The traditions that indicate he is from the descendants of the Master of the Women of the world, Fāṭimat al-Zahrā, peace be on her
Comprised of 220 traditions
516. Al-Mustadrak `alā l-ṣaḥīḥain1: In the book al-Fitan wa l-malāḥim, it has been recorded that Abū l-Naḍr al-Faqīh informed me, from Uthmān b. Sa`īd al-Dārimī, from `Abd-Allah b. Ṣāliḥ, from Abū l-Malīḥ al-Riqqī, from Ziyād b. Bayān (and he mentions his virtues), from `Alī ibn Nufayl, from Sa`īd b. al-Musayyib, from Umm Salma, from the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him [and his family], who mentioned the Mahdī and said: “Yes, he is a reality and he is from the descendants of Fāṭima.”
[And narrated to us] Abū Aḥmad Bakr b. Muḥammad al-Ṣairafī at Marv, from Abū l-Aḥwaṣ Muḥammad b. al-Haytham al-Qāḍī, from `Amr b. Khalid al-Ḥarrānī, from Abū l-Malīḥ, from Ziyād b. Bayān, from `Alī ibn Nufayl, from Sa`īd b. Musayyib, from Umm Salma, may Allah be satisfied with her, from the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him [and his family], who mentioned the Mahdī and said: “He is from the progeny of Fāṭima.”
517. Al-Burhān fī `alāmāt Mahdī ākhir al-zamān2: Abū Nu`aim has recorded from al-Ḥusayn, peace be on him, that the Holy Prophet, Allah’s blessings be on him [and his family], said to Fāṭima, “O my daughter! The Mahdī is from your descendants.”
518. Ghaybat al-Shaykh3: From Aḥmad b. Idrīs, from `Alī b. Muḥammad b. Qutayba, from al-Faḍl b. Shādhān, from Muḥammad b. Sinān, from `Ammār b. Marwān, from al-Munakhkhal b. Jamīl, from Jābir al-Ju`fī, from (Imam) Abū Ja`far, peace be on him, who said: “The Mahdī is from the descendants of Fāṭima. He will have a tanned complexion.”
519. Al-Fitan4: Narrated to us Abū Hārūn, from `Amr b. Qays al-Mulā’ī, from al-Minhāl b. `Amr, from Zirr b. Ḥubaish, who heard `Alī, peace be on him, say: “The Mahdī is a man from us, from the descendants of Fāṭima, may Allah be satisfied with her.”
520. Al-Amālī5: Informed us a group from Abī l-Mufaḍḍal, from Muḥammad b. Fīrūz b. Ghiyāth al-Jallāb at the suburb Bāb al-Abwāb, from Muḥammad b. al-Faḍl b. al-Mukhtār al-Bānī—who is also known as Faḍlān Ṣāḥib al-Jār—from Abū l-Faḍl b. al-Mukhtār, from al-Ḥakam b. Ẓuhair al-Fazārī al-Kūfī, from Thābit b. Abī Ṣafiyya Abū Ḥamza, from Abū `Āmir al-Qāsim b. `Auf, from Abī l-Ṭufail `Āmir b. Wāthila, from Salmān al-Farsī, may Allah be satisfied with him, (in a lengthy tradition) from the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family, who said to Fāṭima:
Surely Allah, the Exalted, chose me from my family. He also chose `Alī, al-Ḥasan, al-Ḥusayn, and you. I am the master (sayyid) of the sons of Adam, `Alī is the master (sayyid) of the Arabs, you are the master of all the women, and al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn are the masters of the youths of Paradise. From the descendants of you two is the Mahdī. Allah, Mighty and Majestic be He, will fill the earth by him with justice just as it will be filled before him with injustice.
521. Tafsīr Furāt al-Kūfī6: From Muḥammad b. al-Qāsim b. `Ubaid, from various narrators, from `Abd-Allah b. `Abbās, from Salmān al-Farsī, from the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family (in a lengthy tradition in which he mentioned the virtues of `Alī, peace be on him), where he said to Fāṭima, peace be on her: “The Mahdī—the one behind whom `Īsā—will pray, is from you and from him [i.e. `Alī].”
