The traditions that indicate he is the Successor of the Successor of (Imam) Abū l-Ḥasan and the son of (Imam) Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan, peace be on them
Comprised of 107 traditions
560. Al-Kāfī1: `Alī b. Muḥammad, from the one whom he mentioned, from Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-`Alawī, from Dāwūd b. al-Qāsim who said:
I heard Imam Abū l-Ḥasan, peace be on him, say, “My successor will be al-Ḥasan. What will be your condition regarding the successor of my successor?” I enquired, “May I be sacrificed for you! Why?” He replied, “Because you cannot see him and you are not allowed to mention his name.” I asked again, “Then how will we mention him?” He replied, “Say: The proof from the family of Muḥammad (al-ḥujja min āl Muḥammad), peace be on them.”
561. Kamāl al-dīn2: Narrated to us Aḥmad b. Muḥammad b. Yaḥyā al-`Aṭṭār, may Allah be satisfied with him, from Sa`d b. `Abd-Allah, from Mūsā b. Ja`far b. Wahb al-Baghdadi, from (Imam) Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. `Alī, peace be on him, who said:
[I am seeing the time] that you are disputing about my successor after me. Surely, the one who acknowledges the Imams after the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family, but denies my son, is like he who acknowledges all the Prophets of Allah and His Messengers but denies the prophethood of the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family.
He who denies the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family, is like he who denies all the Prophets of Allah; because the obedience of the last of us is like the obedience of the first of us and the denier of the last of us is like the denier of the first of us. My son will surely have an occultation in which the people will become doubtful except the ones whom Allah, Mighty and Majestic be He, has protected.
562. Kamāl al-dīn3: Narrated to us Muḥammad b. Ibrāhīm b. Isḥāq, may Allah be satisfied with him, from Abū `Alī b. Hammām, from Muḥammad b. Uthmān al-`Amrī, may Allah sanctify his soul, from his father who said:
Imam Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. `Alī, peace be on him, was questioned—while I was there—about a tradition narrated from his forefathers, peace be on them, that: The earth cannot be empty of Allah’s Proof (ḥujja) upon His creatures until the Day of Judgment and that he who dies without knowing the Imam of his time, has died the death of ignorance (al-jāhiliyya). The (Imam) replied, “Surely, this tradition is true just as daylight which is true.”
He was asked, “O Son of Allah’s Messenger! Who is the Proof and Imam after you?” He replied, “My son Muḥammad. He is the Imam and the Proof after me. Whoever dies without knowing him, will die the death of ignorance. Know that he will have an occultation in which the ignorant will be baffled, the skeptics will perish, and those who determine the time of his appearance will be liars. Then, he will emerge; as if I am seeing white flags waving over his head in the city of Najaf, near Kūfa.”
563. Yanābī` al-mawadda4: In al-Manāqib from Wāthila b. al-Asqa` b. Qarkhāb, from Jābir b. `Abd-Allah al-Anṣārī (in a tradition wherein he has mentioned the coming of Jandal b. Junādat b. Jubair—the Jew—to the Messenger of Allah, and him believing in Allah and His Messenger and the questions he asked the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family, and the answers he gave):
Jandal said, “Last night, I dreamt of Moses, son of `Imrān, peace be on him, who said, ‘O Jandal! Accept Islam at the hands of Muḥammad, the seal of the prophets and fasten to the heirs after him.’ I said, ‘I accepted Islam, all praise is for Allah. I have accepted Islam and He has guided me through you.’” Jandal continued, “O Messenger of Allah! Inform me of the heirs after you so that I can fasten to them.” He replied, “My successors are twelve.”
Jandal said, “This is exactly what we saw in the Torah. O Messenger of Allah! Name them for me.” He said, “The first of them is `Alī who is the master of the heirs and the father of the Imams. Then, his two sons, al-Ḥasan and al-Ḥusayn. Fasten to them and do not allow the ignorance of the ignorant to deceive you. When `Alī b. al-Ḥusayn—the Ornament of Worshippers (Zain al-`Ābidīn)—is born, Allah will bring your life to an end. Your last provision from this world will be some milk that you will drink.” Jandal replied, “We found in the Torah and in the books of the prophets, peace be upon them, (the names of) Īlīa, Shabbar, and Shabīr. These are the names of `Alī, al-Ḥasan, and al-Ḥusayn. Who are [the heirs] after al-Ḥusayn and what are their names?”
