, the Protector, the Preserver, and the Self-Existing One. No one is capable of encompassing all of His absolute attributes. No one can encompass His Knowledge. Also, no one can make false claims or lie on His behalf without being punished and destroyed. Finally, it is not logical that that God possess an attribute which would contradict His other logical attributes.
All of God’s attributes are absolute and infinite and do not have any limit or similarity with anything. The scope of these attributes cannot be conceived or imagined and they are solely unique to God the Creator. He is not composed of them and He cannot be divided into parts. These attributes are the essence of Him and not a part of Him.
This conclusion is acceptable by our minds and our intellect, and it certainly conforms to pure logical reasoning and common sense. These attributes are necessary and imperative to be present in God and cannot be argued or refuted by anyone intellectually, logically, or practically.
We had logically deduced the existence of God the Creator and some of His logical attributes. Now the question is: Will He keep His Presence a secret and hide this reality from His creation? Or will He make Himself known to His creation?
What does the mind and logic judge in this matter?
Is it logically possible that He introduce Himself to some of His creation, and not others?
1) As we agreed earlier, one of the attributes of God the Creator are absolute Wisdom and Guidance. So He must have created His creation for a specific reason and wisdom. Wisdom is typically a desired goal and objective, so can God achieve His purpose if He keeps His presence hidden from His Creation? Indeed, this idea does not conform to logical reasoning and common sense.
2) If God was to keep the reality of His Presence hidden from His creation, then logic deduces that the creation will naturally question themselves about the identity of their Creator and the purpose behind their existence. They will wonder who regulates the existing laws surrounding them and they will feel confused. This confusion and lack of knowledge may very well lead them to assume lordship to those who are not God or to others from among themselves. Every creature may take any God that conforms to its interest which may be different from that which the others choose, and so on and so forth.
So does it make sense that the Wise and Intelligent God leave the situation like that and allow for His creation to take someone other than Himself as God and give it false credit for their creation? Will He accept that without intervening presenting Himself so that the truth is revealed and falsehood abolished while He is the One and Only true God and Creator who is Strong, Capable, and Self-Existing? Will He leave the matter for every creature to decide based on their judgment so that they can assume divinity and lordship to whomever they desire? Our minds certainly refuses this idea since it goes against logic and common sense. After all, He is the real God who is knowledgeable, competent, all-encompassing, and deserves obedience as He is the real creator.
3) As we concluded before, one of the attributes of God the Creator is that He is the Absolute Justice. Based on this attribute, God does not accept any type of injustice because it is against fairness and equality. So how can He allow for Himself to cause confusion in His creation regarding their Creator, while He is Present and capable of announcing His existence to everyone? This would actually be injustice committed on the creation, which is not appropriate to come from the absolute Just Creator.
Furthermore, how can He accept that divinity be given to others while He is the one who created, and He is the one who established the laws and maintained their effectiveness? How can He accept that His creation give their love, devotion, and obedience to someone other than Himself, when He is the reason for their whole existence? Indeed, this would be injustice committed against Himself and to His Lordship and His divine rights for love, guardianship, and obedience. And God the Creator as we know is absolute Justice who does not commit injustice to anyone! He must announce His presence, divinity, and His right of being obeyed, followed, loved, trusted, and dignified because He is the One and Only Great Creator. Our minds agree that this is logical and rather essential.
4) As we logically deduced, the Creator is the Sovereign King and Governor, so how can He rule over this kingdom without announcing that He is the ultimate King and Ruler. This is totally contradicting to every logical mind and sound judgment. There is no similar analogy in our lives such that we can refer to as a proof that it can happen. What will be the case if governorship and authority was claimed by someone else from His Creation? Will He accept that and still keep His presence concealed so that someone else can enjoy and take false credit for what they didn’t do or have?
Indeed, this does not fit the state of wisdom, guidance, truthfulness, and absolute justice which are among His logical attributes. Hence, it is not appropriate for our minds to accept this idea. Rather, what makes sense and is necessary is that the Creator announces His Existence as the One and Only God and the Solitary King and Owner who bears the final judgment. He must publicize His presence so that no possibility exists that someone other than Himself takes credit due to confusion caused by ignorance and concealed truth.
5) One of the attributes that we logically deduced and built on is that God is to be obeyed, glorified, and loved. He is also the Defeater, the Victorious, and the Compeller. So the question is: How can these attributes be recognized when His creation is not aware of His presence since He did not inform them of Himself and kept it a secret from them? How will He be obeyed, dignified, and loved when no one knows of His existence? How will He defeat and attain victory, and who will bear witness to that if His existence remains a secret? This is absolutely illogical and is not in harmony with God’s attributes which require that He reveal the truth of His Divine Presence to His creation. Only then can He demand obedience, love, and dignity from them and warn them of defeat, compellation, and victory. This is something that cannot be disagreed upon by any two human beings.
6) As to the notion that God the Creator who is the Lord of everything may reveal His presence to only some of His creation while hide it from others, this would clearly be injustice committed against the creatures that are not aware of His existence. However, we already established that God the Creator is absolute Justice; so therefore, it is not acceptable that the Just Creator would exhibit that. In addition, this scenario will lead to commotion and confusion in the universe since some creatures will know its true Creator and will be obedient to Him, while the other group of creatures will be confused and may very well take other creatures as false Gods. This discrepancy will certainly lead to a major conflict that cannot be accepted by the absolute Wise and Intelligent Creator. Therefore, the mind and pure logic dictates that this idea is absolutely impossible as it contradicts the divine attributes of God and goes against common sense.
