Chapter 9: Precedence Of The Shi’ah In Compiling Islamic History
The first to write about Islamic history was Hawaban ibn Uthman al–Ahmar, a tabi’i who died in 140. He wrote a voluminous book on pre–Islamic history, military expeditions, deaths and the issue of apostasy, as al–Najashi informs us in Kitab Asma al–Musannifin min al–Shi’ah. He says that al–Ahmar was a Nawusi before but he later joined the Imamiyyah Shi’ah. He devoted himself to Imam Abu Abdillah al–Sadiq (‘a). He was from Basra and a client of the Bajilah tribe but he lived in Kufa. He wrote a number of works.
The first to write about all its eight categories is Hisham ibn Muhammad ibn al–Sa’ib ibn Bishr ibn Zayd Abu al–Munzir al–Kalbi.
The first is on pacts.
He wrote Kitab Hilf Abdul Muttalib wa Khuza’ (The Pact between Abdul Muttalib and the Tribe of Khuza’a), Kitab Hilf al–Fudul wa Qissat al–Ghazal (The Pact of Fudul), Kitab Hilf Kalb wa Tamim (The Pact Signed by the Tribes of Kalb and Tamim), Kitab al–Ma’ram and Kitab hilf Aslam wa Quraysh (On the Pact between Aslam and Quraysh).
The second is on history of exploits, families, conflicts and concord.
He wrote Kitab al–Munafarat (conflicts); Kitab Buyutat Quraysh (families of the Quraysh); Kitab Fada’il Qays Ghaylan, (on the merits of this tribe); Kitab al–Mawaddat (concord), Kitab Buyutat Rabi’a; Kitab al–Kuna (agnomens); Kitab Akhbar al–Abbas ibn Abd al–Muttalib (Stories about Abbas ibn Abd al–Muttalib); Kitab Khutbat Ali alaihi al–salam (Sermons of Imam Ali); Kitab Sharaf Qays ibn Kilab wa Wuldih fi al–Jahiliyya wa al–Islam (the high rank of Qays ibn Kilab and his offspring before and after the advent of Islam); Kitab Alqab Rabi’a; Kitab Alqab al–Yaman, (these two books deal with surnames related to the Rabia tribe and to Yemen); Kitab al–Mathalib; Kitab al–Nawafil (Book of allies) comprising allies of Quraysh, allies of Kinanah, allies of Asad, allies of Taym and allies of Rabi’ah; Book on Enumerating the people killed from among the Ad, the Thamud, the Amalekites, the Israelites and the Jurhum Arabs, and the story of al–Hijris and the names of their tribes; Allies of Qada’ah and Allies of Yamen.
Others include Kitab Iddi’a Ziyad Mu’awiyah (About Muawiyah’s claim that Ziyad was his son), the stories of Ziyad ibn Abih (literally: son of his father); Kitab Sanayi’ Quraysh (The industries of Quraysh); Kitab al–Mushajarat (Disputes); Kitab al–Munaqalat (Wrangles); Kitab al–Mu’a’tabat (Mutual Reproach); Kitab al–Mushaghabat (Strifes); Kitab Muluk Kindah (Book of the Kings of Kindah), Kitab Buyutat al–Yaman, Kitab Muluk al–Yaman min al–Tababi’a (Kings of Yemen from the tribe of Tababi’a), Kitab Iftiraq wuld Nazzar (Book of the Dispersion of Nazzar’s offspring), Kitab Tafarraq Udad wa Tasm wa Jadis (Book on the Dispersion of the tribes of Udad, Tasm and Jadis), Kitab Man Qala Baytan min Shi’r fa Nusiba ilaih (Those who composed poetry) and Kitab al–Ma’rufat min al–Nisa fi Quraysh (Famous Women of Quraysh).
The third is on the stories of the people of the past.
On this subject Abu al–Mundhir wrote: Kitab Hadith Adam wa Wuldih (Book of the story of Adam and his descendants), Kitab Adin Al’ula wa al–Akhirah (Book on the people of Ad: the earlier and the later ones) Kitab Tafarruq Ad, Kitab Ashab al–Kahf (on the sleepers of the cave), Kitab Raf’ Isa (The ascension of Jesus, (‘a), Kitab al–Musukh min Bani Isra’il (Book of transmutations from the Israelites), Kitab al–Awa’il (Book of the predecessors), Kitab Amthal Himyar (Book of parables of Himyar Tribe), Kitab Hay al–Dahhak (Book of the al–Dahhak Tribe), Kitab Mantiq al–Tayr (Book of the Speech of Birds), Kitab Ghaziyyah (Book of Ghaziyyah Tribe), Kitab Lughat al–Qur’an (Book of the Qur’anic Terms), Kitab al–Mu’ammarin (Book of those Granted Longevity), Kitab al–Asnam (Book of Idols), Kitab al–Qidah (Book of Divining Arrows), Kitab Asnan al–Jazur (Book of the Feed of Slaughter Camels), Kitab Adyan al–Arab (Book of the Religions of the Arabs), Kitab Hukkam al–Arab (Book of the Arab Rulers), Kitab Wasaya al–Arab (Book of the Testaments of the Arabs), Kitab Suyuf al–Arab (book of Arabian swords), Kitab al–Khail (Book of Horses), Kitab al–Dafa’in (Book of Arab Treasures), Kitab Asma Fuhul al–Arab (Book of Arab Luminaries), Kitab al–Fida' (Book of Redemption), Kitab al–Kihan (Book of Priests), Kitab al–Jinn (Book of the jinn), Kitab Akhdh Kisra Rahn al–Arab (Book concerning Chosroe’s taking of Hostages from the Arabs), Kitab ma Kanat al–Jahiliyyah Taf’aluh wa Yuwafiq Hukm al–Islam (On pre–Islamic Customs that Conform with Islamic Law) Kitab Abi Utab Rabi’ Hina Sa’alahu an al–Wasiy, Kitab Adiy ibn Zayd al–Ibadi, Kitab al–Dusi, Kitab Hadith Bihas wa Ikhwatih (Book of Bihas and his Brothers), Kitab Marwan al–Qarat and Kitab al–Suyuf (Book of Swords).
The fourth category is on the history of the period preceding the advent of Islam.
In this field Hisham wrote Kitab al–Yaman wa Amr Sayf (Book of Yemen and the Affair of Sayf), Kitab Manakih Azwaj al–Arab (Book on Arab Marriages), Kitab al–Wufud (Book of Delegations), Kitab Azwaj al–Nabi (S) (Book of the Prophet’s Wives), Kitab Zayd ibn Harithah Hibb al–Nabi (Book on Zayd ibn Haritha the Beloved of the Prophet), Kitab al–Dibaj fi Akhbar al–Shu’ara (Book of Preamble on the Stories of the Poets), Kitab Man Fakhara bi Akhwalih min Quraysh (Book of Those among the Quraysh who took Pride in their Maternal Uncles), Kitab Man Hajar wa Abuh (Book on him who Migrated along with his Father), Kitab Akhbar al–Hurr wa Ash’arih (Book on the Stories of Hurr and his Poems), Kitab Dukhul Jarir ala al–Hajjaj (Book Recounting Jarir’s call on al–Hajjaj) and Kitab Akhbar Amr bin Ma’di Karib (Book of the stories of Amr ibn Ma’di Karib).