He said, “When the time of al-Ḥusayn comes to an end, the Imam will be his son `Alī. He will have the title Zain al-`Ābidīn. After him will be his son, Muḥammad, who will bear the title of al-Bāqir (the Splitter), followed by his son, al-Ja`far, who will be called al-Ṣādiq (the Truthful). He will be followed by his son Mūsā, who will be addressed as al-Kāẓim (the Restrainer of Anger). After him will be his son al-Riḍā (the Satisfied) followed by his son Muḥammad who will be called al-Taqī (the Pious) and al-Zakī (the Pure). After him will be his son `Alī who will bear the titles of al-Naqī and al-Hādī (the guide) followed by his son al-Ḥasan who will be called al-`Askarī.
Then, his son Muḥammad, who will be called al-Mahdī, al-Qā’im, and al-Ḥujja. He will go in occultation then he will emerge. When he emerges, he will fill the earth with fairness and justice just as it will be filled with injustice and unfairness. Salvation is for those who have patience during his occultation. Salvation is for those who are steadfast on their love. They are those whom Allah has described in His Book and said, ‘A guide for the pious; those who believe in the unseen.’5
He has also said, ‘They are the party of Allah; surely the party of Allah are the victorious.’6 Jandal said, “All praise is for Allah Who has made me successful in knowing them.” [Jandal] lived on until Imam `Alī b. al-Ḥusayn was born. He went to Ṭā’if where he fell ill. He drank some milk and said, “The Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be upon him and his family, informed me that my last provision in this world would be a drink of milk.” He then passed away and was buried at Ṭā’if in a place known as al-Kūzāra.
564. Kamāl al-dīn7: Narrated to us `Alī b. `Abd-Allah al-Warrāq, from Sa`d b. `Abd-Allah, from Aḥmad b. Isḥāq b. Sa`d al-Ash`arī who said:
I went to see (Imam) Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. `Alī, peace be on him, with the intention of asking him about his successor. Before I could ask he said, “O Aḥmad b. Isḥāq! Surely Allah, Blessed and High be He, has not left the earth empty of His Proof upon His creatures ever since He created Adam, peace be on him, and [He will not leave it empty of a proof] until the Hour is established. Through him, He repels the calamities from the inhabitants of the earth, through him He causes the rains to fall, and through him He brings out the blessings of the earth.”
I asked him, “O Son of Allah’s Messenger! Who is the Imam and the Caliph after you?” [On hearing this], the Imam stood up quickly and went inside the house. He returned, while on his shoulder was a boy whose face was [shining] like the full moon, and whose age was about three years. He said, “O Aḥmad b. Isḥāq! Was it not for your reverence before Allah, Mighty and Majestic be He, and his proofs, I would not have shown my son to you. His name and epithet are the same as that of the Messenger of Allah, Allah’s blessings be on him and his family. He is the one who will fill the earth with fairness and justice just as it will be filled with injustice and unfairness. His example in this nation is like that of Khiḍr, peace be on him; and his example is like that of Dhū l-Qarnain.
By Allah! He will certainly go in an occultation in which no one will be saved from destruction except for those whom Allah, Mighty and Majestic be He, has made steadfast in the belief of his Imamate and made them successful in praying for the hastening of his relief (bi-ta`jīl farajih).” I asked, “O Master! Is there a sign by which my heart will be assured?” Suddenly the young boy spoke in fluent Arabic: “I am the remnant of Allah on His earth and the one who will take revenge on His enemies. Don’t seek further evidence after you have witnessed with your eyes, O Aḥmad b. Isḥāq.”
I came out happily and gleefully. The next day I returned to him and said, “O Son of Allah’s Messenger! Indeed, I have become greatly joyful because of the great favor you bestowed upon me. What is the custom in him from Khiḍr and Dhū l-Qarnain?” He replied, “Prolonged occultation, O Aḥmad.” I asked, “O Son of Allah’s Messenger! Will his occultation really be prolonged?”
