Introduction

In the Name of Allah, the Compassionate, the all Merciful

In our previous discussions, we witnessed the chaotic state vis-à-vis the biography of the Holy Prophet (S), his traditions (ahaadith) and the exegesis of the Holy Quran (after his demise). We saw the manner in which the Holy Prophet’s (S) Sunnah was distorted, as a result of this chaotic state, and how these came to be recognized as Islamic thought, Islamic reflection and original Islam in Muslim societies.

Now, by the Power of the Almighty, we intend to examine the manner in which the twelve legatees of the Holy Prophet (S) have remedied and settled this chaotic condition. This will be examined under the following five topics:

1. Analysis of that part of the Holy Prophet’s (S) life which is necessary for recognizing the factors influencing the spread and survival of Islam.

2. The stance of the four Caliphs towards the Holy Prophet’s (S) Sunnah and the manner in which various sects came into existence in the Caliphate school of thought.

3. Attitude of the Muslim Caliphs, from Muawiya to Ma.’mun.

4. The Prophet (S) entrusts his Sunnah to his true successors.

5. An inquiry concerning the manner in which the Holy Prophet’s (S) successors struggled for the resurgence of the Holy Prophet’s (S) Sunnah, their role in the revival of religion and recognition of Shi’ism. In fact, we began these discussions with this very name. These topics will be dealt with in the next volume, Insha’Allah.

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هُوَ الَّذِي بَعَثَ فِي الْأُمِّيِّينَ رَسُولًا مِّنْهُمْ يَتْلُو عَلَيْهِمْ آيَاتِهِ وَيُزَكِّيهِمْ وَيُعَلِّمُهُمُ الْكِتَابَ وَالْحِكْمَةَ وَإِن كَانُوا مِن قَبْلُ لَفِي ضَلَالٍ مُّبِينٍ

“He it is Who raised among the illiterates an Apostle from among themselves, who recites to them His communications and purifies them, and teaches them the Book and the Wisdom, although they were before certainly in clear error “ (Quran,62:2)

هُوَ الَّذِي أَرْسَلَ رَسُولَهُ بِالْهُدَىٰ وَدِينِ الْحَقِّ لِيُظْهِرَهُ عَلَى الدِّينِ كُلِّهِ وَلَوْ كَرِهَ الْمُشْرِكُونَ

“He it is Who sent His Apostle with the guidance and the true religion, that He may make it overcome all religions, though the polytheists may be averse “ (Quran, 61:9)

مُّحَمَّدٌ رَّسُولُ اللَّهِ وَالَّذِينَ مَعَهُ أَشِدَّاءُ عَلَى الْكُفَّارِ رُحَمَاءُ بَيْنَهُمْ تَرَاهُمْ رُكَّعًا سُجَّدًا يَبْتَغُونَ فَضْلًا مِّنَ اللَّهِ وَرِضْوَانًا سِيمَاهُمْ فِي وُجُوهِهِم مِّنْ أَثَرِ السُّجُودِ ذَٰلِكَ مَثَلُهُمْ فِي التَّوْرَاةِ وَمَثَلُهُمْ فِي الْإِنجِيلِ كَزَرْعٍ أَخْرَجَ شَطْأَهُ فَآزَرَهُ فَاسْتَغْلَظَ فَاسْتَوَىٰ عَلَىٰ سُوقِهِ يُعْجِبُ الزُّرَّاعَ لِيَغِيظَ بِهِمُ الْكُفَّارَ وَعَدَ اللَّهُ الَّذِينَ آمَنُوا وَعَمِلُوا الصَّالِحَاتِ مِنْهُم مَّغْفِرَةً وَأَجْرًا عَظِيمًا 

"Muhammad is the Apostle of Allah, and those with him are firm of heart against the unbelievers, compassionate among themselves. You will see them bowing, prostrating, seeking Allah’s grace and His pleasure. Their marks are on their foreheads due to the effect of prostration. Their like has been described in the Torah and in the Injeel as a seed-produce that puts forth its sprout, and then strengthens it, so it becomes stout and stands firmly on its stem, delighting the farmers, that He may enrage the unbelievers on account of them. Allah has promised those among them who believe and do good, forgiveness and a great reward “ (Quran, 48:29)