The fifth is on Islamic chronicles.
Hisham compiled Kitab al–Tarikh (Book of History), Kitab Tarikh Akhbar al–Khulafa (Book of the History of the Caliphs), Kitab Sifat al–Khulafa (Book on the Characters of the Caliphs) and Kitab al–Musallin (Book of Worshipers).
The sixth is on the history of cities.
He wrote Kitab al–Buldan al–Kabir (A Major Book of Cities), Kitab al–Buldan al–Saghir (A Minor Book of Cities), Kitab Tasmiyat man bi al–Hijaz min Ahya' al–Arab (Enumerating Arab Tribes in the Hijaz), Kitab Tasmiyat al–Aradi (Book on Naming the Lands), Kitab al–Anhar (Book of Rivers), Kitab al–Hira (Book on the Town of Hira), Kitab al–Aqalim (Book of Regions), Kitab al–Hirat wa Tasmiyat al–Biya’ wa al–Diyarat wa Nasab al–Ibadin (Book of Hira and the Enumeration of the Churches and Monasteries and geneology of the Ibad Tribes).
The seventh is on the history of poetry and historical events of the Arabs before the advent of Islam. In this field Hisham compiled Kitab Tasmiyat ma fi Shi’r Imri ul–Qays. (Naming the men and women and their lineages and also the lands, mountains and waters mentioned in the poetry of Imri ul–Qays), Kitab Man Qala Baytan min al–Shi’r fa Nusiba ilaih (The names of those who composed poetry), Kitab al–Mundhir Malik al–Arab (Book on al–Mundhir, King of the Arabs), Kitab Dahis wa al–Ghabra, Kitab Ayyam Fazarah wa Waqayi’i Bani Shayban (Book on the Era of Fazarah and the events of the Banu Shayban clan), Kitab Waqayi’ al–Dabab wa Fazarah, Kitab Yawm Sinyu Kitab al–Kilab, (Book of al–Kilab) which is also referred to as the day of al–Sanabis, Kitab Ayyam Bani Hanifa, Kitab Ayyam Qays ibn Thu’labah (Book of the era of Qays ibn Thalabah), Kitab al–Ayyam (Book of Historical Events) and Kitab Musaylamah al–Kadhdhab (Book on Musaylimah the Arch–lier).
The eighth is on the history of stories and evening chats.
He wrote Kitab al–Fityan al–Arba’a (Book of the Four Youths), Kitab al–Samar (Book of Nightly Conversations), Kitab al–Ahadith (Book of Narrations), Kitab al–Muqatta’at, Kitab Habib al–Attar and Kitab Aja’ib al–Bahr (Book of the Mysteries of the Sea).
This is how Ibn al–Nadim recorded Hisham’s works in Al–Fihrist, quoting from Abu al–Hasan ibn al–Kufi. As regards Hisham’s profound knowledge of geonology and the fact that he wrote unique works on it, the matter is too obvious to warrant mention. About this man, Ibn Khillikan says: “He was the most knowledgeable in genealogies and among the celebrated custodians (huffaz) of learning. Al–Dhahabi said: “He memorized the holy Qur'an in three days. He was a traditionist of great learning. He died in the year 206.”
Ibn Khillikan also said: “His (Hisham) works are more than a hundred and fifty, the best and most useful of which are the following; Al–Jamharah fi Ma’rifat al–Ansab a work on genealogy which is the best of its kind; the book he named Al–Manzil fi al–Nasab, which is larger than Al–Jamharah; Kitab al–Mujaz fi al–Nasab; Kitab al–Farid, which he compiled for al–Ma’mun and Al–Muluki, which he wrote for Ja’far ibn Yahya al–Barmaki. The last two were also about geneology.”
In addition to these he wrote Jamharat al–Jamharah related by Ibn Sa’ad, as recorded in of Ibn al–Nadim's Al–Fihrist.
We have already seen that Hisham ibn Muhammad al–Kalbi, a disciple of Imam al–Baqir has written Kitab al–Aqalim (On Regions), Kitab al–Buldan al–Kabir and Kitab al–Buldan al–Saghir, Kitab Tasmiyat al–Aradin, Kitab al–Anhar, Kitab al–Hira, Kitab Manazil al–Yaman (Book of Yemeni Houses), Kitab al–Aja’ib al–Arba’ah (Book of the Four Wonders), Kitab Aswaq al–Arab (Book of Arabian Markets) and Kitab al–Hira wa Tasmiyat al–Biya’ wa al–Diyarat (Book of the City of al–Hira and the Enumeration of its Churches and Monasteries). This is all mentioned by Ibn al–Nadim under the section on al–Kalbi’s works in Al–Fihrist, as we are aware. It is therefore, rather amazing that al–Hamwi had only this to say about Hisham in his Mu’jam al–Buldan: “And Hisham ibn Muhammad al–Kalbi: I know a book of his with the title Ishtiqaq al–Buldan” although he claims to have explored the whole range of Muslim geographers who sought to name the lands and kingdoms and mention the distances along roads and highways. All the people he mentioned came after Hisham ibn Muhammad al–Kalbi.
The men of letters who sought to list different regions of Arabia including Bedouin settlements hardly faired any better. This fact could not have been hidden from people like al–Hamwi and it is out of the question that he might have meant that he mentioned only the works he saw. This is because al–Hamawi said in another passage, “And Abu Sa’id al–Sayrafi: I heard that he had a book on the Arabian peninsular.”
In addition, he explicitly names other books on this subject that he saw while ignoring (due to his bias?) a number of works by Shi’ah scholars, such as Kitab al–Aradin and Kitab al–Buldan which are written by Abu Jafar Muhammad ibn Khalid al–Barqi who was a disciple of Imam al–Kazim, -’aIbn al–Nadim observes in Al–Fihrist that the latter’s son, Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid also had a work with the title Kitab al–Buldan and noted that it was larger than his father’s.
Other works on geography by Shi'ah authors include: Kitab al–Buldan written by al–Yaqubi who died circa 278 A. H. It is printed in Leiden. Kitab al–Kharaj (Book of Land Tax) written by Qudamah ibn Ja’far al–Katib who died in 310. It is also printed in Leiden. Kitab Asma al–Jibal wa al–Miyah wa al–Awdiyah a work of Hamdun, the teacher of Taghlib and Ibn al–A’rabi who were second century scholars.
Besides these we have Kitab al–Adriyah wa al–A’mal fi al–Buldan wa al–Aqtar (Book of Homelands and Provinces of Countries and Regions). It is a large book. Thirty odd homelands and provinces are enumerated in it. The author of this work was Abu al–Hasan al–Simsati, the grammarian who was the master of our companions in the Arabian peninsular during the third century; Al–Masalik wa al–Mamalik (Routes and Kingdoms) written by al–Mas’udi, Ali ibn al–Hasan (d. 346); and lastly, Kitab al–Diyarat (Book of Localities), a sizeable work also written by Abu al–Hasan Ali ibn Muhammad al–Simsati.