522. Al-Manāqib7: `Abd al-Malik asked al-Zuhrī, “Do you know anything about him whose name will be called out from the sky?” Zuhrī answered, “(Imam) `Alī b. al-Ḥusayn informed me that he is the Mahdī from the descendants of Fāṭima.”
523. Al-Sīrat al-Ḥalabiyya8: He said: “It has been narrated that the Mahdī is from the progeny of the Holy Prophet, Allah's blessings be on him [and his family], from the descendants of Fāṭima.”
524. Sharḥ al-akhbār9: From the narration of Mikhnaf b. `Abd-Allah, through his chain of narrators from the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him [and his family], who said:
The Mahdī is from the generation of Fāṭima, the Master of the Women of the World. He will emerge and will fill the earth with fairness and justice just as it will be filled with injustice and unfairness, regardless of the days being prolonged or shortened. In his era, life will become pleasant. A caller will call out and will curse the Umayyads and their followers and send salutations on Muḥammad and will send blessings on `Alī and his followers. On that day, all the people will be safe.
525. Biḥār al-anwār10: Citing al-Amālī, From al-Ḥaffār, from Uthmān b. Aḥmad, from Abū Qilāba, from Bishr b. `Umar, from Mālik b. Anas, from Zaid b. Aslam, from Ismā’īl b. Abān, from Abū Maryam, from Thuwair b. Abī Fākhta, from `Abd al-Raḥmān b. Abī Laylā, from his father who said:
On the day of [the Battle of] Khaibar, the Holy Prophet, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family, gave the standard to `Alī b. Abī Ṭālib, peace be on him, and Allah granted him victory. Then, he mentioned him being appointed on the day of Ghadīr and some of his virtues that were mentioned there . . . (until he said), the Holy Prophet, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family, started crying.
He was asked, “What has made you cry, O Messenger of Allah?” He replied, “Jabra’īl, peace be on him, informed me that the people will oppress him, deprive him of his right, fight against him, kill his children, and oppress them after him. Jabra’īl, peace be on him, also informed me from his Lord, Mighty and Majestic be He, that this will continue until the Qā’im rises. [When he does], their word will become high, the nation will gather on their love, those having hatred towards them will be a minority, those who dislike them will be disgraced, and those who will praise them will be the majority.
This will happen only after the cities have changed, the people have been weakened, and there will be no hope for relief (faraj). It is then that the Qā’im will appear amongst them. His name is my name and his father’s name is like the name of my son. He is from the descendants of my daughter. Through them, Allah will manifest the truth and through their swords He will destroy falsehood. People will follow them either because they fear them or are inclined towards them.”
Then, the Holy Prophet, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family, stopped crying and he continued, “O group of believers, know that there will be relief, because surely, Allah’s promise will not be violated and his decision cannot be countered, and He is the Most Wise and the Most Informed.
Verily, Allah’s victory is near. O Allah! They are my family. So, keep away from them all uncleanness and purify them a thorough purification. O Allah, guard them, protect them, take care of them, be there for them, assist them, help them, make them mighty, don’t degrade them, and make them my successors. You are Powerful over all things.”
The traditions with the following numbers also show the aforementioned concept: 80, 118, 120, 126, 127, 129, 158, 168, 170, 171, 173, 176, 178, 181, 191, 193, 196, 205–308, 323, 359, 382, 397, 414, 417, 428, 450, 463, 467, 470, 492, 497–499, 526-543, 546–548, 550–572, 588, 589, 600, 608, 612, 624, 641, 670, 765, 770, 771, 786–807, 859, 918, 973, 1104, and 1230.