7) Since it is logical that God the Creator announces His presence and reveals the truth regarding Himself (as we already established the rationale behind it), then it is also imperative for Him to inform all His creatures of that, without any exceptions. It is an all-or-nothing concept! After all, is it logical that every atom and creature in the universe have no idea or knowledge about their Creator and that He conceal Himself from everyone? Indeed, this cannot be accepted by logic and common sense. Hence, if one creature was informed about the existence of God, then it is logical and necessary that God announces His Existence and introduce Himself to all of His creation.
From the previous items 1-7, after thorough study and contemplation, and after using our bare minds and logical reasoning, we can with all confidence and faith conclude the following truth without any doubt:
Logic and common sense dictates that the One and Only Lord and Creator must announce His divine presence to all of His creation. It is essential for Him to reveal His existence and present Himself as the One and Only God, Lord, King, Sovereign, Owner, Sustainer, and Governor who is Self-Existing, Dominant, Knowledgeable, and in control over all creation. This revelation and proclamation from God must be clear without any vagueness or ambiguity. This is absolutely essential and logical and cannot be refuted using our mind and common sense.
Why did God create His creation?
What can He logically expect or demand from His creation, and what are their duties towards Him?
1) As we discussed before, among the attributes of God the Creator is that He is Wise and Intelligent in an absolute manner. So therefore, it is essential that He creates the whole universe and creation for a specific purpose and great wisdom. We had concluded in the 8th point of the 3rd research topic that it is impossible for anyone to encompass His Knowledge or Wisdom except through what is conveyed to us by Himself. From this we can logically deduce that we cannot know the great wisdom and reason behind the creation of the universe except if God Himself informs us. After all, it is not possible for the human intellect no matter how brilliant it is to encompass this Supreme Wisdom except by the absolute Wise Creator. This deduction is logical and reasonable to our minds.
2) If we use our minds and common sense to anticipate the possible things which God the Creator may demand from His Creation, we can imagine or expect that God would demand things from His creation which are intuitive and reasonable to the mind. For example, it is surely expected that He demand complete and absolute obedience from His creation, complete loyalty, absolute sacrifice, surrender, submission, exaltation, reverence, respect, fear, love, and trust. He will also expect us to refrain from corruption and infliction of harm on anyone, and to be righteous and pious. In a nutshell, absolute worship will be expected of the creation because worship in its wide meaning includes all of the above meanings, definitions, and derivatives. This is what the mind and logic expects God to demand from His creation.
3) As for the duties required by the creation towards their Creator and Lord, we can certainly use logic to deduce the following:
First: To search for Him, to attempt to know about Him, and to try to get closer to Him. To anticipate that He conveys Himself to us and His revelation of the reality of His Divine Presence.
Second: Complete and unconditional obedience and loyalty to Him, and the execution of His Commands word by word.
Third: To dignify, revere, exalt, and respect Him unconditionally.
Fourth: To fear Him and love Him unconditionally, to be loyal to Him, and to seek His nearness (reunion).
Fifth: To thank and praise Him sincerely.
Sixth: To have faith in Him and believe in His absolute attributes. To avoid attributing anything that is inappropriate to Him or anything that would demean or belittle His great status and position as the One and Only Great God.
Seventh: Complete and unconditional surrender and submission to God.
Eighth: To live in peace with the rest of the creation and to refrain from inflicting any harm or corruption to anyone or to deviate from God’s laws and regulations.
Ninth: To be righteous and behave well towards God’s creatures and His Kingdom. To actively seek positively change for a better life.
Tenth: Unconditional sacrifice for Him and for the sake of carrying out His commands and desires.
Eleventh: To convey His Presence to others and enjoin the people to obey Him and to carry out His commands.
Twelfth: To accept and submit to His will, providence, laws, commands, rules, and to be pleased with them. In short, to worship Him unconditionally! The word “worship” here entails all of these twelve points from the creation towards their Creator.
All of that is logical and necessary and it is not possible for sound judgment to accept otherwise as the duties imposed on the creation towards their Creator.
From the previous items 1-2, after thorough study and contemplation, and after using our bare minds and logical reasoning, we can with all confidence and faith conclude the following truth without any doubt:
God the Creator must have a great purpose, wisdom, and meaningful goal behind the creation of the universe. However, it is impossible for our minds to encompass that great wisdom and purpose except through what He may convey to us Himself. Nevertheless, the mind and logic deduces that God the Creator will require from His creation that they obey Him and worship Him unconditionally with all the meanings that the word “worship” entails, as we clarified. Furthermore, the mind deduces that it is incumbent on the creation that they seek and search for their Creator and that they anticipate His conveyance and introduction of Himself to them. This reasoning is essential and reasonable to the mind and cannot be refuted using logic and common sense.
6th Research Topic: The Prophets and Messengers - Logical Reasoning and Inevitability of Their Existence, Their Trustworthiness and Their Nature, as well as The Nature of Their Message
Did there appear any reports indicating that God the Creator announced Himself? If so, how?
Who exactly are the Prophets and Messengers?
Are they honest and trustworthy?
What is the logic and essentiality behind their existence, their nature, and their trustworthiness?
What is the nature of their Message?
1) The entire history of humanity did not relay any event whatsoever that indicates that any God announced Himself or any claim of divinity or creation of any type or from any source, except from only one source. This source is the Prophets and Messengers and nothing else.
These Prophets and Messengers are normal human beings in different age ranges who appeared in different places and time and for different nations and groups of people. They did not claim divinity or lordship for themselves. Rather, they said that they have received divine revelation and inspiration from God, and that they were assigned to convey and broadcast His Message to their people and their nations. They appeared and supported each other’s truthfulness in conveying and informing about the One Creator. None of them claimed that they were sent by another God except by the same God whom their predecessors called for.