Ibn al–Nadim says “I read this testimony which is written in Ahmad ibn al–Harith al–Khuza’i’s hand: The scholars have said that Abu Mikhnaf wrote about Iraq and its annals and conquest more than any other scholar. Al–Mada'ini enjoyed a similar position as regards Khurasan, India and Persia while al–Waqidi was the most prolific writer on the Arabian Peninsular and biographies. The last two shared the credit of writing about the conquests of Syria.”
Among these writers, Abu Mikhnaf and al–Waqidi were Shi’ah. We have already seen Ibn Khalikan’s remark that Hisham ibn Muhammad al–Kalbi was the most learned in genealogies and his life history has also been mentioned. Now we will recount the biographies of Abu Mikhnaf, al–Waqidi and other similar personalities who surpassed others.
Abu Mikhnaf al–Azdi al–Ghamidi, the master of traditionists in Kufa was among the Shi’ah and one of their eminent personalities. His full name was Lut ibn Yahya ibn Sa’id ibn Mikhnaf ibn Salim (or Sulayman or Salim) [the first Salim with a long vowel after the ‘s’]. His father, Yahya was a companion of the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) and his grandfather Mikhnaf was a Companion of the Holy Prophet (may Allah bless him and his Household) and also narrated from him. After the demise of the Messenger of Allah he joined the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) and was the standard bearer of the tribe of Azd in the battle of Siffin. He was martyred in Ayn al–Wardah in the year 64 A. H., as related in Al–Taqrib.
Abu Mikhnaf himself narrated from Imam al–Sadiq (‘a) and it is said that he narrated from Imam al–Baqir too but scholars do not support this claim. Those who regard him as a disciple of the Commander of the Faithful (‘a) are in fact mistaken, for he has never met him. His works include Kitab al–Riddah (Book of Apostasy), Kitab Futuh al–Sham (Book of the Conquests of Syria), Kitab Futuh al–Iraq (Book of the conquests of Iraq), Kitab al–Jamal (Book of the Battle of the Camel), Kitab Siffin (Book of the Battle of Siffin), Kitab Ahl al–Nahrawan wa al–Khawarij, Kitab al–Gharat (Book of Raids), Kitab al–Harth ibn Rashid wa Bani Najiyah (Book of al–Harth ibn Rashid and the Tribe of Banu Najiyah), Kitab Maqtal Ali (a. s) (Book on the Assassination of Ali, -’a), Kitab Maqtal Hijr ibn Adiy (The mudering of Hijr ibn Adiy), Kitab Maqtal Muhammad ibn Abi Bakr wa al–Ashtar wa Muhammad ibn Abi Huzayfah, Kitab al–Shura wa Maqtal Uthman (On the Electoral Council appointed by Umar ibn al–Khattab and the Assassination of Uthman), Kitab al–Mustawrad ibn Alqamah, Kitab Maqtal al–Husayn (a. s) (Book of Martyrdom of al–Husayn (‘a) Kitab Wafat Mu'awiyah wa Wilayat Ibnii Yazid wa Waq’at al–Harrah wa Hisar ibn al–Zubayr (Book of Mu’awiyah’s Death, the Rule of Yazid, attack on Medina and the Besieging of Ibn al–Zubayr), Kitab al–Mukhtar ibn Abi Ubaydah, Kitab Sulayman ibn Sard wa Ayn al–Wardah, Kitab Maraj Rahit wa bay’at Marwan wa Maqtal al–Dahhak ibn Qays (Book of Marj Rahit, the Oath of Fealty to Marwan and the Murder of al–Dahhak ibn Qays), Kitab Mus’ab wa Wilayat al–Iraq (Musab and the Governorship of Iraq), Kitab Maqtal Abdillah ibn al–Zubayr (Book of the Killing of Abdullah ibn Zubayr), Kitab Maqtal Sa’id ibn al–As (Book of the Killing of Sa’id ibn al–As), Kitab Hadith Bakhamri aw Maqtal Ibn Al–Ash'ath (Book on the Story of Bakhamri or the Killing of Ibn al–Ash’ath), Kitab Bilal al–Khariji (Book on Bilal, the Kharijite), Kitab Najadat Abu Fil (Book of the Bravery of Abu Fil), Kitab Hadith al–Adhariqah (Book of the Story of the Adhariqah (a branch of the Kharijites), Kitab Hadith Rustaqbadh (Book of the Story of Rustaqbadh), Kitab Shabib al–Khariji wa Salih ibn Musarrih (Book of Shabib the Kharijite and Salih ibn Musarrih), Kitab Mutarraf ibn al–Mu'aymir (Book of Mutarraf ibn al–Mu’aymir), Kitab Dayr al–Jamajim wa Khal' Abd al–Rahman ibn al–Ash'ath (Book of the Monastery of Skulls and the Deposing of Abdurrahman ibn al–Ash’ath), Kitab Yazid ibn al–Muhallab wa Maqtalih bi al–Aqr (Book on Yazid ibn al–Mahlab and His Murder at al–Aqr), Kitab Khalid ibn Abd Allah al–Qaysari wa Yusuf ibn Hisham wa Wilayat al–Walid (Book on Khalid ibn Abdullah al–Qaysari and Yusuf ibn Hisham and the Rule of al–Walid), Kitab Yahya (Book on Yahya), Kitab al–Dahhak al–Khariji (Book on al–Dahhak, the Kharijite), Kitab Khitbat al–Zahra' li Amir al–Muminin (a. s. )(Book on the Betrothal of al–Zahra to the Commander of the Faithful (‘a)), Kitab Futuhat al–Islam (Book of Islamic Conquests), Kitab Akhbar Ibn al–Hanafiyyah (Book of the Stories of Ibn al–Hanafiyyah), Kitab Akhbar Ziyad (Book of the Reports on Ziyad), Kitab Maqtal Hasan al–Sibt (Book on the Murder of al–Hasan al–Sibt), Kitab Akhbar al–Hajjaj (Book on the Reports of al–Hajjaj), Kitab Futuh Khurasan (Book of the Conquests of Khorasan), Kitab al–Hakamayn (Book of the Two Arbitrators ) and Kitab Al Mikhnaf ibn Sulaym (Book of the Family of Mikhnaf ibn Sulayman).
The next is al–Waqidi whose full name was Abu Abdullah Muhammad ibn Umar, a client of the Aslams, decendants of Sahm ibn Aslam. He was a Madinite but he moved to Baghdad and took up the position of judge in the service of al–Ma'mun at the camp of al–Mahdi. He was learned on military expeditions, biographies and conquests and he was also acquainted with the differences among the scholars in hadith and jurisprudence, laws and reports, akhbar. Ibn al–Nadim says: “He was a Shi'ah of good orientation who kept to dissimulation, taqiyyah” and adds, “he was the one who related that Ali (‘a) was one of the miracles of the Holy Prophet (‘a) similar to the staff of Moses and raising of the dead by Jesus the son of Mary (peace be on them) and other such reports”.