- 1. Al-Mustadrak `alā l-ṣaḥīḥain, vol. 4, p. 557; al-Talkhīṣ, vol. 4, p. 557; Sunan Abī Dāwūd, vol. 4, p. 107, no. 4284, which says: “The Mahdī is from my progeny from the descendants of Fāṭima”; al-Bayān fī akhbār Ṣāḥib al-Zamān, p. 99, which says: “from my progeny from the descendants of Fāṭima”; Nihāyat al-bidāya wa l-nihāya, vol. 1, p. 40, which says: “from my progeny, from the descendants of Fāṭima”; al-Ṣawā`iq al-muḥriqa, chap. “khuṣūṣiyatihim al-dāllat `alā `alā `aẓīm karāmatihim,” p. 236, which he has recorded from Abū Dāwūd, al-Nisā’ī, ibn Māja, and others. It’s wording is: “from my progeny, from the descendants of Fāṭima”; Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 3, part 15, p. 395, no. 1274, with the following wording: “The Mahdī is from my progeny, from the descendants of Fāṭima, my daughter”; Ghaybat al-Shaykh, pp. 185–186, no. 145, and pp. 187–188, no. 148.
I say: This tradition is famous and well-known. Refer to the collection of traditions and books compiled concerning the Mahdī, peace be on him, and the conditions of the Hour. Thus, we have not added any sources to those that we have already mentioned.
It has been recorded in al-Fitan, vol. 5, chap. “Nisbat al-Mahdī,” pp. 197–198, through his chain of narrators from Qatāda who said: “I asked Sa`īd b. al-Musayyib, ‘Is the Mahdī real?’ He replied, ‘He is the truth.’ I asked, ‘From whom will he be?’ He responded, ‘From the Quraish.’ I asked, ‘From which clan of the Quraish?’ He said, ‘From the Banī-Hāshim.’ I asked, ‘From which [family] of Banī-Hāshim?’ He said, ‘From Banī `Abd al-Muṭṭalib.’ I asked, ‘From which [family] of Banī `Abd al-Muṭṭalib?’ He said, ‘From the children of Fāṭima.’”
It has been recorded in `Iqd al-durar, chap. 1, p. 23, with the difference that he said: “From which descendants of Banī `Abd al-Muṭṭalib?” and “I said, ‘From which children of Fāṭima?’” He replied, “For now, this is enough for you.” He says, “Imam Abū l-Ḥusayn Aḥmad b. Ja`far b. al-Munādī has recorded it. He has also recorded a similar tradition on p. 22, to his saying, ‘From the children of Fāṭima,’ citing al-Muqri’ or al-Dānī”; al-`Arf al-wardī, vol. 2, p. 48, which is a short version; Jawāhir al-`iqdain, vol. 2, p. 8; Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 3, part 15, pp. 394–395, no. 1273
- 2. Al-Burhān fī `alāmāt Mahdī ākhir al-zamān, chap. 2, p. 94, no. 17; al-`Arf al-wardī (al-Ḥāwī lil-fatāwī), vol. 2, p. 137, with the wording: “Mahdī is from your descendants,” citing Abū Nu`aim; `Iqd al-durar, chap. 1, pp. 21–22, from (Imam) `Alī b. al-Ḥusayn, from his father, from the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family, who said to Fāṭima, “The Mahdī is from your descendants.” He has recorded it from Abū Nu`aim in Ṣifat al-Mahdī; Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 468, no. 4, from Abū Nu`aim in al-Arba`īn from al-Zuhrī, from (Imam) `Alī b. al-Ḥusayn, peace be on him, like what has been narrated in `Iqd al-durar; Dalā’il al-imāma, “Ma`rifat wujūb al-Qā’im wa annahū lābudda an yakūn,” p. 234; Dhakhā’ir al-`uqbā, p. 136
- 3. Ghaybat al-Shaykh, p. 187, no. 147; Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 51, chap. 4, p. 43, no. 32; Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 3, chap. 32, p. 504, no. 303.
- 4. Al-Fitan, vol.5, p. 201; Kanz al-`ummāl, vol. 14, p. 591, no. 39675; Muntakhab kanz al-`ummāl, vol. 6, p. 34; al-Malāḥim wa l-fitan, chap. 162, p. 75, citing Nu`aim.
- 5. Amālī l-Shaykh, vol. 2, session 10, p. 219; Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 22, chap. 1, pp. 502–503, no. 48, and vol. 40, chap. 91, pp. 66–67, no. 100. In both these places it has been recorded: “and from your progeny is the Mahdī.” Apparently, the manuscript that al-Majlisī possessed was more accurate than the one that is presently available to us. Therefore, we have mentioned the tradition in this section. According to both manuscripts, the tradition proves that he is from her descendants, peace be on her.