Rather, they unanimously conveyed the lordship of One Great God. He is the Creator, the Sustainer of the creation, the Destroyer of Life, and He is the one who sent the messengers to convey that reality to the people of their time and place so that everyone knows who their God is. Each one of them confirmed and verified the authenticity of the prophecies of those who were sent before them. None of them accused the other of lying or making false claims; rather they were one chain which not only verified each other but also informed and gave prophecy about the future appearance of each other. They even foretold the prophecy of the next messenger(s) who will follow them. Other than these prophets and messengers who conveyed their One and Only God, no other God announced Himself, no other God claimed divinity, and no other God sent any messenger or message to indicate His presence and claim his Kingship and Lordship.
As for these prophets and messengers, they conveyed and informed about one God from whom they all received their message. They were unanimous in His regard and in their support to each other, despite the difference in their times and places of appearance. Their number is many but the famous and most known among them are: Adam, Enoch, Noah, Hud, Saleh, Abraham, Lut, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob, Joseph, Sho’ayb, Moses, Aaron, David, Solomon, Job, Jonah, Elias, Zachariah, John the Baptist, Jesus, and Muhammad.
They were all kind-hearted people who became known among their people for their righteousness, piety, truthfulness, honesty, wisdom, intelligence, and noble upbringing. All of the messengers unanimously conveyed that they received divine inspiration (by the command of the God) through unknown and unseen creatures called angels. None of them claimed that they saw the Great Creator with their own eyes, nor did any of them claim that they hold a higher rank than the rest of the human beings. The only thing they asserted was that they were chosen by God to deliver His message to them, convey His existence, and call for the worship of the One and Only God. None of them claimed that they have knowledge of the foreseen or the future except what was inspired to them from the Lord Himself.
None of them demanded or required any type of reward from the people in return for conveying the message of the Lord. They were from the most ascetic, humble, and well-behaved people of their time and place. They were all supported by extraordinary miracles that verified their claims and the truthfulness of their prophecies. Sure enough, history testifies the occurrence of some of these miracles and extraordinary events which were witnessed by the contemporaries of these prophets. This has been confirmed and narrated by the witnesses who lived during the time of those prophets.
2) If we place these facts regarding the messengers side by side with what we logically deduced in the previous research topics, we will recall that we had concluded in the 4th research topic that it is necessary and logical that the One and Only God announce His presence to His creation and introduce Himself to them. However, let us ponder a moment over how the Great Creator can accomplish this considering His great attributes which we previously proved must exist. How will He announce His existence? Will He appear to the people directly? This is absolutely illogical and impossible because it contradicts His absolute attributes such as His Magnificence, Strength, Greatness, infinite Vastness, and that no sight can envision Him, and no mind or feeling can encompass Him.
Man by nature has limited capabilities in recognition, sensation, and emotions. Therefore, it is logical and necessary that God convey His message through mediators. Due to the great differences between the absolute attributes of God the Creator and the monetary, moral, and limited attributes of mankind, it is inevitable that there would be numerous mediators who would relay the message between God and the human beings.
Let's consider this example: Suppose that you have a small radio that requires 9 volts of electricity. However, it will derive its energy from an electrical source that has over a million volts. Is it possible to connect the radio directly to the main power source? Of course not, because it will lead to burning the radio and possibly causing a big fire. However, to complete this connection, it should be indirect and there must be a transformer or transformers in between. The greater the difference between the equipment and the source, the more converters will be needed in order to ensure a successful connection.
Similarly, it is logical to conclude that it is impossible for communication to proceed directly from God to the people, and that there must exist mediators who may be different in number or nature. The presence of these mediators is not peculiar, illogical, or surprising to the mind. Rather, it is completely anticipated, inevitable and reasonable. Furthermore, these prophets and messengers have conveyed to us about other creatures with different natures named angels that we can't see. Those angels have relayed the divine message to the prophets, so we now have more than one mediator. This is in fact very logical and is in agreement with sound judgment and conclusion.
3) Since these mediators will deliver their message to mankind, it is logically necessary that they be as close as possible to the nature of humanity itself so that they can successfully accomplish their mission. Rather, if you desired the best results for their performance, it is better and more prudent that they be human themselves just like the rest of humanity! This will make their job easier in connecting with the people and propagating the message to them. A human being will be more likely to accept and understand the relayed message in this case. It is part of human nature that he can better relate to, understand, and follow those who are like him much quicker and easier than following those who are very different in nature, physical characteristics, and abilities.
Consider this for example: If you wanted to deliver a message to a group of children, which scenario do you think is better? To send an old wise man to them, or a strong knowledgeable man, or a young child in the same age range as them who understands the message is capable of relaying the message to them? What is the judgment of the mind and logic in this case? There is no doubt that the young child will be much more capable in relaying the message to those like him and will be able to relate much better with the other children. He will be able to successfully accomplish his mission and they will understand and follow him more easily.
Similarly, if you wish to send a message to a group of birds, it is logical that you wouldn’t send to them a human messenger like yourself. Rather, it is better that you choose a bird from among them who will be able to receive and understand the message and carry out the mission of delivering the message to those fellow birds like him. This is the sound judgment of the mind and logic and leaves no room for disagreement or debate.
The International imperialization have benefited from this same simple logic when it utilized that same approached and realized its importance. It was then able to achieve its goals and ambitions in a much more successful and universal way. In the past, imperialism depended on the presence of an imperial ruler for the colonies and imperial foreign occupying forces to exploit the nation and control its resources and wealth. This policy was successful in the beginning. But it later led to revolt of the inhabitants of the colonies against the foreign imperial ruler with the foreign occupying forces. This happened because man by nature does not like to deal with those who are foreign and different from him in terms of race, gender, color and nature. Hence, revolution took place in all of the colonies and imperialization in its old form soon came to an end.