Al–Waqidi was born in the month of Zul al–Hijjah in 103 and died on the evening of Monday the 19th of Zu al–Hijjah 207A. H. His works include: Kitab al–Tarikh wa al–Maghazi wa al–Mab'ath (Book of History, Military Expeditions and the Commissioning of the Holy Prophet) Kitab Akhbar Makka, Kitab al–Tabaqat, Kitab Futuh Sham (Book on the Conquests of Syria), Kitab Futuh al–Qur'an (Book of Conquests Mentioned in the Qur'an), Kitab al–Jamal (Book of the Battle of the Camel), Kitab Maqtal al–Husayn a. s. (Book on the Martyrdom of Husayn (‘a), Kitab al–Sira (Book of Biography), Kitab Azwaj al–Nabiy (Book of the Wives of the Holy Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household), Kitab al–Riddah (Book of Apostasy), Kitab Harb al–Aws wa al–Khazraj (Book of the War Between al–Aus and al–Khazraj), Kitab Siffin (Book on the Battle of Siffin), Kitab Wafat al–Nabiy (Book on the Death of the Prophet, peace and be on him and his Household), Kitab Amr al–Habashah wa al–Fil (Book on the Affair of Ethiopia and the Elephant), Kitab al–Manakih (Book on Marriages), Kitab al–Saqifah wa Bay'at Abi Bakr (Book of the Pavilion (Saqifah) and the Oath of Fealty to Abu Bakr), Kitab Dhikr al–Qur'an (Book on the Qur'an), Kitab Sirat Abi Bakr wa Wafatih (Book on the Biography of Abu Bakr and his Death) Kitab Mada'i' Quraysh wa al–Ansar fi al–Qatai' wa Wad' 'Umar al–Dawawin wa Tasnif al–Qaba'il wa Maratibiha wa Ansabiha (Book of Land Claims of Quraysh and the Ansar and Umar’s act of introducing dawawin i. e. a system of financial administration that involves the registration of the members of tribes, their positions and genealogies), Kitab al–Raghib fi al–Ulum al–Qur'an wa Ghalt al–Rijal (Book on what is desired in Qur’anic science and pointing out the errors of the people), Kitab Mawlid al–Hasan wa al–Husayn wa Maqtal al–Husayn (Book of the Birth of al–Hasan and al–Husayn and the Martyrdom of al–Husayn), Kitab Darb al–Dananir wa al–Darahim (Book of Minting Dinars and Dirhams), Kitab Tarikh al–Fuqaha' (Book of the History of Jurists), Kitab al–Adab (Book of Arts), Kitab al–Tarikh (Book of History), Kitab Ghalt al–Hadith (Book on Errors in the hadith), Kitab al–Sunnah wa al–Jama'ah wa Damm al–Hawa wa Tark al–Khuruj fi al–Fitan (Book of Tradition and the Community, censuring dissenting tendencies and desisting from rebellion), Kitab al–Ikhtilaf which is a book on disputes that comprises the disagreement between the people of Medina and those of Kufa on the right of pre–emption (shuf’ah), charity, the right of al–umra (where a person transfers the ownership of a house to another person with the condition that whoever among the two dies first the property reverts to his family) and al–ruqba (similar to al–umra but on the death of the grantor the property is owned by the grantee and, in case the grantee dies first, it reverts to the grantor), deposits, loans, articles of merchandise, mudharaba contracts (partnership between capital and labour), usurpation, theft, fixed punishments (hudud) and testimony. This book is arranged according to the order of topics in the books of jurisprudence.
Ibn al–Nadim says “Al–Waqidi left behind six hundred receptacles of books, qimtar, each of which was the load of two men. He had two slaves writing day and night and before that two thousand dinar worth of books were sold to him.”
Another scholar is Ahmad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalid al–Barqi, author of Al–Mahasin and master of the science of hadith and written works, athar. There are many works to his credit. Those that pertain to this section are Kitab al–Tabaqat (Book of Ranks), Kitab al–Tarikh (Book of History), Kitab al–Rijal (Book of Narrators), Kitab al–Shi'r wa al–Shu'ara' (Book of Poetry and Poets), Kitab al–Aradin (Book of Lands), Kitab al–Buldan (Book of Towns), Kitab al–Jamal (Book of (the Battle of) the Camel), Kitab al–Magazi (Book of Military Expeditions), Kitab al–Ta'azi (Book of Condolences) and Kitab al–Tahani (Book of Felicitations). Al–Najashi has explored his writings in his book Asma al–musanifin min al–Shi’ah. He died in 274 and, according to another version in 280.
Among them was Nasr ibn Muzahim al–Minqiri Abu al–Fadl al–Kufi, master of the scholars on annals and military expeditions. He related on the authority of Abu Mikhnaf Lut ibn Yahya and was in the same category with him, as reported by Ibn al–Nadim in Al–Fihrist. He wrote Kitab al–Jamal (Book on the Battle of the Camel), Kitab Siffin (Book on the Battle of Siffin (which is printed in Iran), Kitab Maqtal al–Husayn a.s.(Book on the Martyrdom of Husayn, -’a), Kitab 'Ayn al–Wardah (Book of Ayn al–Wardah), Kitab Akhbar Mukhtar ibn Abi Ubaydah (Book on the Stories of al–Mukhtar ibn Abi Ubaydah), Kitab al–Manaqib (Book of Merits), Kitab al–Nahrawan (Book of al–Nahrawan), Kitab al–Gharat (Book of Raids), Kitab Akhbar Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Tabataba wa Abi al–Saraya (Book on the Stories of Muhammad ibn Ibrahim Tabataba and Abu al–Sarayah) and Kitab Maqtal Hujr ibn 'Adiy (Book of the Murder of Hujr ibn Adiy).