- 6. Tafsīr Furāt al-Kūfī, under the exegesis of Sura al-Wāqi`a, p. 179.
- 7. Al-Manāqib, vol. 1, p. 288.
- 8. Al-Sīrat al-Ḥalabiyya, vol. 1, p. 227.
I say: All the great Sunni memorizers (al-Ḥuffāẓ) and traditionists are unanimous that the Mahdī is from the descendants of Fāṭima, peace be on her. The opinion of anybody who suggests otherwise from the Umayyads, the Abbasids, and their supporters is baseless. Indeed, they have rejected such opinion with the contempt it deserves. Mutawātir traditions and narrations recorded in the Ṣiḥāḥs, Musnads, and Jawāmi`—which must be followed by and believed in by the Muslim nation—repel such an opinion.
It has been mentioned in `Iqd al-durar, chap. 7, pp. 153–154, that al-Ḥāfiẓ `Abd al-Raḥmān al-Nakha`ī al-Suhailī has recorded in the book Sharḥ sīrat al-rasūl, the superiority of Fāṭima over the women of the worlds. He has mentioned the saying of the Holy Prophet, Allah's blessings be on him and his family, “Fāṭima is a part of me” and “She is the best of my daughters,” and other similar traditions. Later, he proceeds to establish her mastership and superiority over other women and cites numerous reasons for this fact. Amongst these is the fact that the Mahdī—about whose reappearance in the end of times glad-tidings have been given—is from her progeny. This merit exclusively belongs to her, peace be on her, and is shared by no one else.
I say: In the old hand-written manuscript (the name) has been mentioned as al-Ḥāfiẓ `Abd al-Raḥmān al-Ḥanafī but perhaps the correct name is al-Khath`amī, as has been recorded in his biography in sources like Tadhkirat al-ḥuffāẓ and Wafiyyāt al-a`yān.
- 9. Sharḥ al-akhbār, vol. 3, part 15, p. 394, no. 1272.
- 10. Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 28, chap. 2, pp. 45–46, no. 8 and vol. 51, chap. 1, p. 68, no. 7, citing al-Amālī.
The wording of the tradition varies according to the manuscripts we have referred to. It is apparent from Biḥār al-anwār that the copy of al-Amālī which al-Majlisī possessed had the following wording: “His name is like my name and his father’s name is like my son’s name.” He has recorded the tradition in two places in Biḥār al-anwār citing al-Amālī with the aforementioned wording, just as the renowned traditionist al-Ḥurr al-`Āmilī has recorded it in Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 3, sect. 12, chap. 32, p. 518, no. 379, also citing al-Amālī. It has been recorded in Biḥār al-Anwār, vol. 37, chap. 52, pp. 191–193, no. 75, citing al-Ṭarā’if. The phrase, “his father’s name is like the name . . .” is not found in it. This is the same as the published copy of al-Ṭarā’if, p. 522, with the wording, “his name is like my name and he is from the descendants of my daughter.” It is also the same as al-Qundūzī al-Ḥanafī’s Yanābī`’ al-mawadda, chap. 145, pp. 135–136, citing Manāqib al-Khāwrazmī. In the new editions of al-Amālī, al-Manāqib al-Khāwrazmī, Kashf al-ghumma, and al-Ṭarā’if, the following wording is found: “and his father’s name is my father’s name”. Undoubtedly, even with all these copies, the veracity of neither phrase can be established. Based on strong conjecture, it can be said that the phrase “and his father’s name . . .” either did not exist at all in the tradition or it was originally: “and his father’s name is like my son’s name.” Some of the copy-writers have corrected it, considering it as an addition to the original tradition. This will be discussed in the twenty-second section under no. 568. Moreover, the sentence “and his father’s name is like my father’s name,” is rejected by a number of traditions which announce that the name of his father was al-Ḥasan. Thus, one cannot rely on this statement—regardless of its original wording—especially after the seeing the differences between the manuscripts.