However, the new imperialists realized the reality we mentioned before, namely, that it is the role of the mediator to achieve the goals. So they replaced the foreign rule with a ruler from the local population who would carry out the same mission of the foreign ruler. He would accomplish the imperialistic goal of taking control over the nations and their wealth, for the benefit of imperialism. But because he is not a foreign ruler to the local people, he is able to accomplish his mission more easily and successfully. The inhabitants of the colonies are less likely to be upset or rebellious because the ruler is one of them. His blood is their blood, his flesh is their flesh, his language is their language, and his culture is their culture. So he is very near to them. This fact is the key to his success in his mission.
The new imperialism replaced the foreign occupying troops with the national and local armies in which its loyalty and function are the same as the foreign occupying force. This function is to oppress and control the local people, but because its troops are from among the people themselves, it is more able to achieve the goal of imperialist. Those troops will not upset the local people because it has the same race, color, language, culture, faces, and names as the local people. But it achieves the same function of the foreign occupying troops. And this is exactly the new imperialism!
In the past, they used to bring British and French consuls from England and France to rule the colonies. When the inhabitants of these colonies revolted against the foreigners and strangers, they simply replaced the foreign ministers with local ministers from among the inhabitants of the colonies themselves. These local rulers and agents were westernized and their loyalty was for the imperialized. But because they are from among the same inhabitants of the colonies, nobody revolted against them. On the contrary, the people followed these local rulers, respected them, and recognized them as progressive reformers and modern leaders. That’s how colonization continued as well as exploitation and looting of wealth. But this time, it was in a new acceptable and hidden formula that is deceiving, yet successful. All that is due to the application of a simple logical rule, and that is, the mediators and messengers in this case, will be more successful in their mission if they are from the same race and nationality as those whom they’re sent to.
Based on this logical rule, we can conclude that the prophets and messengers which God will send to humanity to deliver the divine message will be chosen from the human beings themselves. This is to ensure the success and feasibility of the mission. Therefore, the idea of prophets and messengers being normal human beings is logical, essential, and anticipated using sound reasoning and common sense.
4) We know that the One God and Creator is the absolute Truth, Justice, Perfection and Wisdom. We also concluded earlier that it is expected that God will demand from His creation that they be righteous, pious, truthful, loving, merciful, and refrain from harming others and doing any type of corruption. Then, what do we expect when God chooses His messengers from the people? What characteristics do we expect to be present in these messengers? Logic and common sense ascertains that these selected prophets and messengers will certainly be from the most wise, intelligent, knowledgeable, truthful, just, honest, loyal, trustworthiness, righteous, loving, merciful, and well-behaved. After all, they will be the messengers of God who are characterized by these attributes.
Therefore, it is not logical that they possess different or opposite characteristics of God, although God's attributes are absolute and infinite and are not shared by anyone. However, the indication of the attribute itself remains the same. For example, since one of the attributes of God is absolute Justice, it is not logical that He chooses a prophet or messenger from humanity who is known and characterized for his injustice or oppression. No prophet or messenger can deliver an order from God and invite people to be good and truthful, just, merciful, honest, etc., while he himself (the messenger) lack these attributes or has the opposite!
In other words, how can God send a messenger to the people to spread justice while he (the messenger) himself is unjust, and to command them to be truthful while he himself is a liar? Or to urge them to have mercy or love, while he himself is oppressive and malicious! This is impossible and contrary to every logic and reasonable thinking! Hence, logical reasoning and sound judgment dictates that those messengers and prophets should be at the highest level of behavior, justice, wisdom, goodness, compassion, truthfulness, love, honesty, trustworthiness, and generosity, etc. This way they will be most suitable to achieve their mission and function in the best ways to ensure all possible success to this sacred mission.
5) Furthermore, in order for the chances of success for accomplishment of the mission to be greater, it is logically better if the messengers are individuals from the same people, clan, and tribe, who speak the same language and live the same lifestyle as those whom the message will be delivered to. This will make it easier for the messenger to convey his message and communicate with the people. It will make it more probable that the people will listen to him, believe, understand, and follow him, and this logic is based on what we discussed previously in item #3.
6) Since the people on Earth are naturally divided into different nations, tribes, and countries, based on item #5 it is logical that there would appear many prophets and messengers who will fit the wide array of nations present on Earth. Furthermore, since these prophets possess the highest rank of manners and behavior, we can also expect that the rules of inheritance apply here, and that prophethood is passed on to the offspring or specific families. This is logical and accepted by the mind and is very likely to happen.
7) It is of human nature that man generally tends to forget over long periods of time. Since it is a known fact that man tends to forget, change, deviate or get confused over time, it is also essential and logical that these prophets appear at different time intervals instead of appearing all in one age in time.
8) Human nature, in general, is inclined to deny things which he cannot not see, touch, or feel with his senses. The mission of the prophets and messengers is to deliver the divine message from an unseen God, due to His absolute attributes which we logically deduced earlier and also due to the limited physical capabilities of man. Therefore, it is foreseeable that these messengers appear with extraordinary events and miracles to prove their prophethood and confirm the authenticity of their message. These miracles will help the people trust and believe in them and will serve as a logical proof of their mission. This is all very logical and rather essential and is not subject to debate.