Ibrahim ibn Muhammad ibn Sa’ad ibn Hilal ibn Asim ibn Sa’ad ibn Mas’ud al–Thaqafi al–Kufi. He was formerly a Zaydi and later joined us and upheld the belief of the Twelver Shi’ah. He died in 283. He was a master of the annals in his time and wrote a number of books among which are Kitab al–Maghazi (Book of Military expeditions), Kitab al–Saqifah (Book of the Pavilion), Kitab al–Riddah (Book of Apostasy), Kitab Maqtal Uthman (Book on the Assassination of Uthman), Kitab al–Shura (Book on the Council), Kitab Bay'at Amir al–Muminin Ali a.s. (Book of Fealty to the Commander of the Faithful Ali, -’a), Kitab al–Jamal (Book of the Camel), Kitab Siffin (Book of Siffin), Kitab al–Hakamayn (Book of the Two Arbitrators), Kitab al–Nahr (Book of Reproach), Kitab al–Gharat (Book of Raids), Kitab Maqtal Amir al–Muminin a.s. (Book on the Assassination of the Commander of the Faithful, -’a), Kitab Rasa'il Amir al–Muminin a.s. wa Akhbaruh wa Hurubuh (Book of the Letters, Stories and Wars of the Commander of the Faithful, -’a), Kitab Qiyam al–Hasan ibn Ali (Book of the Uprising of al–Hasan ibn Ali), Kitab Maqtal al–Husayn a.s. (Book on Martyrdom of al–Husayn, -’a), Kitab al–Tawwabin wa 'Ayn al–Wardah (Book of the Penitents and Ayn al–Wardah), Kitab al–Sara'ir (Book of Secrets), Kitab al–Mawaddat fi Dhi al–Qurba (Book of Love for the Next of Kin–the kin of the Holy Prophet), Kitab al–Ma'rifah (Book of Understanding), Kitab al–Hawd wa al–Shafa'ah (Book of the Pool and Intercession), Kitab al–Jami' al–Kabir (The Large Comprehensive Book on Jurisprudence), Kitab al–Jami' al–Saghir (The Small Comprehensive Book), Kitab Ma Nazala fi al–Qur'an fi Amir al–Muminin (Book on what is revealed in the Qur’an concerning the Commander of the Faithful), Kitab Fadl al–Kufah wa Man Nazalaha min al–Sahabah (Book of the Merits of Kufa and the Companions who took up residence there), Kitab al–Imamah al–Kabir (A Large Book on Leadership), Kitab al–Imamah al–Saghir (A Short Book on Leadership), Kitab al–Jana'iz (Book on Funerals), Kitab al–Wasiyyah (Book of Will), Kitab al–Mubtada' (Book of Beginning), Kitab Akhbar 'Umar (Book of the Stories of Umar), Kitab Akhbar Uthman (Book of the Stories of Uthman), Kitab al–Dar (Book of the House), Kitab al–Ahdath (Book of Events), Kitab al–Hururah (Book of Enthusiasm), Kitab al–Istinfar wa al–Gharat (Book of Seeking Help and Raids), Kitab al–Siyar (Book of Biographies), Kitab Akhbar Yazid (Book of the Stories of Yazid), Kitab Ibn Zubayr (Book of Ibn al–Zubayr), Kitab al–Tafsir (Book of Exegesis), Kitab al–Tarikh (Book of History), Kitab al–Ru'ya' (Book of Dreams), Kitab al–Ashriba (al–Kabir wa al–Saghir)(Book of Drinks–two editions: big and small), Kitab Muhammad wa Ibrahim (Book of Muhammad and Ibrahim), Kitab Man qutil min Al Muhammad (Book on those who are killed from the Household of Muhammad, may Allah bless him and his Household), Kitab al–Khutab al–Mu’rabat (Book of Clear Sermons), Kitab Ma'rifat Fadl al–Afdal (Book on Knowing the Excellence of the Best One), Kitab al–Hawd wa al–Shafa'ah (Book of the Pool and Intercession) and Kitab al–Muttaqin (Book of the God–fearing).
Ibrahim died in Isfahan in 283. He moved from Kufa to Isfahan for some reason which we mentioned in the original version of this book.
Sa’ad ibn Mas’ud, whom we mentioned among the forefathers of this Ibrahim, was a brother to Abu Ubayda ibn Mas’ud, uncle to al–Mukhtar ibn Abi Ubaydah whom the Commander of the Faithful appointed as governor of al–Mada’in and it was with him that Imam Hasan, peace be on him, sought refuge on the day of Sabat of al–Mada’in.
Another was Abdulaziz al–Jaludi, Abu Ahmad ibn Yahya ibn Ahmad ibn Isa al–Jaludi al–Basri. Ibn al–Nadim said in Al–Fihrist: “He was among the elders of the Twelver Shi’ah and a transmitter of ancient works and biographies.” Al–Jaludi was the master and traditionist of Basra. In his work, Al–Khulasah, Allamah ibn al–Mutahhar considered him a reliable narrator. The latter says “Abu Ahmad al–Jalud was a Basran, a reliable person and an Imami (a Twelver Shi'ah).”
Jalud is a village in Bahrayn. Some mistakenly take Abu Ahmad to be a member of the clan of Jalud of the tribe of Azd while this is unheard of from the genealogists. Isa al–Jaludi, his great grandfather was among the companions of Imam al–Baqir (peace be on him) and al–Jaludi, the one in question, was among notable scholars of the third century and after. He was ranked among people like Jafar ibn Qulawayh and Abu Ja’far al–Kulayni.
Among his numerous works are Kitab Musnad Amir al–Muminin a.s. (Book of Traditions which are traced back to the Commander of the Faithful), Kitab al–Jamal (Book of (the battle of) the Camel), Kitab Siffin (Book of Siffin), Kitab al–Hakamayn (Book of the Two Arbitrators), Kitab al–Gharat (Book of Raids), Kitab al–Khawarij (Book of the Kharijites), Kitab Banu Najiyah (Book of Banu Najiyah), Kitab Hurub Ali a.s. (Book on Ali's Wars), Kitab Ma Nazala fi al–Khamsa (Book on What has been revealed about the Five: Muhammad, Ali, Fatima, Hasan and Husayn, peace be on them), Kitab al–Fada'il (Book of Virtues), Kitab Nasab al–Nabiy (s) (Book on the Genealogy of the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household), Kitab Tazwij Fatimah (Book on the Betrothal of Fatima), Kitab Dhikr Ali fi Hurub al– Nabiy (s) (Book on Ali’s role in the wars of the Prophet) Kitab Muhibbi Ali wa Dhikr Buhayr (Book on those who love Ali and a mention of Buhayr), Kitab Man ahabb Aliyan wa abghadah (Book on those