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Some scholars have rejected the idea of the theory of evolution as being against the Qur'anic teaching of the creation of the human being, whereas others have accepted it as being compatible with the Qur'an and as being Allah's plan for the human being and how to engage in creation.

It seems that there is some generational factor here - the older generation tended to reject it more, perhaps because they saw the theory of evolution as being associated with colonialism or secularization, and as an attack on traditional Muslim values. This is less of a factor in today's globalized world. 

At the same time, the theory of evolution is only a theory and cannot necessarily be said to be true either. It is simply considered an acceptble possibility, pending further evidence, by some scholars. 

The idea that life originated from water is supported by the Qur'an. 

One could somewhat nebulously suggest that the idea of "nasnas", or prior types of humanoids, which appears in hadith, could also support the idea of evolution, although in my view this may be a stretch in interpreting the hadith. 

There is a paper on Shi'i scholars' responses to evolution in the conference proceedings for this conference, if you are interested in reading it.


There are hundreds of useful books in many websites e.g. Kitab Al-Irshad by Al-Shaikh Al-Mufeed, The Right Path by Sharafuddin, Then I was Guided by Dr Tijani, Peshawar Nights by Sultan Al-Wa'izeen, and many others.

These websites


have also many useful books.


There have been great Islamic scholars throughout the Islamic world, including regions which were part of the Persian Empire and the Roman Empire.

Scholars who are from regions that were once part of the Roman Empire include scholars from Al-Andalus, North Africa, parts of the Arabian Peninsula, and some other parts of today's Arabic-speaking world.  (I'm sure you can find some examples from each region if you look!)

That said, the centre of the Roman Empire (Rome) and the regions immediately surrounding it (such as most of Italy and Greece) never became part of the Arab-Muslim Empire. Usually the capital or centre of a civilisation has the greatest scholarly output and resources. (That is apart from the conquest of Byzantium. and that happened rather late in Islamic history.) In contrast, the heart of the Persian Empire was absorbed into the Arab-Muslim Empire. So this could be a factor.

It could also be a matter of nomenclature. The regions of the Roman Empire that were integrated into the Arab-Muslim Empire were usually more on the fringes or outskirts of the Empire, and generally the people there did not identify themselves as "Romans"; they were simply under Roman control. For instance, Islamic scholars from Egypt would not have identified themselves as "Roman" despite the fact that Egypt was once a Roman province. In contrast, many people from the Persian Empire were identified as "Persian".

So, perhaps these may be factors.

In any case, there have been Islamic scholars from all these regions. 

The authentic Hadeeth in al-Kaafi encourages kissing the hands of the Prophet (SAWA) and his Holy Progeny and any one whose hands are kissed for the sake of them. No doubt, kissing the hands of your parents is very good and also the hands of pious scholars who are servants of Ahlul Bayt (AS) and the hands of any believer as far as this kissing his hand is for the sake of Allah and not for worldly matter.