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The attackers wanted to start a fight among Muslims, while Imam Ali (AS) was following the orders of the Prophet (SAWA) not to fight because fighting them will lead to civil war among Muslims which will weaken the Muslim society and the religion of Islam which was facing many enemies from non believers and hypocrites. Imam Ali (AS) did not fight against them for very important reason which is obeying the order of the Prophet (SAWA) to avoid civil war.

Wassalam.

The attack on the door of Fatima (s.a.) and setting fire to burn her door and her house has been mentioned in many authentic and prominent Sunni books as well as Shia books. From the Sunni books where you can find this attack has been mentioned is:
    1.    Al-Imamah Wal Siyasa by Ibn Qutaibah , Volume 1 Page 30. الإمامة والسياسة لابن قتيبة .
    2.    Al-Mukhtasar Fi Akhbaar Al-Bashar المختصر في أخبار البشر Volume 1 Page 156 by Abul Fida Ismael.
    3.     Tareekh Al-Tabari by Volume 3 Page 198. 
    4.     Ansaab Al-Ashraaf by Al-Balathuri أنساب الأشراف للبلاذري Volume 1 Page 586.
    5.    Al-Milal Wal Nihal narrating from Al-Nadhdham Volume 1 Page 56. 
    6.    Al-Iqd Al-Fareed by Ibn Abd Rabbeh Volume 5 Page 12. 
    7.    Tareekh al-Ya’qoubi, V.2, P.126.
    8.    Al-Bad’ WAL-Tareekh by al-Maqdisi, 5:151.
    9.    Al-Kaamil fil Tareekh by Ibn al-Atheer, 2:325.
    10.    Al-Mussannaf by Ibn Shaibah, 8:572.
    11.    Al-Estee’aab by Ibn Abd al-Birr, 1:298.
    12.    Al-Waafi bil Wafayaat  by al-Safadi, 2:227.
    13.    It is narrated in many prominent Sunni books that Abu Bakr when he was about to die, did mention that he committed three things in his life he wished that he never did any of them. One of them is his attacking the house of Fatima (s.a.). This statement of Abu Bakr confirms the attack on the house of Fatimah and it is narrated in many Sunni books like:
    14.    Mizaan al-E’tidaal by Al-Dhahabi, Volume 2 Page 215. 
    15.    In Kanzul Ummal , Volume 5 Page 631. 
    16.    In Lisaan Al-Mizaan by Al-Asqalani Volume 4 Page 219. 
    17.    In Murooj Al-Dhahab, Volume 2 Page 301. 
    18.    In Al-Imamah Was-Siyasah by Ibn Qutaiba Volume 1 Page 18 
    19.    and In Tareeq Al-Tabarri Volume 2 Page 619.  
   All these Sunni references and many others prove that the attack on the house of Fatima did happen and her door was burnt by the attackers.
Wassalam.

Both "yes" and "no". 

It is not prescribed in Qur'an or hadith.

Rather, it is a cultural or regional symbol. The hand as a protective symbol predates Islam and is not limited to Muslims, for instance, Jews also use the hand symbol, and some people call it the "Hand of Mary".

However some Shi'is have given it religious significance by using it to represent the ahl al-kisa'/panjtan (Muhammad, 'Ali, Fatimah, Hasan, and Husayn) and have used it to symbolise the intercession or protection of Hazrat Fatimah (A). In that way, it can symbolise her status and importance. 

Possibly, it acquired this symbolism related to Hazrat Fatimah (A) and the panjtan during the Fatimid (Isma'ili) dynasty in North Africa (c. 10th-12th centuries CE).

Since, from ancient times, the symbol was often worn to protect mothers during childbirth, or to protect young children from the evil eye, this may be one reason why it was associated with a female figure. Maybe associating it with Fatimah also reflects hope in her motherly care since she is also often seen an archetypal mother figure, similar to the Virgin Mary. 

However, some Shi'is also call it the Hand of  'Abbas due to what happened in Karbala and use it to represent similar things, such as honoring him, and seeking intercession and protection.

Some Sunnis also refer to it as the "Hand of Fatimah".

So, in short, the significance of it among Shi'is (or Muslims) is due to cultural practices that have developed over time to reflect religious ideals, in conjunction with the existing regional culture, rather than things that are prescribed in Qur'an or hadith.

1. Purity of bloodline because of the connection to Lady Fatima (AS) remains with every one who has this connection whether from his Sayyed father or Sayyedah mother.

2. There is another jurisprudence rule to define the Sayyed person who will be allowed to give his obligatory Zakat or Fitra to needy Sayyed. Most of our Maraaje' of Taqleed say that the definition of Sayyed is the person who was born from Sayyed father.
These are two different issues.

Wassalam.