He replied, “Yes, by my Lord! His occultation will be prolonged to such an extent that most of those who believe in this affair will reject it. No one will remain [on this affair] except those from whom Allah, Mighty and Majestic be He, has taken the covenant of our Guardianship, written belief in their heart, and assisted them with a Spirit from Himself. O Aḥmad b. Isḥāq! This is an affair from the affairs of Allah, a secret from His secrets, and a concealed [news] from His concealed [news]. Take what I have given you and conceal it. Be grateful and tomorrow, you will be with us in the highest positions (`illīyīn).”
565. Tārīkh mawālīd Ahl al-Bait (by ibn al-Khashshāb)8: Narrated to us Ṣadaqat b. Mūsā, from his father, from (Imam) al-Riḍā, peace be on him, that, “The Righteous Successor (al-khalaf al-ṣāliḥ) is the son of Abū Muḥammad al-Ḥasan b. `Alī. He is the Master of the Time and he is the Mahdī.”
566. Al-Kāfī9: `Alī b. Muḥammad, from Muḥammad b. `Alī b. Bilāl: “A messenger from (Imam) Abū Muḥammad, peace be on him, came to me—two years before he passed away—to inform me about his successor after him; then, again, a messenger came to me three days before his death to inform me about his successor after him.”
567. Al-Kharā’ij10: `Alī b. Ibrāhīm b. Hāshim, from his father, from `Īsā b. Masīḥ who said: “(Imam) al-Ḥasan al-`Askarī, peace be on him, came to see us while we were imprisoned—and I was aware of his position [of Imamate]. He said to me, ‘You are sixty-five years one month and two days old.’ I had a prayer book with me in which my birth-date was recorded. I looked at it and it was exactly as he had said. He asked, ‘Do you have a son?’ I replied in the negative. He invoked Allah, ‘O Allah! Grant him a son who will be a support for him. How good a support is a son!’ Then, he recited:
Whoever has a support will achieve his rights
Humble is he who does not have any support
I asked, ‘Do you have a son?’ He replied, ‘Yes, by Allah! Soon I will have a son who will fill the earth with fairness and justice, but as of now, no.’
The traditions with the following numbers also show the aforementioned concept: 242–308, 558, 559, 568–571, 608, 641, 786–807, 859, and 1230.
- 1. Al-Kāfī, vol. 1, chap. 133, p. 328, no. 13, and chap. 136, pp. 332–33, no. 1; Kamāl al-dīn, vol. 2, chap. 37, p. 381, no. 5. He said: “Narrated to us Muḥammad b. al-Ḥasan, may Allah be satisfied with him, from Sa`d b. `Abd-Allah, from Abū Ja`far Muḥammad b. Aḥmad al-`Alawī, from Abū Hāshim Dāwūd b. al-Qāsim al-Ja`farī, from Abū l-Ḥasan al-`Askarī, peace be on him, who said, ‘My successor after me will be my son al-Ḥasan . . . (to the end)’” with a minor difference; `Ilal al-sharā’i`, chap. 179, p. 254, no. 5; Ghaybat al-Shaykh, p. 202, no. 169, the same as Kamāl al-dīn; Kifāyat al-athar, chap. 38, pp. 288–289, no. 2; al-Irshād, p. 376; I`lām al-warā, chap. 2, sect. 2; Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 3, chap. 30, sect. 1, p. 393, no. 15; al-Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm, vol. 2, chap. 10, p. 170, and chap. 11, sect. 3, p. 231; Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, chap. 2, p. 240, no. 5, and vol. 51, chap. 3, p. 31, no. 2, and chap. 9, pp. 158–159, no. 1; Ithbāt al-waṣiyya, p. 186; Taqrīb al-ma`ārif, pp. 184 & 192; Mir`āt al-`uqūl, vol. 3, p. 393; Rauḍat al-wā`iẓīn, p. 262; al-Wāfī, vol. 2, chap. 45, p. 403, no. 903-1; Mustadrak al-wasā’il, vol. 12, p. 281, no. 5; `Uyūn al-mu`jizāt, p. 141; Kashf al-ghumma, p. 406; al-Wasā’il, vol. 16, chap. 33, p. 239, no. 21458.