9) As we know, there are many different classes, levels, and types of people. In order for the divine message and prophecy to be communicated to all of mankind across all classes, circumstances, types, it was logical and essential that the prophets sent to them also be of different classes, types, and with different providence. For example, we can expect to find among the prophets those who are rich, poor, king, ruled person, healthy, ill, patient, white, black, victorious, and those who are killed. We can expect to find those who are sent to some people, and those who are sent to all of the people. We may find those who are beautiful, those who are ordinary, those who were born in a normal way, and those who were born without a father, or without a mother, or without both parents.
We may find those who were born in a wealthy family or in a poor and deprived family; those who enjoyed parental affection and those who were deprived of that. We may find those who were born into a believing family or into a non-believing family; those who are fathers to a righteous son, or fathers to a nonbeliever, husband of a righteous wife, or the husband of a disobeying wife. We may expect to see those who are young and those who are old and so on and so forth. So, diversity of prophets is logical and essential and can certainly be expected so that the message is directed and compatible for all types of people at every time and place.
10) In item # 19 of the first research topic, we had logically concluded that among the logical divine attributes is that no one can make false claims or lie on His behalf without being eradicated, his lies exposed, or punished by God. Therefore, based on this attribute, it is not logical that God the Creator would allow these messengers or even one of them to falsely deliver a message on His Behalf which He does not approve of, or to make false claims in His Name which He does not agree with, considering that He is the absolute Truthful and Justice.
Furthermore, it is not logical that this would repeat itself time and time again in different places and occasions. If any of the prophets actually had the audacity to do that, then God would have surely exposed him and revealed his falsehood. He would have severely punished him and eradicated his existence in order to protect the people from those like him. However, none of that happened; rather, the complete opposite took place! Logic and common sense therefore dictates that these prophets and messengers were indeed truthful and honest in everything they conveyed. After all, if they lied even in one minor point or one moment, or if they omitted a part of the message or disobeyed one command or were deficient in relaying the message, God would have punished and destroyed them. This idea is logical and is in agreement with the absolute attributes of God. Therefore, we can conclude that these prophets and messengers are indeed truthful and are true representatives of God the Creator to the people.
11) We had concluded in the 4th research topic that it is necessary and logical for God the Creator to announce His presence and existence to all of His creation. However, we did not receive any revelation regarding a God who announced Himself and His divine rights, except through the prophets and messengers who spoke and represented the One and Only God who created the entire universe and is the Lord of all worlds. So it was necessary that God announce Himself, His presence and existence. Sure enough, there was no announcement from any God about Himself except the God of the prophets and messengers who delivered His message and claimed for Him divinity and lordship.
Therefore, we can conclude with 100% confidence that the God of those prophets and messengers is indeed God the Creator who is expected to announce Himself. As expected, He announced Himself through them and no other God announced Himself except Him. After all, if there is another God, then He should have and would have introduced Himself. Divinity and Lordship are surely His absolute rights, He has no partner, and there is no God but Him. He is the one who sent the messengers, and He is the one who conveyed Himself and informed everyone of His presence. This in itself indicates the truthfulness of these prophets and messengers in what they delivered from their Lord.
12) As we previously demonstrated logically, one of the attributes of God is absolute Justice. So how can He accept that a group of people falsely claim divinity and lordship to someone other than Himself, and that this would repeat itself in different times and places? It would indeed be great injustice committed against the Creator, so how can the absolute Justice accept for such great injustice to happen against Him and His Divinity while He is the one who created, organized, and established the laws of the universe?
Furthermore, we had previously established that God is the Absolute Truth. So how can He possibly accept falsehood? After all, God is the only existent God is the Ultimate King, Owner and absolute Governor? So is it reasonable that the Absolute Truth accept that misguidance widespread by worshipping a false God? How can He accept that someone claim His kingship, ownership, and governorship while He stands helpless and conceals His Divinity, and while He possesses absolute strength, power, and capability? Indeed, this is all impossible to happen, so there is no doubt that the God represented by the prophets is indeed the One and Only God and Creator. Or else, if he wasn't the real God, He would never allow the prophets and messengers to claim divinity to somebody else. This is surely evidence which indicates without any doubt the truthfulness of these prophets and messengers.
13) Moreover, if these prophets and messengers ascribed attributes to their God whom they represent which contradicts the attributes we logically deduced, then we can definitely say that they violated the logical and reasonable truth which we previously demonstrated. We would then conclude that it is possible that they are liars and untruthful in their claim to prophethood. However, as history testifies, none of the prophets (despite their different places and times of appearance) attributed any characteristic to God that contradicts logical reasoning.
Rather, all of the attributes they mentioned regarding God are in complete agreement with the logical attributes that we expect to be present in God the Creator. This complete harmony and conformity is in itself a logical and irrefutable proof of their truthfulness and the verity of their message that they conveyed on behalf of their Great Lord. Then based on what do we accuse them of lying and making false claims? For example, if a person came up to you and told you that someone fell off from the 10th floor and immediately died, can you accuse them of lying? After all, it is logical that whoever falls from the 10th floor will immediately die. Therefore, what the man claimed is in agreement with logic and common sense and so he must not be accused of lying.
14) In the 5th research topic, we had discussed the logical duties that may be expected of the creation and demanded by God the Creator. So now the question to ask is: Did these prophets and messengers do anything to contradict these obligations? For example, we had concluded that one of the things that God will demand from us is honesty, loyalty, righteousness, goodness, and piety. Now, did these prophets come to the people and claim that God the Creator is demanding that the people lie, cause corruption, be unloyal, harm, or betray others? If they did that, then we can conclude that they have contradicted the logical obligations that we have deduced earlier, and therefore doubt the validity of their prophet hood. Was there an inconsistency in at least one of the duties that we discussed? On the contrary, all of their messages are in harmony with what we expected using logical reasoning.