who love Ali and those who hate him), Kitab Hadith Dagha'in fi Sudur Qawm (Book on the Rancour Haboured by the Hearts of Some People), Kitab al–Tafsir anh (Book of His (Ali's) Exegesis), Kitab al–Qira'at (Book of Recitations), Kitab Ma nazal fih min al–Qur'an (Book on the Qur’anic verses revealed concerning Imam Ali), Kitab Khutabih (Book on his Sermons), Kitab Shi'rih (Book of his Poetry), Kitab Khilafatih (Book on his Rule), Kitab Ummalih wa Wulatih (Book of his Officers and Governors), Kitab Qawluh fi al–Shura (Book on what he said concerning the Electoral Council), Kitab Ma kana bayna Aliyin wa Uthman min Kalam (Book on the Dialogue between Ali and Uthman), Kitab Dhikr al–Shi'ah wa man dhakarahum aw man ahabbahum min al–Sahabah (Book that mentions the Shi’ah and the Companions who talked about them (the Shi’ah or loved them), Kitab Qada' Ali a.s. (Book of Ali’s Judgements), Kitab Rasa'il Ali a.s. (Book of Ali’s Letters), Kitab Man rawa anh min al–Sahabah (Book on the Companions who related on Ali's authority), Kitab Mawa'izah (Book of Ali’s Exhortations), Kitab Kalamih fi al–Malahim (Book on what he said concerning battles), Kitab Ma qila fih min al–Shi'r wa min al–Madh (Book on the Poetry and Eulogies on Ali), Kitab Maqtalih a.s. (Book of his Assassination), Kitab Ilmih (Book on his Knowledge), Kitab Qasamih (Book of his Oaths), Kitab al–Du'a 'anh (Book of prayers related on his authority), Kitab al–Libas anh wa al–Sharab wa Wasfih wa Dhikr Sharabih (Book on what he said about clothing and drinking, and his features), Kitab al–Adab 'anh (Book of Etiquette, as related on his authority), Kitab al–Nikah 'anh (Book of Marriage, as related on his authority), Kitab al–Talaq 'anh (Book of Divorce, as related on his authority), Kitab al–Tijarat 'anh (Book of Business Transactions, as related on his authority), Kitab al–Jana'iz wa al–Diyat 'anh (Book of Funerals and Blood Money, as related on his authority), Kitab al–Dahaya wa al–Dhaba'ih wa al–Sayd wa al–Ayman wa al–Kharaj (Book of Sacrifices, Slaughtering, Game, Oaths and Land Tax;), Kitab al– Fara'id wa al–'Itq wa al–Tadbir wa al–Mukatabah 'anh (Book of inheritance, emancipation, wills stating that one’s slave will be free upon one’s death (al–tadbir) and a slave’s agreement with his master that he be freed in exchange of some consideration (al–mukatabah), as related on his authority), Kitab al–Hudud 'anh (Book of Limits–i.e. punishments specified by the Islamic Law), Kitab al–Taharah 'anh (Book of Purification as related from him), Kitab al–Salah 'anh (Book of Prayer as related from him), Kitab al–Sawm 'anh (Book of Fasting as related from him), Kitab al–Zakat 'anh (Book of Alms as related from him), Kitab Dhikr Khadijah wa Fadl Ahl al–Bayt a.s. (Book about Khadijah and the merits of the Ahl al–Bayt, peace be on them), Kitab Fatimah wa Abi Bakr (Book on what took place between Fatima and Abu Bakr) and Kitab Dhikr al–Husayn a.s. (Book about Husayn, peace be on him) and Kitab Maqtal al–Husayn (Book of Imam Husayn’s Martyrdom).
The books al–Jaludi ascribed to Abdullah ibn Abbas and related on his authority: Kitab al–Tanzil 'anh (Book of Revelation), Kitab al–Tafsir 'anh (Book of Exegesis), Kitab al– Manasik 'anh (Book of Rites), Kitab al–Nikah wa al–Talaq (Book of Marriage and Divorce), Kitab al–Fara'id 'anh (Book of Inheritance), Kitab Tafsirih an al–Sahabah (His book on Exegesis, related from the Companions), Kitab al–Qira'at 'anh (Book of Recitations), Kitab al–Buyu' wa al–Tijarat 'anh (Book of Commerce and Transactions), Kitab al–Nasikh wa al–Mansukh (Book of Abrogating and Abrogated Verses), Kitab Ma nasahah ila al–Sahabah (Book on what he ascribed to the Companions), Kitab Ma asnadah an al–Sahabah Book of what he traced back on the authority of the Companions), Kitab Ma rawah an Ra'y al–Sahabah (Book of what he narrated on the opinions of the Companions), Kitab Tatimmat Qawlih fi al–Taharah (Book of His Remaining Words on Purification), Kitab al–Dhaba'ih wa al–At'imah wa al–Libas (Book of Slaughter Animals, Food and Clothing), Kitab al–Futya' wa al–Shahadat wa al–Aqdiya wa al–Jihad wa al–'Idad wa Shara'i' al–Islam (Book of religious verdicts, testimonies, judgments, striving in the cause of Allah (jihad), preparation for war, etc and Islamic laws), Kitab Qawlih fi al–Du'a wa al–Uwadh wa Dhikr al–Khayr wa Fadl Thawab al–A'mal wa al–Tibb wa al– Nujum (Book on what he said on supplication, protections, the mention of goodness, and virtue, the rewards on deeds, medicine and astronomy), Kitab Qawlih fi Qital Ahl al–Qiblah wa Inkar al–Raj'ah wa al–Amr bi al–Ma'ruf (Book discussing his opinions concerning fighting the Muslims, denying the Return and enjoining what is good), Kitab fi al–Adab wa Dhikr al–Anbiya' wa Awwal Kalamih (Book on literature and a mention of the prophets), Kitab Baqiyat Kalamih fi al–Arab wa Quraysh wa al–Sahabah wa al–Tabi'in wa Man dhammah (Book on the rest of what Ali said about the Arabs, the Quaraysh, the Companions and the generation following the Companions, including a word on those who blamed him), Kitab Qawlih fi Shi'at Ali a.s. (Book of his word on the partisans of Ali, peace be on him), Kitab Baqiyat Rasa'ilih wa Khutabih wa Awwal Munazir lah (Book on the rest of his treatises, sermons and the first person to despute with him) and Kitab Baqiyat Munazirih wa Dhikr Nisa'ih wa Wuldih (Book on the rest of the disputations he engaged in, along with a mention of his wives and children). This is the last book of Ibn Abbas.
