(s) The abbreviation represents “peace and blessings upon him and members of his family,” as a token of respect. It will be used throughout the book wherever the name of Prophet Muhammad (s) is mentioned.

(p) The abbreviation represents “on him be peace” as a token of respect.

(pp) This abbreviation represents “Peace be upon them” as a token of respect when more than one Prophet or Imam is mentioned.

“A Saying” or “Saying of Imam Ali” refers to his saying(s) taken from the book Nahjul Balagha, chapter titled “Selections from his sayings and preaching,” which contains 489 of his sayings. These include his maxims as well as his replies to queries.

( ) Statements in parentheses are for explanation and are not part of the text.