Sure enough, the Great God demanded from His creation everything that we expected and deduced. Doesn’t this harmony and consistency in the message that the prophets relayed on behalf of God, indicate clearly that these prophets and messengers are truthful in what they conveyed on behalf of their Lord? Doesn’t it remove any doubt and nullify any accusation or even the possibility that they may be lying? After all, if they lied then their message would contradict the duties and obligations that we logically demonstrated. Since that did not happen, we can finally conclude that these prophets and messengers are indeed truthful and honest in everything they communicated on behalf of the Creator.
15) Moreover, none of these prophets and messengers contradicted or differed with each other. None of them accused the other of lying or spoke negatively of each other. Rather, they supported each other and verified the prophethood of those who preceded them. They even foretold the prophecy of those messengers who will follow them. They were like beads in one chain or like bricks of one building that support and help each other. After all, if Abraham came and claimed that Noah was a liar, or if Muhammad belied Moses or Jesus, then we would doubt some or all of them. However none of this happened.
Rather, the complete opposite took place. Therefore, we can remove any doubt or question to the validity of their prophethood and what they conveyed. Since this doubt is now removed, we can certainly believe that these prophets are truthful. We can believe in them and in the God they represent whom we logically anticipated that He will reveal Himself to His creation. So their support and verification of each other’s prophethood clearly proves their truthfulness, and if they were anything but truthful, the matter would’ve differed greatly.
16) Based on what we discussed so far, we can confidently and reasonably conclude that it is logical to believe that all the prophets and messengers are one, without division. So if their God is one, their message as a whole is one, and there is no discrepancy or disagreement between any of them, then it is not logical after this to believe in some prophets and disbelieve in others. This would certainly contradict the simplest rules of logic and sound judgment.
So whoever claims that Moses is truthful but Abraham is bogus, or that they believe in Moses but not in Jesus, or that they believe in Jesus but have nothing to do with Muhammad, they are totally contradicting the mind and logic and have to revisit their thought process. After all, there is no wisdom or reason in making distinction between these messengers, except for pure fanaticism or personal interest. This in itself contradicts what these prophets relayed from the truth and divine message from the Lord of the Worlds. Therefore, whoever falls in this sin and makes distinction between the prophets and believes in some while disbelieve in others, he has gone astray from the message and divine revelations of all these prophets. He has deviated from having true faith in their God and His divine message. This is clearly logical and can be accepted by sound judgment.
For example, suppose that five brothers assured you that they are the sons of the same father and mother. Each one of them assured you that they are biological brothers and they all delivered to you the same message from their father. On what basis or logic could someone come later and claim without proof that they believe three of the brothers but doubts the fourth or the fifth, or both of them for that matter? This is not permissible and is rather impossible as there cannot be any debate over this, except for the purpose of fanaticism or personal interest. Hence, we can conclude that it is necessary to believe in the integrity and truthfulness of all of the prophets and messengers without excluding anyone. It’s either you believe in all of them or disbelieve in all of them, since division between them is unthinkable.
17) Furthermore, the actions, deeds and behavior of those prophets and messengers were in total harmony with each other and never contradicted their message. So they never ordered the people to be honest and truthful while they themselves were liars and dishonest. They never ordered the people to do good while they committed bad. They never ordered the people to obey God while they themselves disobeyed God. They did not order the people to respect and love God while they themselves disrespected and disliked God. They never asked the people to follow the truth while they themselves followed falsehood. History and the contemporaries of those prophets and messengers bear witness to that. This complete harmony and agreement is in itself a strong proof and evidence to their truthfulness and authenticity of their prophethood, as they make their lives an example to the message.
18) These prophets and messengers have commanded us to be truthful and emphasized that as an integral part of the divine message. They forbade any type of deceit under any circumstances and made it clear that this would bring the wrath of God on the person who does that. So how is it logical that they enjoin honesty, forbid lying, and warn the people against God’s punishment…yet at the same time they are lying on behalf of the Creator Himself?! How can they be safe from the curse and punishment of God, unless they all truly believe that God does not exist, so they found it easy to lie and engage in fraud?
Furthermore, isn’t it more than a coincidence that all of the messengers behaved in the same way despite the difference in time and their places of appearance? A person may be doubtful of the existence of God, but no matter what, no one can ever claim with confidence that God does not exist or provide evidence in support of that. This is absolutely impossible using common sense and logical reasoning. Then how can a person with some doubt about the existence of God have the audacity to lie in such grave matter? A simple doubt regarding the presence of God would be sufficient to prevent that person from lying on His possible existence (even if that possibility is 50%) in fear of His wrath and punishment.
Based on this logic, it is not possible for a wise and sane person to have the audacity to lie about the absence of a God unless He is 100% sure of His absence. Therefore, it is impossible for a prophet or messenger to lie, especially considering that they came to promote honesty, truthfulness, and warn against revenge of God for those who lie, misguide, or fabricate. How can they practice what they are preaching against and neglect what they’re commanded to do? Indeed, this is illogical and very unlikely to happen using logical reasoning and sound judgment.
19) History narrates a few examples of those who falsely claimed that they were messengers of God and thought that they would get away by doing so. Furthermore, history narrates to us how their lies and fabrication were revealed and exposed to the public and they were eradicated. So this in itself is a clear indication that the prophets and messengers are truthful. After all, if they did lie on behalf of the Creator, they would’ve surely received the same punishment from God as those imposters and fabricators. Therefore, logic takes from this point a clear proof and evidence of the truthfulness and integrity of those messengers, and it gives us trust in every word they said and conveyed on behalf of their Creator.