Also among the works of al–Jaludi are: Kitab al–Tawwabun wa Ayn al–Wardah (Reports on the Tawwabun and Ayn al–Wardah), Kitab Akhbar al–Mukhtar ibn Abi 'Ubayda al–Thaqafih (Reports on al–Mukhtar ibn Abi Ubaydah al–Thaqafi), Kitab Akhbar Ali ibn al–Husayn a.s. (Reports about Ali ibn al–Husayn, peace be on him), Kitab Akhbar Abi Ja'far Muhammad ibn Ali a.s. (Reports on Abu Ja’far Muhammad ibn Ali, peace be on them both), Kitab Akhbar al–Mahdi (Book of the Reports on al–Mahdi), Kitab Akhbar Zayd ibn Ali (Book of the Reports on Zayd ibn Ali), Kitab Akhbar Umar ibn Abd al–Aziz (Book of the Reports on Umar ibn Abdul al–Aziz), Kitab Akhbar Muhammad ibn al–Hanafiyyah (Book of the Reports on Muhammad ibn al–Hanafiyyah), Kitab Akhbar al–Abbas (Book of the Reports on al–Abbas), Kitab Akhbar Ja'far ibn Abi Talib (Book of Reports on Jafar ibn Abi Talib), Kitab Akhbar Umm Hani (Book of Reports on Umm Hani), Kitab Akhbar Muhammad ibn Abdillah (Book of Reports on Muhammad ibn Abdillah), Kitab Akhbar Ibrahim ibn Abdillah ibn al–Hasan (Book of Reports on Ibrahim ibn Abdillah ibn al–Hasan), Kitab Man Ashiq min al–Shu'ara' (Book of Reports on the poets who were in love), Kitab Akhbar Luqman ibn 'Ad (Book of the Reports on Luqman ibn Ad), Kitab Akhbar Luqman al–Hakim (Book of Reports on Luqman, the Sage), Kitab Sharh al– Fuqaha' (Book on the Jurists), Kitab Man khataba ala al–Minbar bi Shi'r (Book on those who gave speeches on the pulpit in verse form), Kitab Akhbar Ta’abbata–Sharran (Book of reports on Ta'abbata–Sharran), Kitab Akhbar al–A'rab (Book of Reports on the Bedouins), Kitab Akhbar Quraysh wa al–Asnam (Book of Reports on the Quraysh and the Idols), Kitab fi al–Hayawanat (Book on Animals), Kitab Qaba'il Nazzar wa Harb wa Thaqif (Book on the tribes of Nazzar, Harb and Thaqif), Kitab al–Tibb (Book on Medicine), Kitab Tabaqat al–'Arab wa al–Shu'ara' (Book on the Classes of the Arabs and the Poets), Kitab al–Nahw (Book of Grammar), Kitab al–Sihr (Book on Sorcery), Kitab al–Tiyar (Book of Omens), Kitab Zajr al–Tayr (Book of Presaging by Way of Exciting a Bird), Kitab Ma Ruthiya bih al–Nabiy (Book of Elegies Composed in Honour of the Prophet), Kitab al–Ru'ya (Book of Dreams), Kitab Akhbar al–Sudan (Book of Reports about Sudan), Kitab al–'Uwadh (Book of Amulets), Kitab al–Ruqa (Book of Incantations), Kitab al–Matr (Book of Rain), Kitab al–Sahab wa al–Ra'd wa al–Barq (Book of Clouds, Thunder and Lightening), Kitab Akhbar Amr ibn Ma'dikarib (Book of Reports on Amr ibn Ma’di Karib), Kitab Umayyah ibn Abi al–Salt (Book on Umayya ibn Abi al–Salt), Kitab Akhbar Abi al–Aswad al–Du'ali (Book of the Reports on Abu al–Aswad al–Du’ali), Kitab Akhbar Akhtham ibn Sayfi (Book of the Reports on Akhtham ibn Sayfi), Kitab Akhbar Abd al–Rahman ibn Hasan (Book of Reports on Abdurrahman ibn Hasan), Kitab Akhbar Khalid ibn Safwan (Book of Reports about Khalid ibn Safwan), Kitab Akhbar Abi Nuwas (Book of the Stories of Abu Nuwas), Kitab Akhbar al–Mudhnibin (Book of Reports about the Sinners), Kitab al–At'imah (Book of Food), Kitab al–Ashribah (Book of Drinks), Kitab al–Libas (Book of Clothing), Kitab al–'Ujaj (Book of Smoke), Kitab al–Nikah (Book of Marriage), Kitab Ma ja'a fi al–Hammam (Book on the Reports about Baths), Kitab Akhbar Ru'bat ibn al–'Ujaj (Book of Reports about Ru’bah ibn al–Ujaj), Kitab Ma ruwiya fi al–Shatranj (Book of Reports about Chess), Kitab Shi'r Abbad ibn Bashshar (Book on the Poetry of 'Abbad ibn Bashshar), Kitab Akhbar Abi Bakr wa Umar (Book of Reports on Abu Bakr and Umar), Kitab Man awsa bi Sh'r Jama'atin (Book on those who recommend some people's poetry), Kitab Man qal Sh'ran fi Wasiyyatih (Book on those who composed some poetry in their wills), Kitab Khutab al–Nabiy (Book of the Prophet’s Sermons), Kitab Khutab Abi Bakr (Book of Abu Bakr’s sermons), Kitab Khutab Umar (Book of Umar’s Sermons), Kitab Khutab Uthman (Book on the Sermons of Uthman ibn Affan), Kitab Kutub al–Nabiy(s) (Book on the Prophet’s Letters), Kitab Rasa'il Abi Bakr (Book of Abu Bakr’s Letters), Kitab Rasa'il Umar (Book of Umar’s Letters), Kitab Rasa'il Uthman (Book of Uthman’s Letters), Kitab Hadith Yaqub ibn Ja'far ibn Sulayman (Book on the Story of Yaqub ibn Ja’far ibn Sulayman), Kitab al–Tibb (Book of Medicine), Kitab al–Rayahin (Book of ‘Aromata’), Kitab al–Tamthil bi al–Shi'r (Book of Poetrical Imagery), Kitab Qatayi' al–Nabi(s) (Book of the Allocation of Land by the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household), Kitab Qatayi' Abi Bakr wa Umar wa Uthman (Book of the Land Allocated by Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman), Kitab al–Jinayat (Book of Crimes), Kitab al–Dananir wa al–Darahim (Book of Dinars, gold coins and Dirhams, silver coins), Kitab Akhbar al–Ahnaf (Book of Reports on al–Ahnaf), Kitab Akhbar Ziyad (Book of the Stories of Ziyad), Kitab al–Wufud 'ala al–Nabi(s)wa Abi Bakr wa Umar wa Uthman (Book of Delegations to the Prophet, may Allah bless him and his Household, Abu Bakr, Umar and Uthman), Kitab Akhbar Furs (Book of Reports about the Persians), Kitab Akhbar Abi Dawud (Book of Reports on Abu Dawud), Kitab Maqtal Muhammad ibn AbiBakr (r.a.) (Book of the Assassination of Muhammad ibn Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him), Kitab al–Sakha wa al–Karam (Book of Generosity and Kindness), Kitab al–Iqtida' (Book of Exigency), Kitab al–Bukhl wa al–Shuhh (Book on Niggardliness and Greed), Kitab Akhbar Qambar (Book of Reports on Qanbar), Kitab al–Alwiya wa al–Rayat (Book of Standards and Banners), Kitab Rayat Azd (Book of the Standards of Azd), Kitab Akhbar Shurayh (Book of Reports on Shurayh), Kitab Akhbar Hassan (Book of Reports on Hassan), Kitab Akhbar Daghfal al–Nassabah (Book of Reports on Daghfal al–Nassabah), Kitab Akhbar Sulayman (Book of Reports on Solomon), Kitab Akhbar Hamza ibn Abd al–Muttalib (Book of Reports on Hamza ibn Abd al–Muttalib), Kitab Akhbar al–Hasan (Book of Reports about al–Hasan), Kitab Akhbar Sa'sa'a ibn Sawhan (Book of Reports on Sa’sa’a ibn Sawhan), Kitab Akhbar al–Hajjaj (Book of Reports on al–Hajjaj), Kitab Akhbar al–Farazdaq (Book of Reports on al–Farazdaq), Kitab al–Zuhd (Book of Asceticism), Kitab al–Du'a (Book of Supplications), Kitab al–Qisas (Book of Retaliation), Kitab al–Dhikr (Book of Remembrance), Kitab al–Wa'z (Book of Exhortation), Kitab Akhbar Ja'far ibn Muhammad(a.s.) (Book of Reports on Ja’far ibn Muhammad (‘a), Kitab Akhbar Musa ibn Ja'far(a.s.) (Book of Reports on Musa ibn Ja’far (‘a), Kitab Munazarat Ali ibn Musa al–Ridha’(a.s.) (Book on the Disputations of Ali ibn Musa al–Ridha’ (‘a), Kitab Akhbar Aqil ibn Abi Talib (Book of Reports on Aqil ibn Abi Talib), Kitab Akhbar Sayyid Ibn Muhammad al–Himyari (Book of Reports on Sayyid Ibn Muhammad al–Himyari), Kitab Akhbar Bani Marwan (Book of Reports on the Marwanides), Kitab Akhbar al–Arab wa al–Furs (Book of Reports on the Arabs and the Persians), Kitab Akhbar al–Tarahhum (Book of Reports on Praying for God’s Mercy), Kitab Hadiyah ibn Hushram (Book on Hadiyah ibn Hashram), Kitab al–Muhaddithun (Book of Hadith Narators), Kitab Akhbar Sudayf (Book of Reports on Sudayf), Kitab Maqtal Uthman (Book of the Assassination of Uthman), Kitab Akhbar Iyas ibn Mu'awiyah (Book of Reports on Iyas ibn Mu’awiya), Kitab Akhbar Abi al–Tufayl (Book of Reports on Abu al–Tufayl), Kitab Akhbar al–Ghar (Book of Reports on the Cave) and Kitab al–Qurud (Book of Monkeys) Al–Jaludi was among the scholars of the third century.