- 2. Kamāl al-dīn, vol. 2, chap. 38, p. 409, no. 8; Kifāyat al-athar, chap. 39, pp. 295–296, no. 5; Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 51, chap. 9, p. 160, no. 6; al-Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm, vol. 2, chap. 11, sect. 2, p. 232; Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 3, chap. 32, p. 482, no. 188.
- 3. Kamāl al-dīn, vol. 2, chap. 38, p. 409, no. 9; Kifāyat al-athar, chap. 39, p. 296, no. 6; Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 51, chap. 9, p. 160, no. 7; al-Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm, vol. 2, chap. 11, sect. 2, p. 232; Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 3, chap. 32, p. 482, no. 189.
- 4. Yanābī`’ al-mawadda, chap. 76, pp. 442–443. Ibn Qarkhāb which has been mentioned in it is probably incorrect and was originally Abū Qarṣāfa which is the epithet of Wāthila; Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 36, chap. 41, pp. 304–306, no. 144; Kifāyat al-athar, chap. 7, pp. 56–61, no. 2.
I say: In the copy of Kifāyat al-athar that is available to us, there are some parts missing in the tradition although they don’t affect the overall concept. Al-Majlisī has explained it as a mistake made by the scribe. This justification does not seem appropriate because the version in Yanābī` does not have this problem.
Tabyīn al-maḥajja ilā ta`yīn al-Ḥujja, pp. 261–264;
In al-Maḥajja, he has recorded a part under the tradition on p. 17, but he has narrated it from ibn Bābawayh. I could not find it in any of ibn Bābawayh’s books that are available to us. Maybe, he had thought that Kifāyat al-athar was authored by al-Ṣadūq.
There is an error in Yanābī` regarding the verse, “They are the party of Allah, know that surely the party of Allah are the successful ones.” It has been recorded correctly in Kifāyat al-athar—which is one of the primary references of this tradition that is available to us—and also in Biḥār al-anwār and other sources. Thus, the tradition should be corrected in accordance with these sources. In Kifāyat al-athar, Biḥār al-anwār, and all other books that we referred to except Yanābī`, it has been recorded as Jundab (not Jandal) b. Junāda who was a Jew from Khaibar. Also in al-Kifāya and the other books— except al-Yanābī`—it has been explicitly mentioned that it is prohibited to say his name: “Then, their Imam will become concealed from them. He asked, ‘O Messenger of Allah! Is he al-Ḥasan?’ He replied, ‘No, it is his son, al-Ḥujja.’ He questioned, ‘O Messenger of Allah! What is his name?’ He answered, ‘His name should not be mentioned until Allah makes him appear . . .” It also has other additions.
- 5. Quran 2:4-5.
- 6. Quran 5:56.
- 7. Kamāl al-dīn, vol. 2, chap. 38, pp. 384–385, no. 1; Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, chap. 2, sect. 3, p. 526, no. 1; Yanābī` al-mawadda, chap. 81, p. 458; Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 52, chap. 18, pp. 23–24, no. 16; I`lām al-warā, chap. 2, sect. 3; al-Ṣirāṭ al-mustaqīm, vol. 2, sect. 3, chap. 11, pp. 231–232; Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 3, chap. 32, pp. 479–480, no. 180.
- 8. Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 475; Yanābī` al-mawadda, p. 491, chap. 94.
- 9. Al-Kāfī, vol. 1, chap. 134, p. 328, no. 1; al-Wāfī, vol. 2, chap. 42, pp. 391–392, no. 880–1; Mir`āt al-`uqūl, vol. 4, chap. 134, p. 1, no. 1; al-Irshād, p. 375; I`lām al-warā, chap. 2, sect. 3.
- 10. Al-Kharā’ij, chap. 13, p. 72, no. 17; Kashf al-ghumma, vol. 2, p. 503; Biḥār al-anwār, vol. 50, chap. 37, pp. 275–276, no. 48, and vol. 51, chap. 10, p. 162, no. 15; Wasā’il al-Shī`a, vol. 21, chap. 3, pp. 360–361, no. 27302; Ithbāt al-hudāt, vol. 2, chap. 31, p. 422, no. 78. In all references except Kashf al-ghumma, ‘`Īsā b. Ṣabīḥ’ has been recorded instead of ‘`Īsā b. Masīḥ’. In Kashf al-ghumma, ‘`Īsā b. Shaj’ has been used.