20) In addition, all of the contemporaries of these prophets who dealt with them personally, testified and acknowledged their good behavior, honesty, truthfulness, and loyalty long before they (prophets and messengers) even received the divine revelation from God. They were not known to ever lie and they were all well-respected and outstanding individuals who were liked by everyone. The people came to know them by their good behavior, noble manners, wisdom, intelligence, loyalty, sincerity and chivalry. Is it then possible that these righteous personalities would all of a sudden change into dishonest, fake and deceitful characters who would lie on behalf of God the Creator? Can the mind or logic accept such thing and did we ever witness such example in our real life? This idea is unlikely to happen and goes against common sense and sound judgment.
Therefore, we can confidently conclude that it is impossible and improbable that those who became known for their honesty, loyalty, and good behavior would have the audacity to lie and fabricate on behalf of the Creator and claim for themselves the prophethood when they have no authority or permission from God. Even if we accepted the possibility that this may happen, it is unlikely that this possibility would repeat itself with all the prophets and messengers. Therefore, this is yet another proof and indication to the integrity and sincerity of the prophets and everything they conveyed.
We must also keep in consideration that those prophets and messengers did not have any personal interest, reason, and they did not benefit in any way from this claim of prophecy and from relaying the message to the people. On the contrary, they were often persecuted, harmed, fought, and deported by the enemies of God. So what could their motivation be for lying in such a grave matter and allowing themselves to be exposed to such torture and danger? In fact, the mere absence of motivation and interest is the greatest proof of their honesty and truthfulness!
21) As for the nature and content of the message which they delivered, it can be summarized as follows:
(a) They called for the worship of the One God and Creator and conveyed the reality of His Existence, absolute attributes, lordship, divine rights, kingdom, and governorship. They proclaimed that He is the Creator of the entire universe and creatures, and the sustainer who maintains regulation of life by Himself. He has control over fate, existence, life and death of everything. He is the Master and Protector and Controller alone of every creature. He has no partner and there is no God but Him. He is the Lord of the Worlds and everyone must be convinced of that in order to surrender and submit to Him with faith and conviction.
(b) They conveyed many of the divine attributes of God which are not different from the ones we logically deduced using the mind and logic. Rather, they are the same ones and are in agreement with our logical reasoning and this indicates their truthfulness.
(c) They conveyed that God has creatures of a different nature that we can't see like angels and jinni that each have their own unique characteristics and abilities, which they explained in detail.
(d) They narrated the story of the human creation beginning from Adam and how God honored him, followed by his disobedience to His Lord, then his descension to Earth and his trials. Man is always tested and placed in trial and tribulation. They spoke about the story of Iblees the devil (Satan) and how he harbored hatred and animosity to Adam and his children. The devil always tries to lure the people away from their God and entice them with temptation which leads them to disobey God and commit sin. Hence, some light was shed on the purpose of life.
(e) They conveyed that the whole worldly life (Dunya) is temporary and that a day will come when God will resurrect all of humanity back to life and will reckon them on all their deeds whether good or bad. He will judge them based on their faith and belief in the prophets and messengers and whether they believed and followed them or not. He will judge whether they believed in His Divine Existence, worshipped Him, and obeyed His commands. The prophets also conveyed that whoever believes, performs good deeds, and obeys the Lord, God will let him enter a beautiful Paradise which has no similarity. Everything delicious and every desire imaginable and not imaginable are present there and that person will live there eternally. As for those who lied, disbelieved and worshipped other Gods besides Him or along with Him, or disobeyed His commands or disbelieved in the prophets etc., He will make him enter Hell-Fire where he eternally faces severe punishment. The prophets also made it clear that God is merciful on whomever He pleases and that He forgives those who repent and seek His forgiveness.
(f) They conveyed that above the heaven of this earth, there are six other heavens (total of seven) that are inhabited by different angels and other inhabitants whom we know nothing about. They also informed that most of the other creatures except man are aware of the existence of their God and are continuously praising Him and are in submission to Him. However, man alone is tested and given the choice from among the creation to act as they please. If he believes and does good deeds, he will be rewarded, and if he disbelieves and commits evil, he will be punished and this is the Justice of God.
(g) The prophets have conveyed what is expected and demanded by God, and the message they relayed is in full agreement with what we logically deduced in the previous research topics. They directed the people to the road of guidance and salvation; they warned and alerted them against evil, sin, and devils. They forbid committing major sins such as disbelieving, killing, committing adultery, stealing, and disobeying the parents. They urged the people to adopt good manners and behavior, to obey the orders of God, and to love, fear and sincerely worship Him. They commanded everyone to completely submit and surrender themselves to God.
The messengers have supported each other’s message and confirmed that their message, their God, as well as their teachings are all one. They foretold the prophecy of each other and called their people to worship the One and Only God. They ordered them to abandon the worship of idols and other deities, and not to associate any partner with Him. Furthermore, they relayed to us that the name of God is “Allah”, and that He has many other names which are also His divine attributes. God alone created the whole universe and creation from nothing by His Might, and He inspired life and created man from clay, jinni from fire, and angels from light. Everything they said is in complete agreement with what we logically deduced earlier.
All of the prophets were supported by extraordinary events and miracles from God which verified their truthfulness, as we previously demonstrated. These events and miracles were different with each prophet and each age in time. Some of the prophets were additionally inspired with divine books and revelations that contained cumulative rules and guidelines sent from God to the people. These instructions are to be followed and carried out by the people as they will be questioned about it on the Day of Judgment and will be held accountable. Man will be evaluated for their extent of obedience, respect, and abidance to the divine doctrine. These messages differed very slightly with the different groups of people, time, and prophets. However, the core essence of the creed is one and never changed which surely indicates the unity and oneness of the source of the revelation.