Next we shall examine al–Yaqubi. His full name was Ahmad ibn Abi Yaqub ibn Wadih (d. 278). He wrote a book on history known as Tarikh al–Ya’qubi. It has been printed in two volumes in Leiden; the first covering the period from Adam to the advent of Islam and the second the history of Islam to the year 259, that is the time of al–Mu‘tamid ala Allah. He also had Kitab al–Buldan which we mentioned in section three.
Another scholar is Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Zakariyya ibn Dinar al–Basri, a client of Banu Ghallab. He was a master of the scholars of biographies, written works (athar), history and poetry. Al–Najashi says: “He was one of the dignitaries of our companions in Basra, an erudite traditionist who wrote many books. His works include:Al–Jamal al–Kabir (A Large Work on the Battle of the Camel), Al–Jamal al–Saghir (A Small Work on the Battle of the Camel), Kitab Siffin al–Kabir (Book of Siffin large), Kitab Siffin al–Saghir (Book of Siffin small), Kitab Maqtal al–Husayn (Book of the Martyrdom of al–Husayn (‘a), Kitab al–Nahr (Book on Reproach), Kitab al–Ajwad (Book of the Generous), Kitab al–Wafidun (Book of the Delegates), Kitab Maqtal Amir al–Muminin(a.s.) (The Assassination of the Commander of the Faithful (‘a), Akhbar Zayd (Reports on Zayd), Akhbar Fatima wa Mansha'uha wa Mawlidiha (Reports about Fatima, her birth and growing up) and Kitab al–Khayl (Book of Horses). Ibn Dinar died in the year 298 A.H.
The next is Abu Abdillah al–Hakim al–Nishapuri, who was known as Ibn al–Bayyi’. In Tadhkirat al–Huffaz, Hafiz al–Dhahabi writes: “Al–Hakim, the great one, master of traditionists, Abu Abdillah Muhammad ibn Abdillah ibn Muhammad ibn Hamdawayh ibn Na’im al–Dabiy al–Tahani al–Nishapuri, who was known as Ibn al–Bayyi’. He was a prolific writer. He was born in the month of Rabi’ al–Awwal, in 321 and learnt the hadith under the supervision of his father and uncle while still a youth.
“Then he travelled to Iraq at the age of twenty and also went on pilgrimage to Mecca. He travelled throughout Khurasan and Transoxiana. In the places he visited he listened to about two thousand masters. Al–Khatib Abu Bakr said: ‘Abu Abdillah al–Hakim was a reliable narrator with Shi’i inclinations.’ Abd al–Ghafir ibn Ismail said ‘Abu Abdillah al–Hakim was the master of the traditionists of his time and well versed in hadith’.”
Al–Dhababi adds: “He had to his credit probably a thousand parts (of books) including extracts from al–Sahihayn, i.e the two compilations of hadith by al–Bukhari and Muslim, Tarikh Nishabur (History of Nishapur), Kitab Muzakka' al–Akhbar (Book of Reports of Established Validity), Madkhal ila Ilm al–Sahih (Introduction to the Sound Hadiths), Kitab al–Iklil (Book of Diadems), and Kitab Fada'il al–Shafi' (Merits of al–Shafi’i). I have heard our masters relate that even foremost personalities of his time such as al–Sa’luki and Imam ibn Fawrak venerated al–Hakim.” Then Al–Dhahabi extolled him profusely and concluded: “This is but a glimpse of his noble traits and rank. Whoever regards his words as depicted in his Al–Amali and his opinion concerning the sources of hadith transmission, will surely acknowledge his great learning and the fact that he excelled over both preceding and subsequent scholars. He led an honourable life that attracted much praise and died leaving behind no one of his calibre.”
Then al–Dhahabi related on the authority of al–Hafiz Muhammad ibn Tahir, that the latter asked Sa’ad ibn Ali al–Zanjani in Mecca concerning the four hafiz (custodians of traditions): Al–Dartuni, Abd al–Ghani, Ibn Mindah and al–Hakim, as to the best preserver of the hadith. Al–Zanjani responded that al–Hakim was the best compiler. Ibn Tahir said: “I enquired from Abu Ismail al–Ansari about al–Hakim, and he answered: ‘He was inwardly over–zealous concerning Shi’ism but pretended to be Sunni in regard to giving preference to the first caliphs and to their rule. He was openly opposed to Mu’awiyah and his family and never apologised for that.”
Surely, al–Hakim was opposed to the antagonists of Ali, peace be on him, nevertheless, he held the two Sheikhs (i.e. Abu Bakr and Umar) with reverence. Therefore, he was a Shi'ah and not a dissenter (rafidi).
Al–Hafiz Abu Musa says “Al–Hakim went for a bath to the public baths and on coming out he suddenly cried out ‘Ah! Ah!’ and breathed his last while still wearing only a loincloth. His funeral prayer was led by al–Qadi Abu Bakr al–Ha’iri. He passed away in the month of Safar in the year 405 A.H.”
In the eighth section of chapter two, we have recounted some evidences that establish, beyond doubt, the fact that al–Hakim was a Shi'ah.
The first person to write about this topic was Hisham ibn Muhammad ibn al–Sa’ib al–Kalbi (d.205). Other scholars erroneously assert that this position was held by Abu Hilal al–Askari (d.395), author of Kitab al–Sina’atayn (the two arts) which was summarised by al–Suyuti under the title Talkhis Kitab al–Wasa’il fi al–Awa’il.
In fact, Ibn al–Nadim has counted Kitab al–Awa’il among the books of Hisham al–Kalbi. In any case, the Shi’ah enjoy the lead in this field since Abu Hilal al–Askari himself was also one, as I confirmed in my glosses on al–Suyuti’s Al–Tabaqat.
In the original version of this book, I have mentioned a number of scholars of history, biographies, narrators and written works that this concise book cannot hold.