All divine messages and revelations were sealed with the message and prophethood of Muhammad who conveyed that he is the last of the prophets and messengers and that his message is universal and directed to all of humanity. Sure enough, since the demise of Muhammad till now, approximately 1400 years have passed. Since then, no prophet or messenger appeared with any new divine revelation, which proves that Muhammad’s message is indeed the last and final message. In brief, the core and essence of their message is for guidance, mercy, peace, invitation and warning against punishment, glad tidings and encouragement, exhortation and apprehension, teaching and propagating knowledge, spreading truth and falsifying evil, seriousness not foolishness, certainty not imagination, honesty not lying, justice not bias, and light not darkness, etc.
None of the prophets claimed that they physically saw the Creator or that they are immortal. Nor did they claim that they are different from the rest of the human beings or that they will live eternally. Nor did they claim that they possess knowledge of the unknown or that they possess extraordinary abilities which others don’t have, except that which Allah (SWT) gave them from the prophetic miracles. History, people, contemporaries, friends, enemies, followers, believers, and nonbelievers have all witnessed and testified to their honesty, truthfulness, justice, sincerity, good behavior and fulfillment of their mission and conveyance of the divine message to them. They witnessed that these prophets and messengers came to life empty-handed, and departed empty-handed. They did not gain any personal interest or benefit, nor did they ask for reward, position, or wealth from the people. Their lives were a continuous struggle that were filled with trial and tribulations. Their people accused them of lying, fought against them, and persecuted them to the point of deporting them from their homes!
However, Allah (SWT) the One God and their Lord gave them victory and destroyed their enemies. He propagated and protected their religion because it is His Religion and His Message. They are His prophets and messengers, so it is logical that God supports His messengers who are His representatives. This point in itself stands as a proof of the integrity and truthfulness of the prophets as well as their God. So moving forward, we can refer to God as ALLAH after it has logically been proven to us that He IS the God and Creator who has no partner and there is no God but Him. He is their Lord and our Lord, and the Lord of the entire universe, creation, kingdom, heavens, and earth. Glory be to Him, the Great King!
From the previous items 1-21, after thorough study and contemplation, and after using our bare minds and logical reasoning, we can with all confidence and faith conclude the following truth without any doubt:
The God and Divine Creator has announced His presence and existence through prophets and messengers whom we logically proved their truthfulness and integrity of their message and the authenticity of their Great God, who is Allah (Glory be to Him). It is reasonably proven that He is the Lord and Creator who does not have any partner. Everything these prophets and messengers conveyed is truth and reality; their existence is consistent with our logical deduction that their presence is necessary and inevitable. Their nature is also consistent with the characteristics we rationally deduced to be present in a messenger.
Everything they relayed to us confirmed their prophethood. We have also proved that all of these prophets are part of one chain without division. Believing in all of them is essential and required. After complete conviction based on common sense and logical reasoning, and after freeing ourselves from fanaticism, personal interests, and previous beliefs…Dear wise and intelligent Reader…we can both bear witness with our minds and intellect, with all our soul, without being forced or pressured by anyone, and after witnessing all the logical proofs and evidence clearly…we can bear witness with confidence and certainty of what we’re about to admit and testify that:
“There is no God but Allah, the One and Only Great Creator. He is our Lord and our Creator who by Himself created everything from nothing by His Absolute Ability. He possesses many absolute attributes and there is nothing like Him. All of the prophets and messengers were sent from God; they are all truthful and we do not differentiate between any of them.
We only say ‘We heard and we obey’ in response to Allah, His Divine Message, and His prophets and messengers. We seek forgiveness from the Great Allah of everything in the past. We promise Him that we will continue to use our minds to search for the truth and to accept the truth that becomes obvious to us logically and rationally. We promise Allah (Glory be to Him) to follow Him and obey His commands when it is proven to us that it is the case.
We assure Him that we will be sincere to Him and we will worship Him unconditionally. We will not associate any partner with Him and we ask the reward, salvation, and Paradise from Him. We seek to attain His pleasure on the Day of Judgment and the Day of Resurrection. May Allah (Glory be to Him) bear witness to our testimony!”
Dear Reader, at this time we would like to congratulate you for becoming one the monotheists who have come to know their Lord based on faith and certainty. You are now a believer, not by inheritance or blind-obedience, nor by force or pressure. So all praise and thanks be to the Lord that He guided and blessed you with a logical mind and made you recognize His proofs and evidence! As a result, you became aware and guided to Him. You believed in Him and fell in love with Him. You responded to His call and obeyed Him with all your heart. You worship Him after knowing that He is the clear Truth and that He deserves Lordship and Worship. You worship Him as He wants, not as the others want you to worship Him.
Congratulations, for you have cleansed yourself from misguidance, falsehood, and darkness by the grace of your Lord. You came to acknowledge the truth and took the first step towards the right path. So keep up the good job and continue your thorough study in the next research topic until you reach the shore of safety! Glad tidings of Paradise to you so long as you are sincere with yourself and fulfill your promise and agreement with our Lord.
This is the promise of Allah, and Allah (Glory be to Him) does not break His promise because among His attributes are absolute Loyalty, absolute Trustworthiness, absolute Justice, and absolute Truth. Indeed, you are among the happy and lucky ones! And now, let’s move on to the second research topic so that your faith can be stronger and your belief completed. Continue walking on the road of truth, using your mind and intellect, sound judgment and conscience, and by your prayers to your God so that He completes His blessings on you and completes your religion!